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Sökning: L773:1556 9519

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  • Busardò, Francesco Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Interpreting γ-hydroxybutyrate concentrations for clinical and forensic purposes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Toxicology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1556-3650 .- 1556-9519. ; 57:3, s. 149-163
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ?-Hydroxybutyric acid is an endogenous substance, a therapeutic agent, and a recreational drug of abuse. This psychoactive substance acts as a depressant of the central nervous system and is commonly encountered in clinical and forensic practice, including impaired drivers, poisoned patients, and drug-related intoxication deaths.
  • Franzen, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Accuracy of on-site urine drug tests : an experimental study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Toxicology. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1556-3650 .- 1556-9519. ; 51:4, s. 348-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: On-site drug tests (ODTs) are frequently used in hospitals to screen the urine of patients admitted for suspected poisoning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of such tests used in emergency departments in Sweden.Methods: Two brands, ColibriCheck™ and Concateno™, were tested for detecting amphetamine, benzodiazepines, opiates and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in urine. The results were compared with laboratory screening (CEDIA) and confirmation method (GC-MS). The study was conducted from December 2011 to March 2012 using samples from drug dependence clinics; 400 positive (100 in each drug group) and 200 negative (applied to all drug groups).Results: High specificity (Table 1) implies that most true negative samples are detected, but the risk of missing a true positive sample is high (6–26%). The incidence of false positive test results was low ( 1%). Limitations: inadequate blinding of the analysing procedure, emergency department samples were not included and GC-MS was performed on positive but not negative samples.Conclusion: The implications of this study are that positive ODTs are fairly reliable whereas negative ODTs neglect 6–26% of true drug presence. Consequently patients might be overlooked if treatment depended on the test result. ODTs’ intrinsic problems e.g. cross-reactivity and limited spectrum of analytes1, that are not addressed in our study, could further influence the reliability of test results.Reference1. Krasowski MD, Pizon AF, Siam MG, et al. Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse/toxicology screening in emergency medicine. BMC Emerg Med 2009; 9:5.
  • Isbister, Geoffrey K, et al. (författare)
  • Human methyl parathion poisoning
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical Toxicology. - 1556-3650 .- 1556-9519. ; 45:8, s. 956-960
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Methyl parathion is classed as an extremely hazardous pesticide with a rodent LD50 of 6 to 24 mg/kg. It has been banned in numerous countries, but there are few reports of acute methyl parathion poisoning. Methods. Plasma cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase were measured in blood. Methyl parathion and the major metabolite 4-nitrophenol where measured in serum and urine. Based on the available concentration-time data, the pharmacokinetic parameters of methyl parathion were estimated for this patient. Case Report and Results. A 29-year-old male ingested 50 to 100mL (12 to 24 g) of methyl parathion causing delayed and prolonged suppression of acetylcholinesterase but almost no clinical effects. Absorption was predicted to last for 30 hours and the bioavailability appeared to be very low. Conclusions. Although it is feasible the patient ingested much less, a tenth of his alleged ingestion dose is more than the oral LD50 in rats. Methyl parathion appears to be less toxic in humans than parathion for similar amounts ingested, which is not consistent with the two pesticides having similar rodent LD50.
  • Jones, A Wayne, et al. (författare)
  • Toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples from female victims of alleged sexual assault
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical Toxicology. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1556-3650 .- 1556-9519. ; 50:7, s. 555-561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples from victims of alleged sexual assault represents a crucial part of the forensic evidence when this crime is investigated. Material and methods. We searched a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) to find cases registered as sexual assault, rape, including date-rape that the police had requested the analysis of ethanol and other drugs. Between 2008 and 2010, N = 1460 such cases met this criteria. After immunological screening of urine or blood samples, all positive results were verified by more specific analytical methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for illicit drugs. A large number of prescription drugs and their metabolites were determined by capillary GC with nitrogen-phosphorous (N-P) detector. GC with flame ionization detector (FID) was used to analyze ethanol and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in blood at limits of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.1 g/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. Results. The average age (+/- standard deviation) of all victims was 24 +/- 10.3 years and 72% were between 15 and 29 years. Ethanol and other drugs were not detected in 31% of cases (N +/- 459). Blood-ethanol was positive in N = 658 cases at mean, median and highest concentrations of 1.23 g/L, 1.22 g/L and 4.3 g/L, respectively. Ethanol plus drugs were present in N = 188 cases (13%) and one or more other drugs alone in N = 210 cases (14%). Cannabis (marijuana) and amphetamines were the major illicit drugs, whereas diazepam, alprazolam, zopiclone as well as newer antidepressants were the major prescription drugs identified. Conclusions. The mean age of victims of sexual assault in Sweden, the proportion of drug positive to drug negative cases, the predominance of ethanol positive cases as well as the types of other drugs showed a remarkably good agreement in two studies spanning a period of 8 years.
  • Larsson, Sonny, et al. (författare)
  • Poisoning with Cicuta virosa in Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Toxicology. - 1556-3650 .- 1556-9519. ; 53:4, s. 345-345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Lindeman, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • The unknown known: non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema in amlodipine poisoning, a cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Toxicology. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1556-3650 .- 1556-9519. ; 58:11, s. 1042-1049
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Amlodipine is the most common calcium channel blocker (CCB) on the Swedish market, and poison center (PC) consultations for amlodipine overdoses are increasing. The clinical picture is dominated by vasodilation with relative preservation of cardiac function. CCBs selectively dilate vessels on the afferent side of the capillary network which, in states of preserved or increased blood flow may lead to edema formation, including non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (NCPE). This complication has been considered rare in CCB poisoning. In this cohort study of nineteen amlodipine poisonings with high amlodipine blood levels, the incidence and clinical significance of NCPE in severe amlodipine poisoning are explored. Methods: During 2017-2018 the Swedish PC prospectively encouraged the gathering of blood samples in amlodipine poisonings with symptoms requiring treatment with inotropes or vasopressors. Samples were sent by mail to the Forensic Toxicology Division at the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine for screening and quantification of relevant toxicants. Patients with blood amlodipine levels amp;gt;0.25 mu g/mL were included in a cohort whose case details were gathered from medical records and PC-case notes with a special focus on signs of NCPE. Results: Nineteen patients met the blood amlodipine inclusion criteria. Four (21%) died and one patient was treated with VA-ECMO. Nine patients developed NCPE defined as a need for positive pressure ventilation (PPV) while having an echocardiographically normal left ventricular function. Conclusion: In this prospective cohort study of consecutive and analytically confirmed significant amlodipine poisonings NCPE was a common finding occurring in 47% of the whole cohort and in 64% of patients who did not go on to develop complete hemodynamic collapse.
  • Thelander, Gunilla, et al. (författare)
  • Caffeine fatalities - Do sales restrictions prevent intentional intoxications?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Clinical Toxicology. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1556-3650 .- 1556-9519. ; 48:4, s. 354-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Caffeine is widely available in beverages and in different over-the-counter products, including tablets containing 100 mg caffeine. Because intentional fatal intoxications with caffeine occur, the maximum quantity of caffeine tablets that can be bought over the counter in a single purchase was restricted from 250 to 30 in Sweden in the year 2004. The objective of this article was to study the effect of this decision on the number of fatal caffeine intoxications. Method. In Sweden 95% of all cases undergoing forensic autopsy are screened for a number of drugs including caffeine. All cases during January 1993-September 2009 with a caffeine concentration above 80 mu g/g blood were recorded. Results. During the study period toxicological investigations were performed in 83,580 forensic autopsies. Caffeine contributed to the fatal outcome in 20 cases (0.02%). Thirteen (65%) of these fatalities occurred before the introduction of the sales restriction. However, no fatal intoxications where caffeine contributed to the cause of death was recorded between May 2007 and September 2009. Conclusion. Overdoses of tablets containing caffeine can be fatal, suicides as well as accidents occur. Restricting the maximum quantity of caffeine tablets available over the counter seemed to be effective in preventing suicides because of caffeine although some time elapsed until the effect was noted. Further monitoring is required to ensure that the observed lower caffeine mortality is a sustained effect.
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