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  • Adami, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and the risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma (Sweden)
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 9:1, s. 49-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While several epidemiologic studies have indicated a link between smoking and the risk of developing hematolymphoproliferative cancers (chiefly leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myelomas), in particular myeloid leukemia, the role of tobacco in the etiology of these neoplasms remains unclear. To evaluate the potential impact of tobacco use on development of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma, we conducted a cohort study of 334,957 Swedish construction workers using prospectively collected exposure-information with complete long-term follow-up. A total of 1,322 incident neoplasms occurred during the study period, 1971-91. We found no significant association between smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked, or duration of smoking and the risk of developing leukemias, lymphomas, or multiple myeloma. There was a suggestion of a positive association between smoking and the risk of developing Hodgkin's disease, although the rate ratios were not significantly elevated, except for young current smokers. No positive dose-risk trends emerged. Our study provides no evidence that smoking bears any major relationship to the occurrence of leukemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, or multiple myeloma.
  • Alexeyev, Oleg, et al. (författare)
  • Association between the presence of bacterial 16S RNA in prostate specimens taken during transurethral resection of prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer (Sweden)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 17:9, s. 1127-1133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study bacterial 16S RNA in archival prostate samples from 352 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and evaluate whether the presence of bacterial DNA was different in those who later developed prostate cancer (n = 171) and in the matched controls that did not progress to cancer (n = 181).Methods: 16S DNA PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the positive samples.Results: In 96/352 (27%) of the prostate tissue specimens 16S RNA were detected. Sequence analysis revealed Propionibacterium acnes as the predominant microorganism (23% of 16S RNA positive patients). The second most frequent isolate—Escherichia coli was found in 12 (12%) patients. The other isolates included Pseudomonas sp. (3 patients), Actinomyces sp. (2), Streptococcus mutans (1), Corynebacterium sp. (2),Nocardioides sp. (1), Rhodococcus sp. (1) Veillonella sp. (2). In P. acnes positive samples 62% exhibited severe histological inflammation versus 50% in the bacteria-negative group (p = 0.602). The presence of P. acnes in the prostate was associated with prostate cancer development (OR 2.17, 95% CI 0.77–6.95).Conclusions: This study has revealed P. acnes as the most common bacteria in the prostate in BPH. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in contributing to the development of prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer.
  • Almquist, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic factors and risk of thyroid cancer in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can).
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 1573-7225 .- 0957-5243. ; 22, s. 743-751
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate metabolic factors and their possible impact on risk of thyroid cancer. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted based on seven population-based cohorts in Norway, Austria, and Sweden, in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can). Altogether 578,700 men and women with a mean age of 44.0 years at baseline were followed for on average 12.0 years. Relative risk of incident thyroid cancer was assessed by levels of BMI, blood pressure, and blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and by a combined metabolic syndrome (MetS) score. Risk estimates were investigated for quintiles, and a z score distribution of exposures was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During follow-up, 255 women and 133 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. In women, there was an inverse association between glucose and thyroid cancer risk, with adjusted RR: 95% CI was 0.61 (0.41-0.90), p trend = 0.02 in the fifth versus the first quintile, and a positive association between BMI and thyroid cancer risk with a significant trend over quintiles. There was no association between the other metabolic factors, single or combined (Met-S), and thyroid cancer. CONCLUSION: In women, BMI was positively, while blood glucose levels were inversely, associated with thyroid cancer.
  • Almquist, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Serum calcium and breast cancer risk: results from a prospective cohort study of 7,847 women.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 1573-7225. ; 18, s. 595-602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that calcium-regulating hormones-parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D-may be associated with breast cancer risk. No prospective cohort study has investigated the association between pre-diagnostic calcium levels and subsequent risk of breast cancer. We have examined this in a cohort of 7,847 women where serum calcium levels and established risk factors for breast cancer had been assessed at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 17.8 years, 437 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Incidence of breast cancer was calculated in different quartiles of serum calcium levels and a Cox's proportional hazards analysis was used to obtain corresponding relative risks (RR), with a 95% confidence interval (CI), adjusted for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, serum calcium levels were inversely associated with breast cancer risk in a dose-response manner. The adjusted RR (95% CI) of breast cancer was in the 2nd calcium quartile 0.91 (0.65-1.30), in the 3rd quartile 0.89 (0.60-1.31), and in the 4th quartile 0.56 (0.32-0.98), as compared to the 1st calcium quartile. In postmenopausal overweight women (BMI > 25), breast cancer risk was higher in calcium quartiles 2-4 as compared to the 1st quartile. Our findings may have implications for primary prevention of breast cancer and for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Andersson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • The association between longer relative leukocyte telomere length and risk of glioma is independent of the potentially confounding factors allergy, BMI, and smoking
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 30:2, s. 177-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Previous studies have suggested an association between relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) and glioma risk. This association may be influenced by several factors, including allergies, BMI, and smoking. Previous studies have shown that individuals with asthma and allergy have shortened relative telomere length, and decreased risk of glioma. Though, the details and the interplay between rLTL, asthma and allergies, and glioma molecular phenotype is largely unknown. Methods: rLTL was measured by qPCR in a Swedish population-based glioma case–control cohort (421 cases and 671 controls). rLTL was related to glioma risk and health parameters associated with asthma and allergy, as well as molecular events in glioma including IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, and EGFR amplification. Results: Longer rLTL was associated with increased risk of glioma (OR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.02–1.31). Similar to previous reports, there was an inverse association between allergy and glioma risk. Specific, allergy symptoms including watery eyes was most strongly associated with glioma risk. High body mass index (BMI) a year prior diagnosis was significantly protective against glioma in our population. Adjusting for allergy, asthma, BMI, and smoking did not markedly change the association between longer rLTL and glioma risk. rLTL among cases was not associated with IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, or EGFR amplification, after adjusting for age at diagnosis and sex. Conclusions: In this Swedish glioma case–control cohort, we identified that long rLTL increases the risk of glioma, an association not confounded by allergy, BMI, or smoking. This highlights the complex interplay of the immune system, rLTL and cancer risk.
  • Arthur, Rhonda, et al. (författare)
  • Serum glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol in relation to prostate cancer death in the Swedish AMORIS study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 30:2, s. 195-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Lifestyle-related conditions such as obesity are associated with prostate cancer progression, but the associations with hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are unclear. This study, therefore, aims to examine the association of glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol with prostate cancer death. Methods: From the Swedish AMORIS cohort, we selected 14,150 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1996 and 2011 who had prediagnostic measurements of serum glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressionmodels were used to determine the hazard ratios for death in relation to the aforementioned metabolic markers. Results: Using clinical cut-off points, a non-significant positive association was observed between glucose and prostate cancer death. When compared to those with glucose in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had greater risk of prostate cancer death (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.02-1.39). However, neither total cholesterol nor triglycerides were associated with prostate cancer death. Glucose and triglycerides were positively associated with overall, cardiovascular, and other deaths. Hypercholesterolemia was only associated with risk of CVD death. Conclusion: Our results suggest that glucose levels may influence prostate cancer survival, but further studies using repeated measurements are needed to further elucidate how glucose levels may influence prostate cancer progression.
  • Attner, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer among patients with diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipids: a population-based register study in Sweden.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 1573-7225. ; 23:5, s. 769-777
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study how the incidence of cancer is related to diabetes, obesity or abnormal blood lipids. METHODS: Diagnosis of diabetes, obesity or abnormal blood lipids was studied 0-10 years prior to the diagnosis of cancer in 19,756 cases of cancer and in 147,324 controls matched regarding age, sex and domicile. RESULTS: Diabetes was significantly more common prior to diagnosis in patients with liver, pancreatic, colon and urinary tract/bladder cancer and in patients with breast cancer diagnosed with diabetes 0-4 years prior to the cancer diagnosis. A lower risk of diabetes was seen in patients with prostate carcinoma among individuals with diabetes diagnosed 5-10 years prior to the cancer diagnosis. The findings remained after adjusting for obesity and high blood lipids. Obesity was significantly more common in patients with endometrial, colon and kidney cancer and with breast cancer above the age of 60 years in those where obesity was diagnosed close to the diagnosis of cancer. High blood lipids were significantly more common in patients with ovarian cancer and less common in patients with breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms some previous findings concerning comorbidity and cancer and highlights some new ones.
  • Behrens, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 1573-7225. ; 21:10, s. 1625-1634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries. Incident cases of uveal melanoma were frequency-matched to population and hospital controls by country, age, and sex. Female subjects were asked about their reproductive history, use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives. Among men, occupational handling of oils while working with transformers or capacitors which contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was solicited. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were calculated, adjusting for several potential confounders. Analyses were stratified by sex. Two hundred and ninety-three cases (165 men, 128 women) and 3,198 control subjects (2,121 men, 1,077 women) were interviewed. Among women, no associations were observed with hormonal status variables, intake of hormonal therapy or intake of oral contraceptives. Men showed an increased risk with occupational exposure to transformer/capacitor oils (OR = 2.74; Bonferroni-corrected 99.3% CI 1.07-7.02). However, these results were based on few exposed subjects only. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis of a hormonal influence in the carcinogenesis of uveal melanoma. Our finding of a potentially increased risk with PCB-containing oils requires further research.
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