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  • Almén, Niclas, 1971- (författare)
  • A Cognitive Behavioral Model Proposing That Clinical Burnout May Maintain Itself
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 16:7
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Burnout is common in many countries and is associated with several other problems such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, and memory deficits, and prospectively it predicts long-term sick-leave, cardiovascular disease, and death. Clinical burnout or its residual symptoms often last several years and a common assumption is that recovery takes a long time by nature, despite full time sick-leave and the absence of work stress. The literature suggests models that hypothetically explain the development, but not maintenance, of the syndrome. Based on cognitive and behavioral principles, stress research, and stress theories, this paper describes a theoretical model explaining how clinical burnout can develop and be maintained. While the development of clinical burnout is mainly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to work related stressors, maintenance of the syndrome is particularly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to the new context of experiencing burnout and being on sick-leave. Worry about acquired memory deficits, passivity and excessive sleep, shame, fear of stress reactions, and the perception of not being safe are examples of responses that can contribute to the maintenance. The model has important implications for research and how to intervene in clinical burnout. For example, it can offer support to professional care providers and patients in terms of focusing on, identifying, and changing current contextual factors and behaviors that maintain the individual’s clinical burnout symptoms and by that facilitate burnout recovery. Regarding research, the model provides a highly important reason for researchers to study contextual factors and behaviors that contribute to the maintenance of clinical burnout, which has been neglected in research.
  • Arvidsson, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • Should I stay or should I go? Associations between occupational factors, signs of exhaustion and the intention to change workplace among swedish principals
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 18:10, s. 1-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A high turnover among principals may disrupt the continuity of leadership and negatively affect teachers and, by extension, the students. The aim was to investigate to what extent various work environment factors and signs of exhaustion were associated with reported intentions to change workplace among principals working in compulsory schools. A web-based questionnaire was administered twice, in 2018 and in 2019. Part I of the study involved cross-sectional analyses of the associations 2018 (n = 984) and 2019 (n = 884) between occupational factors, signs of exhaustion, and the intention to change workplace, using Generalized Estimating Equations models. Part II involved 631 principals who participated in both surveys. The patterns of intended and actual changes of workplace across two years were described, together with associated changes of occupational factors and signs of exhaustion. Supportive management was associated with an intention to stay, while demanding role conflicts and the feeling of being squeezed between management and co-workers (buffer-function) were associated with the intention to change workplace. The principals who intended to change their workplace reported more signs of exhaustion. To increase retention among principals, systematic efforts are probably needed at the national, municipal, and local level, in order to improve their working conditions.
  • Brogårdh, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Self-Perceived Life Satisfaction during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Sweden : A Cross-Sectional Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI AG. - 1660-4601 .- 1661-7827. ; 18:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Currently, there is limited knowledge on how the Swedish strategy with more lenient public health restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced people's life satisfaction. Here, we investigated self-reported life satisfaction during the first wave of the pandemic in Sweden, and perceived changes in life satisfaction in relation to various sociodemographic factors. A total of 1082 people (mean age 48 (SD 12.2); 82% women) responded to an online survey during autumn 2020 including the "Life Satisfaction Questionnaire-11". A majority (69%) were satisfied with life as a whole, and with other important life domains, with the exception of contact with friends and sexual life. An equal share reported that life as a whole had either deteriorated (28%) or improved (29%). Of those that perceived a deterioration, 95% considered it to be due to the pandemic. Regarding deteriorated satisfaction with life as a whole, higher odds were found in the following groups: having no children living at home; being middle aged; having other sources of income than being employed; and having a chronic disease. The Swedish strategy might have contributed to the high proportion of satisfied people. Those who perceived a deterioration in life satisfaction may, however, need attention from Swedish Welfare Authorities.
  • Colombo, P. E., et al. (författare)
  • Optimizing School Food Supply: Integrating Environmental, Health, Economic, and Cultural Dimensions of Diet Sustainability with Linear Programming
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : NLM (Medline). - 1660-4601 .- 1661-7827. ; 16:17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public-sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply while ensuring nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining the relative deviation (RD) from the observed food supply, Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions, Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit, and Model 4 further controlled how pair-wise ratios of 15 food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food-group ratios. Model 4 limited the changes in food-group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE in one school to 20%. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply; i.e., with Models 3 and 4. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
  • Garnow, Tide, et al. (författare)
  • Sadness and other health complaints among Swedish adolescents : A cross-sectional study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 18:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Health complaints are increasing among adolescents and are recognized as a global public health issue. Health complaints are an indicator for subjective ill-being, but little is known about the relationship between sadness and other health complaints. The aim of this study was to investigate sadness and other health complaints among Swedish adolescents. A survey with a cross-sectional design was completed by adolescents (n = 1489, 15–17 years old) in the south of Sweden. A logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between sadness and other health complaints. The result show that sadness and other health complaints were common among adolescents, and sadness was related to health complaints (headache (OR: 1.58), sleeping difficulties (OR: 2.00), reduced appetite (OR: 1.43), tension (OR: 2.44), and concentration difficulties (OR: 2.75)). When adolescents express sadness or other health complaints it is important to reflect on what these complaints are an expression of, and take into account the body as physical and psychological intertwined. This might entail person-centered support that hopefully leads to an improvement in adolescents’ well-being. Future research that profoundly highlights adolescents’ existential health is needed.
  • Khalaf, Atika, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Female university students’ physical activity levels and associated factors : a cross-sectional study in southwestern Saudi Arabia
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 10:8, s. 3502-3517
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.
  • Martinsson, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • School nurses’ experience of working in school health service during the COVID-19 pandemic in sweden
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 18:13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The COVID-19 pandemic has had a vast influence on Swedish society. Related recommen-dations and political decisions have greatly affected schools. This study aimed to describe school nurses’ experience working in Sweden during the pandemic in 2020. The study used a qualitative method with an inductive approach. Interviews with 17 school nurses in five focus groups and one individual interview were conducted. Qualitative content analysis was used. The impact of the pandemic on school nurses can be described through three categories: “Changes in working methods in relation to the students/guardians”, “Impact on cooperation with school staff”, and “The school nurse’s prerequisites for major changes.” Overall, school nurses experienced a transition to a digital way of working. Policies and decisions on global and local levels affected the work situations of school nurses as well as the school nurses’ social, cultural, and professional experience. The highest priority for school nurses is students, and school nurses adapted their working methods to give support to students during the changing circumstances. School nurses are both pragmatic and highly creative. Cooperation with other school professions is critical, as is support and guidance during crisis situations.
  • Nilsson, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Organisational Measures and Strategies for a Healthy and Sustainable Extended Working Life and Employability-A Deductive Content Analysis with Data Including Employees, First Line Managers, Trade Union Representatives and HR-Practitioners
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 18:11, s. 1-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Due to the global demographic change many more people will need to work until an older age, and organisations and enterprises need to implement measures to facilitate an extended working life. The aim of this study was to investigate organisational measures and suggestions to promote and make improvements for a healthy and sustainable working life for all ages in an extended working life. This is a qualitative study, and the data were collected through both focus group interviews and individual interviews that included 145 participants. The study identified several suggestions for measures and actions to increase employability in the themes: to promote a good physical and mental work environment; to promote personal financial and social security; to promote relations, social inclusion and social support in the work situation; and to promote creativity, knowledge development and intrinsic work motivation, i.e., based on the spheres of determination in the theoretical swAge-model (sustainable working life for all ages). Based on the study results a tool for dialogue and discussion on employee work situation and career development was developed, and presented in this article. Regular conversations, communication and close dialogue are needed and are a prerequisite for good working conditions and a sustainable working environment, as well as to be able to manage employees and develop the organisation further. The identified measures need to be revisited regularly throughout the employees' entire working life to enable a healthy and sustainable working life for all ages.
  • Westblad, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • The Effect of Autoregulated Flywheel and Traditional Strength Training on Training Load Progression and Motor Skill Performance in Youth Athletes.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 18:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The effects of flywheel resistance training (FRT) on youth are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of autoregulated FRT with traditional strength training (TST) on jumping, running performance and resistance training load progression in youth athletes. Thirty youth athletes (11.8 ± 0.9 yr) were matched for peak height velocity (PHV) status and block-randomised into two groups: FRT (n = 15, PHV -0.8 ± 1.6) and TST (n = 15, PHV -0.8 ± 1.5). Twelve resistance training sessions over a six-week intervention with flywheel or barbell squats were performed using autoregulated load prescription. Squat jump (SJ); countermovement jump (CMJ); and 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprints were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The external load increased similarly for FRT and TST (z = 3.8, p = 0.06). SJ increased for both groups (p < 0.05) but running performance was unaffected (p > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: FRT resulted in similar load progression and motor skill development in youth athletes as TST, but the perceived exertion was less. Autoregulation is a practical method for adjusting training load during FRT and should be considered as an alternative to autoregulated TST.
  • Zubak, Zoran, et al. (författare)
  • A Prospective study on the influence of scholastic factors on the prevalence and initiation of illicit drug misuse in adolescence
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 15:5, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study aimed to prospectively investigate the scholastic factors related to illicit drug misuse (IDM) and the initiation of IDM among older adolescents from Bosnia andHerzegovina. Methods: This 2-year prospective study included 436 participants (202 females), who were an average of 16 years old at the beginning of the study (baseline). The participants were tested at baseline and follow-up (20 months later). The predictors included variables of scholastic-achievement (grade point average, school absences, unexcused absences and behavioral grade). The criteria were: (i) IDM at baseline; (ii) IDM at follow-up; and (iii) initiation of IDM over the study course. Results: Logistic regression indicated increased odds of IDM in adolescents who were more frequent absent from school (baseline: Odds Ratio (OR): 3.73, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.12–6.57; follow-up: OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.90–4.65). The lower grade point average and more unexcused absences were evidenced for adolescents who consumed drugs on follow-up(OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.11–2.51; OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.30–2.32 for grade point average and unexcused absences, respectively). Initiation of IDM was predicted by frequent absences from school (OR: 2.2,95% CI: 1.3–3.8), and lower behavioral grades (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.3). Conclusions: The findings confirmed strong correlations between scholastic failure and IDM. Absences from school and lower behavioral grades at baseline were predictive of the initiation of IDM in older adolescents.
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