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1.
  • Abdollahpur, Mostafa, et al. (författare)
  • A subspace projection approach to quantify respiratory variations in the f-wave frequency trend
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-042X. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is known as a potent modulator of the initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF), hence information about ANS activity during AF may improve treatment strategy. Respiratory induced ANS variation in the f-waves of the ECG may provide such information. Objective: This paper proposes a novel approach for improved estimation of such respiratory induced variations and investigates the impact of deep breathing on the f-wave frequency in AF patients. Methods: A harmonic model is fitted to the f-wave signal to estimate a high-resolution f-wave frequency trend, and an orthogonal subspace projection approach is employed to quantify variations in the frequency trend that are linearly related to respiration using an ECG-derived respiration signal. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated and compared to that of a previously proposed bandpass filtering approach using simulated f-wave signals. Further, the proposed approach is applied to analyze ECG data recorded for 5 min during baseline and 1 min deep breathing from 28 AF patients from the Swedish cardiopulmonary bioimage study (SCAPIS). Results: The simulation results show that the estimates of respiratory variations obtained using the proposed approach are more accurate than estimates obtained using the previous approach. Results from the analysis of SCAPIS data show no significant differences between baseline and deep breathing in heart rate (75.5 ± 22.9 vs. 74 ± 22.3) bpm, atrial fibrillation rate (6.93 ± 1.18 vs. 6.94 ± 0.66) Hz and respiratory f-wave frequency variations (0.130 ± 0.042 vs. 0.130 ± 0.034) Hz. However, individual variations are large with changes in heart rate and atrial fibrillatory rate in response to deep breathing ranging from -9% to +5% and -8% to +6%, respectively and there is a weak correlation between changes in heart rate and changes in atrial fibrillatory rate ( r = 0.38, p < 0.03). Conclusion: Respiratory induced f-wave frequency variations were observed at baseline and during deep breathing. No significant changes in the magnitude of these variations in response to deep breathing was observed in the present study population.
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2.
  • Abdollahpur, Mostafa, et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory Induced Modulation in f-Wave Characteristics During Atrial Fibrillation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-042X. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is an important factor in cardiac arrhythmia, and information about ANS activity during atrial fibrillation (AF) may contribute to personalized treatment. In this study we aim to quantify respiratory modulation in the f-wave frequency trend from resting ECG. First, an f-wave signal is extracted from the ECG by QRST cancelation. Second, an f-wave model is fitted to the f-wave signal to obtain a high resolution f-wave frequency trend and an index for signal quality control ((Formula presented.)). Third, respiratory modulation in the f-wave frequency trend is extracted by applying a narrow band-pass filter. The center frequency of the band-pass filter is determined by the respiration rate. Respiration rate is estimated from a surrogate respiration signal, obtained from the ECG using homomorphic filtering. Peak conditioned spectral averaging, where spectra of sufficient quality from different leads are averaged, is employed to obtain a robust estimate of the respiration rate. The envelope of the filtered f-wave frequency trend is used to quantify the magnitude of respiratory induced f-wave frequency modulation. The proposed methodology is evaluated using simulated f-wave signals obtained using a sinusoidal harmonic model. Results from simulated signals show that the magnitude of the respiratory modulation is accurately estimated, quantified by an error below 0.01 Hz, if the signal quality is sufficient ((Formula presented.)). The proposed method was applied to analyze ECG data from eight pacemaker patients with permanent AF recorded at baseline, during controlled respiration, and during controlled respiration after injection of atropine, respectively. The magnitude of the respiratory induce f-wave frequency modulation was 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.18 ± 0.02, and 0.17 ± 0.03 Hz during baseline, controlled respiration, and post-atropine, respectively. Our results suggest that parasympathetic regulation affects the magnitude of respiratory induced f-wave frequency modulation.
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4.
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Kinetic Studies to Elucidate Impaired Metabolism of Triglyceride-rich Lipoproteins in Humans.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-042X. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To develop novel strategies for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia, it is essential to understand the pathophysiology of dyslipoproteinemia in humans. Lipoprotein metabolism is a complex system in which abnormal concentrations of various lipoprotein particles can result from alterations in their rates of production, conversion, and/or catabolism. Traditional methods that measure plasma lipoprotein concentrations only provide static estimates of lipoprotein metabolism and hence limited mechanistic information. By contrast, the use of tracers labeled with stable isotopes and mathematical modeling, provides us with a powerful tool for probing lipid and lipoprotein kinetics in vivo and furthering our understanding of the pathogenesis of dyslipoproteinemia.
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5.
  • Aggarwal, Tanya, et al. (författare)
  • Knockdown of SLC38 Transporter Ortholog-CG13743 Reveals a Metabolic Relevance in Drosophila
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-042X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Solute Carrier (SLC) is a cluster of families of membrane bound transporters, of which many members lack defined substrate profile, and many more are poorly characterized. Many play a vital role in regulating metabolic systems, protein synthesis, and post translational modifications. SLC38 is one of the families of SLCs, which are also known as sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs). In mice, it has 11 members (SNAT1-11) but in Drosophila there are two homologs for the SLC38 family; CG13743 and CG30394. Here, we show characteristics of Drosophila CG13743 which closely resembles SLC38A11 in humans. SLC38A11 still remains an orphan member of the SLC38 family which has not been functionally well studied. We used the UAS-GAL4 system to investigate and control gene expression using RNAi lines for ubiquitous knockdown of the CG13743 gene. It was found to be expressed mainly in salivary gland and brain. Knockdown flies had reduced body weight and consumed less sugar compared with controls. The gene knockdown also affected stored energy pools (lipids and glycogen) and influenced feeding pattern and total activity. In all, this shows novel findings for the characterization of CG13743 in Drosophila and a possible role in maintaining general metabolic pathways and behavior of the fly.
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7.
  • Alajbegovic, Azra, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular regulation of arterial aneurysms : Role of actin dynamics and microRNAs in vascular smooth muscle
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-042X. ; 8:AUG, s. 569-569
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aortic aneurysms are defined as an irreversible increase in arterial diameter by morethan 50% relative to the normal vessel diameter. The incidence of aneurysm rupture isabout 10 in 100,000 persons per year and ruptured arterial aneurysms inevitably resultsin serious complications, which are fatal in about 40% of cases. There is also a hereditarycomponent of the disease and dilation of the ascending thoracic aorta is often associatedwith congenital heart disease such as bicuspid aortic valves (BAV). Furthermore, specificmutations that have been linked to aneurysm affect polymerization of actin filaments.Polymerization of actin is important to maintain a contractile phenotype of smooth musclecells enabling these cells to resist mechanical stress on the vascular wall caused by theblood pressure according to the law of Laplace. Interestingly, polymerization of actin alsopromotes smooth muscle specific gene expression via the transcriptional co-activatorMRTF, which is translocated to the nucleus when released from monomeric actin. Inaddition to genes encoding for proteins involved in the contractile machinery, recentstudies have revealed that several non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are regulated bythis mechanism. The importance of these miRNAs for aneurysm development is onlybeginning to be understood. This review will summarize our current understanding aboutthe influence of smooth muscle miRNAs and actin polymerization for the developmentof arterial aneurysms.
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8.
  • Anand-Ivell, Ravinder, et al. (författare)
  • Amniotic fluid INSL3 measured during the critical time window in human pregnancy relates to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phthalate load : A large case-control study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-042X. ; 9:APR
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The period of the first to second trimester transition in human pregnancy represents a sensitive window for fetal organogenesis, particularly in regard to the development of the male reproductive system. This is a time of relative analytical inaccessibility. We have used a large national biobank of amniotic fluid samples collected at routine amniocentesis to determine the impacts of exogenous endocrine disruptor load on specific fetal biomarkers at this critical time. While adrenal and testicular steroids are highly correlated, they are also mostly positively influenced by increasing phthalate load, represented by the metabolites 7cx-MMeHP and 5cx-MEPP, by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure, and by smoking, suggesting an adrenal stress response. In contrast, the testis specific biomarkers insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and androstenedione are negatively impacted by the phthalate endocrine disruptors. Using a case-control design, we show that cryptorchidism and hypospadias are both significantly associated with increased amniotic concentration of INSL3 during gestational weeks 13-16, and some, though not all steroid biomarkers. Cases are also linked to a specifically increased variance in the Leydig cell biomarker INSL3 compared to controls, an effect exacerbated by maternal smoking. No influence of phthalate metabolites or PFOS was evident on the distribution of cases and controls. Considering that several animal and human studies have shown a negative impact of phthalate load on fetal and cord blood INSL3, respectively, the present results suggest that such endocrine disruptors may rather be altering the relative dynamics of testicular development and consequent hormone production, leading to a desynchronization of tissue organization during fetal development. Being born small for gestational age appears not to impact on the testicular biomarker INSL3 in second trimester amniotic fluid.
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9.
  • Andersson, Erik, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • A Comparison between Different Methods of Estimating Anaerobic Energy Production
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-042X. ; 9:FEB
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The present study aimed to compare four methods of estimating anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise.Methods: Twenty-one junior cross-country skiers competing at a national and/or international level were tested on a treadmill during uphill (7°) diagonal-stride (DS) roller-skiing. After a 4-minute warm-up, a 4 × 4-min continuous submaximal protocol was performed followed by a 600-m time trial (TT). For the maximal accumulated O2 deficit (MAOD) method the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2-speed regression relationship was used to estimate the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT, either including (4+Y, method 1) or excluding (4-Y, method 2) a fixed Y-intercept for baseline V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2. The gross efficiency (GE) method (method 3) involved calculating metabolic rate during the TT by dividing power output by submaximal GE, which was then converted to a V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand. An alternative method based on submaximal energy cost (EC, method 4) was also used to estimate V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT.Results: The GE/EC remained constant across the submaximal stages and the supramaximal TT was performed in 185 ± 24 s. The GE and EC methods produced identical V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demands and O2 deficits. The V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand was ~3% lower for the 4+Y method compared with the 4-Y and GE/EC methods, with corresponding O2 deficits of 56 ± 10, 62 ± 10, and 63 ± 10 mL·kg−1, respectively (P < 0.05 for 4+Y vs. 4-Y and GE/EC). The mean differences between the estimated O2 deficits were −6 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. 4-Y, P < 0.05), −7 ± 1 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. GE/EC, P < 0.05) and −1 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4-Y vs. GE/EC), with respective typical errors of 5.3, 1.9, and 6.0%. The mean difference between the O2 deficit estimated with GE/EC based on the average of four submaximal stages compared with the last stage was 1 ± 2 mL·kg−1, with a typical error of 3.2%.Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a disagreement in the O2 deficits estimated using current methods. In addition, the findings suggest that a valid estimate of the O2 deficit may be possible using data from only one submaximal stage in combination with the GE/EC method.
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10.
  • Andersson, Erik, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Anaerobic Capacity in Running : The Effect of Computational Method
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-042X. ; 12:August, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: To date, no study has compared anaerobic capacity (AnC) estimates computed with the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) method and the gross energy cost (GEC) method applied to treadmill running exercise.Purpose: Four different models for estimating anaerobic energy supply during treadmill running exercise were compared.Methods: Fifteen endurance-trained recreational athletes performed, after a 10-min warm-up, five 4-min stages at ∼55–80% of peak oxygen uptake, and a 4-min time trial (TT). Two linear speed-metabolic rate (MR) regression models were used to estimate the instantaneous required MR during the TT (MRTT_req), either including (5+YLIN) or excluding (5-YLIN) a measured Y-intercept. Also, the average GEC (GECAVG) based on all five submaximal stages, or the GEC based on the last submaximal stage (GECLAST), were used as models to estimate the instantaneous MRTT_req. The AnC was computed as the difference between the MRTT_req and the aerobic MR integrated over time.Results: The GEC remained constant at ∼4.39 ± 0.29 J⋅kg–1⋅m–1 across the five submaximal stages and the TT was performed at a speed of 4.7 ± 0.4 m⋅s–1. Compared with the 5-YLIN, GECAVG, and GECLAST models, the 5+YLIN model generated a MRTT_req that was ∼3.9% lower, with corresponding anaerobic capacities from the four models of 0.72 ± 0.20, 0.74 ± 0.16, 0.74 ± 0.15, and 0.54 ± 0.14 kJ⋅kg–1, respectively (F1.07,42 = 13.9, P = 0.002). The GEC values associated with the TT were 4.22 ± 0.27 and 4.37 ± 0.30 J⋅kg–1⋅m–1 for 5+YLIN and 5-YLIN, respectively (calculated from the regression equation), and 4.39 ± 0.28 and 4.38 ± 0.27 J⋅kg–1⋅m–1 for GECAVG and GECLAST, respectively (F1.08,42 = 14.6, P < 0.001). The absolute typical errors in AnC ranged between 0.03 and 0.16 kJ⋅kg–1 for the six pair-wise comparisons and the overall standard error of measurement (SEM) was 0.16 kJ⋅kg–1.Conclusion: These findings demonstrate a generally high disagreement in estimated anaerobic capacities between models and show that the inclusion of a measured Y-intercept in the linear regression (i.e., 5+YLIN) is likely to underestimate the MRTT_req and the GEC associated with the TT, and hence the AnC during maximal 4-min treadmill running.
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