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1.
  • Éliás, Szabolcs, et al. (författare)
  • TGF-β affects the differentiation of human GM-CSF+ CD4+ T cells in an activation- and sodium-dependent manner
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medicine, Solna. - 1664-3224.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, the environmental cues promoting differentiation of GM-CSF producing T cells are unclear. Herein, we performed a broad experimental screening of cytokines and datadriven analysis assessing their ability to induce human GM-CSF+ CD4+ T cells and their subpopulations. TGF-β was discovered to induce GM-CSF production independently of proliferation and IL-2 signaling including STAT5. In contrast, IL-6 and IL-23 decreased GM-CSF production. On the population level, GM-CSF induction was highly correlated with expression of FOXP3 across cytokine stimulations but not with that of IL-17. However, on single-cell level GM-CSF and IFN-γ expression were most correlated, independently of the cytokine environment. Importantly, under low sodium conditions in the medium or upon stimulation with plate-bound instead of bead-bound anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, the effects of TGF-β on GM-CSF, but not on FOXP3, were reversed. Our analysis indicates a novel role for TGF-β in generating GM-CSF+ subsets of human CD4+ T cells. These results are important for understanding of autoimmune disease and therapeutic considerations.
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2.
  • Abdillahi, Suado M, et al. (författare)
  • The Pulmonary Extracellular Matrix Is a Bactericidal Barrier Against Haemophilus influenzae in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) : Implications for an in vivo Innate Host Defense Function of Collagen VI
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1664-3224. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative human commensal commonly residing in the nasopharynx of preschool children. It occasionally causes upper respiratory tract infection such as acute otitis media, but can also spread to the lower respiratory tract causing bronchitis and pneumonia. There is increasing recognition that NTHi has an important role in chronic lower respiratory tract inflammation, particularly in persistent infection in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we set out to assess the innate protective effects of collagen VI, a ubiquitous extracellular matrix component, against NTHi infection in vivo. In vitro, collagen VI rapidly kills bacteria through pore formation and membrane rupture, followed by exudation of intracellular content. This effect is mediated by specific binding of the von Willebrand A (VWA) domains of collagen VI to the NTHi surface adhesins protein E (PE) and Haemophilus autotransporter protein (Hap). Similar observations were made in vivo specimens from murine airways and COPD patient biopsies. NTHi bacteria adhered to collagen fibrils in the airway mucosa and were rapidly killed by membrane destabilization. The significance in host-pathogen interplay of one of these molecules, PE, was highlighted by the observation that it confers partial protection from bacterial killing. Bacteria lacking PE were more prone to antimicrobial activity than NTHi expressing PE. Altogether the data shed new light on the carefully orchestrated molecular events of the host-pathogen interplay in COPD and emphasize the importance of the extracellular matrix as a novel branch of innate host defense.
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4.
  • Abrahamsson, Annelie, et al. (författare)
  • Equal Pro-inflammatory Profiles of CCLs, CXCLs, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Extracellular Microenvironment In Vivo in Human Dense Breast Tissue and Breast Cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-3224 .- 1664-3224. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The inflammatory microenvironment affects breast cancer progression. Proteins that govern the inflammatory response are secreted into the extracellular space, but this compartment still needs to be characterized in human breast tissues in vivo. Dense breast tissue is a major risk factor for breast cancer by yet unknown mechanisms and no non-toxic prevention for these patients exists. Here, we used the minimal invasive technique of microdialysis for sampling of extracellular proteins in live tissues in situ in breast cancers of women before surgery and in healthy women having dense or non-dense breast tissue on mammography. Proteins were profiled using a proximity extension assay. Out of the 32 proteins assessed, 26 exhibited similar profiles in breast cancers and dense breast tissues; CCL-4, -7, -8, -11, -15, -16, -22, -23, and -25, CXCL-5, -8, -9, -16 as well as sIL-6R, IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor, TGF-a, fibroblast growth factor 19, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were all increased, whereas CCL-3, CX3CL1, hepatocyte growth factor, and MMP-9 were unaltered in the two tissues. CCL-19 and -24, CXCL-1 and -10, and IL-6 were increased in dense breast tissue only, whereas IL-18BP was increased in breast cancer only. Our results provide novel insights in the inflammatory microenvironment in human breast cancer in situ and define potential novel therapeutic targets. Additionally, we show previously unrecognized similarities of the pro-inflammatory microenvironment in dense breast tissue and breast cancer in vivo suggesting that anti-inflammatory breast cancer prevention trials for women with dense breast tissue may be feasible.
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5.
  • Abu-Humaidan, Anas H., et al. (författare)
  • Persistent intracellular Staphylococcus aureus in keratinocytes lead to activation of the complement system with subsequent reduction in the intracellular bacterial load
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1664-3224. ; 9:MAR
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The complement system is an ancient part of the innate immune system important for both tissue homeostasis and host defense. However, bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (SA) possess elaborative mechanisms for evading both the complement system and other parts of the immune system. One of these evasive mechanisms-important in causing chronic and therapy resistant infections-is the intracellular persistence in non-immune cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether persistent intracellular SA infection of epidermal keratinocytes resulted in complement activation. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that persistent SA, surviving intracellularly in keratinocytes, caused activation of the complement system with formation of the terminal complement complex (TCC) at the cell surface. Skin samples from atopic dermatitis patients analyzed by bacterial culture and microscopy, demonstrated that SA colonization was associated with the presence of intracellular bacteria and deposition of the TCC in epidermis in vivo. Complement activation on keratinocytes with persistent intracellular bacteria was found with sera deficient/depleted of the complement components C1q, Mannan-binding lectin, or complement factor B, demonstrating involvement of more than one complement activation pathway. Viable bacterial counts showed that complement activation at the cell surface initiated cellular responses that significantly reduced the intracellular bacterial burden. The use of an inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) abrogated the complement-induced reduction in intracellular bacterial load. These data bridge the roles of the complement system in tissue homeostasis and innate immunity and illustrate a novel mechanism by which the complement system combats persistent intracellular bacteria in epithelial cells.
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6.
  • Adam, Lucille, et al. (författare)
  • Early Resistance of Non-virulent Mycobacterial Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Is Associated With Rapid Up-Regulation of Antimicrobial Cathelicidin Camp
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - 1664-3224 .- 1664-3224. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early clearance of tuberculosis is the successful eradication of inhaled bacteria before the development of an adaptive immune response. We previously showed, by utilizing a non-virulent mycobacteria infection model, that C57BL/6 mice are more efficient than BALB/c in their control of bacterial growth in the lungs during the first weeks of the infection. Here, we assessed early (within 1-3 days) innate immune events locally in the lungs to identify factors that may contribute to the control of non-virulent mycobacterial burden. We confirmed that C57BL/6 mice are more resistant to infection compared with BALB/c after intranasal inoculation with mycobacterium. Transcriptomic analyses revealed a remarkably silent signature in C57BL/6 mice despite effective control of bacterial growth. In contrast, BALB/c mice up-regulated genes associated with neutrophil and myeloid cell chemotaxis and migration. Flow cytometry analyses corroborated the transcriptomic analyses and demonstrated influx of both neutrophil and myeloid cell populations in BALB/c mice, while these did not increase in C57BL/6 mice. We further detected increased release of TNF-alpha from BALB/c lung cells but limited release from C57BL/6-derived cells. However, C57BL/6 mice showed a marked early up-regulation of the Camp gene, encoding the cathelicidin CRAMP peptide, post-mycobacterial exposure. CRAMP (LL-37 in human) expression in the lungs was confirmed using immunofluorescence staining. Altogether, these findings show that C57BL/6 mice can clear the mycobacterial infection early and that this early control is associated with high CRAMP expression in the lungs without concomitant influx of immune cells. The role of CRAMP/LL-37 during mycobacterial infection may be relevant for novel protective strategies, and warrants further studies of human cohorts.
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7.
  • Ahl, David, et al. (författare)
  • Turning Up the Heat : Local Temperature Control During in vivo Imaging of Immune Cells
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-3224 .- 1664-3224. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intravital imaging is an invaluable tool for studying the expanding range of immune cell functions. Only in vivo can the complex and dynamic behavior of leukocytes and their interactions with their natural microenvironment be observed and quantified. While the capabilities of high-speed, high-resolution confocal and multiphoton microscopes are well-documented and steadily improving, other crucial hardware required for intravital imaging is often developed in-house and less commonly published in detail. In this report, we describe a low-cost, multipurpose, and tissue-stabilizing in vivo imaging platform that enables sensing and regulation of local tissue temperature. The effect of tissue temperature on local blood flow and leukocyte migration is demonstrated in muscle and skin. Two different models of vacuum windows are described in this report, however, the design of the vacuum window can easily be adapted to fit different organs and tissues.
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8.
  • Ahmad, Fareed, et al. (författare)
  • Negative Checkpoint Regulatory Molecule 2B4 (CD244) Upregulation Is Associated with Invariant Natural Killer T Cell Alterations and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-3224 .- 1664-3224. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are implicated in innate immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the determinants of cellular dysfunction across the iNKT cells subsets are seldom defined in HIV disease. Herein, we provide evidence for the involvement of the negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) 2B4 in iNKT cell alteration in a well-defined cohort of HIV-seropositive anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naive, ART-treated, and elite controllers (ECs). We report on exaggerated 2B4 expression on iNKT cells of HIV-infected treatment-naive individuals. In sharp contrast to CD4-iNKT cells, 2B4 expression was significantly higher on CD4+ iNKT cell subset. Notably, an increased level of 2B4 on iNKT cells was strongly correlated with parameters associated with HIV disease progression. Further, iNKT cells from ARTnaive individuals were defective in their ability to produce intracellular IFN-gamma Together, our results suggest that the levels of 2B4 expression and the downstream co-inhibitory signaling events may contribute to impaired iNKT cell responses.
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9.
  • Akhtar, M., et al. (författare)
  • dmLT Adjuvant Enhances Cytokine Responses to T Cell Stimuli, Whole Cell Vaccine Antigens and Lipopolysaccharide in Both Adults and Infants
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - 1664-3224. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Enhancement of mucosal immune responses in children and infants using novel adjuvants such as double mutant heat labile toxin (dmLT) is an important goal in the enteric vaccine field. dmLT has been shown to enhance mucosal IgA responses to the oral inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine ETVAX. dmLT can enhance IL-17A production from adult T cells, which may increase the production and secretion of mucosal IgA antibodies. However, the adjuvant mechanism remains to be fully elucidated and might differ between infants and adults due to age-related differences in the development of the immune system. The main objective of this study was to determine how dmLT influences antigen presenting cells and T cells from infants compared to adults, and the role of IL-1 beta for mediating the adjuvant activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Bangladeshi infants (6-11 months) and adults (18-40 years) were stimulated with the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), the superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), ETVAX whole cell component (WCC) or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) +/- dmLT, and cytokine production was measured using ELISA and electrochemiluminescence assays. The adjuvant dmLT significantly enhanced SEB- and PHA-induced IL-17A, but not IFN-gamma responses, in PBMCs from both infants and adults. Blocking experiments using an IL-1 receptor antagonist demonstrated the importance of IL-1 signaling for the adjuvant effect. dmLT, ETVAX WCC and LPS induced dose-dependent IL-1 beta responses of comparable magnitudes in infant and adult cells. Depletion experiments suggested that IL-1 beta was mainly produced by monocytes. dmLT enhanced IL-1 beta responses to low doses of WCC and LPS, and the adjuvant effect appeared over a wider dose-range of WCC in infants. dmLT and WCC also induced IL-6, IL-23 and IL-12p70 production in both age groups and dmLT tended to particularly enhance IL-23 responses to WCC. Our results show that dmLT can induce IL-1 beta as well as other cytokines, which in turn may enhance IL-17A and potentially modulate other immunological responses in both infants and adults. Thus, dmLT may have an important function in promoting immune responses to the ETVAX vaccine, as well as other whole cell- or LPS-based vaccines in infants in low- and middle-income countries.
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