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  • Blanco, A., et al. (författare)
  • Performance of timing resistive plate chambers with relativistic neutrons from 300 to 1500 MeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - 1748-0221. ; 10:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A prototype composed of four resistive plate chamber layers has been exposed to quasi-monoenergetic neutrons produced from a deuteron beam of varying energy (300 to 1500 AMeV) in experiment S406 at GSI, Darmstad, Germany. Each layer, with an active area of about 2000 × 500 mm2, is made of modules containing the active gaps, all in multigap construction. Each gap is defined by 0.3 mm nylon mono-filaments positioned between 2.85 mm thick float glass electrodes. The modules are operated in avalanche mode with a non-flammable gas mixture composed of 90% C2H2F4 and 10% SF6. The signals are readout by a pick-up electrode formed by 15 copper strips (per layer), spaced at a pitch of 30 mm, connected at both sides to timing front end electronics. Measurements of the time of flight jitter of neutrons, in the mentioned energy range, point to a contribution of the resistive plate chamber in the order of 150 ps, independent of the neutron energy.
  • Aaboud, M, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 14:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Given their close proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be exposed to an unprecedented amount of radiation over their lifetime. The current pixel detector will receive damage from non-ionizing radiation in excess of 1015 1 MeV neq/cm2, while the pixel detector designed for the high-luminosity LHC must cope with an order of magnitude larger fluence. This paper presents a digitization model incorporating effects of radiation damage to the pixel sensors. The model is described in detail and predictions for the charge collection efficiency and Lorentz angle are compared with collision data collected between 2015 and 2017 (≤ 10 1 MeV neq/cm2). © 2019 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration. Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of Sissa Medialab. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence.
  • Aaboud, M, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison between simulated and observed LHC beam backgrounds in the ATLAS experiment at Ebeam=4 TeV
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 13:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results of dedicated Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced background (BIB) in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented and compared with data recorded in 2012. During normal physics operation this background arises mainly from scattering of the 4 TeV protons on residual gas in the beam pipe. Methods of reconstructing the BIB signals in the ATLAS detector, developed and implemented in the simulation chain based on the \textsc{Fluka} Monte Carlo simulation package, are described. The interaction rates are determined from the residual gas pressure distribution in the LHC ring in order to set an absolute scale on the predicted rates of BIB so that they can be compared quantitatively with data. Through these comparisons the origins of the BIB leading to different observables in the ATLAS detectors are analysed. The level of agreement between simulation results and BIB measurements by ATLAS in 2012 demonstrates that a good understanding of the origin of BIB has been reached. © 2018 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration.
  • Aaboud, M, et al. (författare)
  • Electron and photon energy calibration with the ATLAS detector using 2015-2016 LHC proton-proton collision data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 14:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents the electron and photon energy calibration obtained with the ATLAS detector using about 36 fb -1 of LHC proton-proton collision data recorded at s=13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. The different calibration steps applied to the data and the optimization of the reconstruction of electron and photon energies are discussed. The absolute energy scale is set using a large sample of Z boson decays into electron-positron pairs. The systematic uncertainty in the energy scale calibration varies between 0.03% to 0.2% in most of the detector acceptance for electrons with transverse momentum close to 45 GeV . For electrons with transverse momentum of 10 GeV the typical uncertainty is 0.3% to 0.8% and it varies between 0.25% and 1% for photons with transverse momentum around 60 GeV . Validations of the energy calibration with J/ψ → e + e - decays and radiative Z boson decays are also presented. © 2019 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • ATLAS data quality operations and performance for 2015-2018 data-taking
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 15:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider reads out particle collision data from over 100 million electronic channels at a rate of approximately 100 kHz, with a recording rate for physics events of approximately 1 kHz. Before being certified for physics analysis at computer centres worldwide, the data must be scrutinised to ensure they are clean from any hardware or software related issues that may compromise their integrity. Prompt identification of these issues permits fast action to investigate, correct and potentially prevent future such problems that could render the data unusable. This is achieved through the monitoring of detector-level quantities and reconstructed collision event characteristics at key stages of the data processing chain. This paper presents the monitoring and assessment procedures in place at ATLAS during 2015-2018 data-taking. Through the continuous improvement of operational procedures, ATLAS achieved a high data quality efficiency, with 95.6% of the recorded proton-proton collision data collected at s=13 TeV certified for physics analysis.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • Performance of the upgraded PreProcessor of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 15:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PreProcessor of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger prepares the analogue trigger signals sent from the ATLAS calorimeters by digitising, synchronising, and calibrating them to reconstruct transverse energy deposits, which are then used in further processing to identify event features. During the first long shutdown of the LHC from 2013 to 2014, the central components of the PreProcessor, the Multichip Modules, were replaced by upgraded versions that feature modern ADC and FPGA technology to ensure optimal performance in the high pile-up environment of LHC Run 2. This paper describes the features of the new Multichip Modules along with the improvements to the signal processing achieved. c 2020 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration. Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of Sissa Medialab.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • Resolution of the ATLAS muon spectrometer monitored drift tubes in LHC Run 2
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 14:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The momentum measurement capability of the ATLAS muon spectrometer relies fundamentally on the intrinsic single-hit spatial resolution of the monitored drift tube precision tracking chambers. Optimal resolution is achieved with a dedicated calibration program that addresses the specific operating conditions of the 354 000 high-pressure drift tubes in the spectrometer. The calibrations consist of a set of timing offsets and drift time to drift distance transfer relations, and result in chamber resolution functions. This paper describes novel algorithms to obtain precision calibrations from data collected by ATLAS in LHC Run 2 and from a gas monitoring chamber, deployed in a dedicated gas facility. The algorithm output consists of a pair of correction constants per chamber which are applied to baseline calibrations, and determined to be valid for the entire ATLAS Run 2. The final single-hit spatial resolution, averaged over 1172 monitored drift tube chambers, is 81.7 ± 2.2 μm. © 2019 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration. Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of Sissa Medialab. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
  • Aaboud, M, et al. (författare)
  • Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker in Run 1 of the LHC: Tracker properties
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The tracking performance parameters of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) as part of the ATLAS inner detector are described in this paper for different data-taking conditions in proton-proton, proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The performance is studied using data collected during the first period of LHC operation (Run 1) and is compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the TRT, operating with two different gas mixtures (xenon-based and argon-based) and its dependence on the TRT occupancy is presented. These studies show that the tracking performance of the TRT is similar for the two gas mixtures and that a significant contribution to the particle momentum resolution is made by the TRT up to high particle densities. © CERN 2017 for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A study of the material in the ATLAS inner detector using secondary hadronic interactions
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS inner detector is used to reconstruct secondary vertices due to hadronic interactions of primary collision products, so probing the location and amount of material in the inner region of ATLAS. Data collected in 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC, with a minimum bias trigger, are used for comparisons with simulated events. The reconstructed secondary vertices have spatial resolutions ranging from similar to 200 mu m to 1 mm. The overall material description in the simulation is validated to within an experimental uncertainty of about 7%. This will lead to a better understanding of the reconstruction of various objects such as tracks, leptons, jets, and missing transverse momentum.
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