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  • Burholt, Vanessa, et al. (författare)
  • Reliability and Validity of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) Social Resources Scale in six European Countries
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - : The Gerontological Society of America. - 1079-5006 .- 1758-535X. ; 62:6, s. 371-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: This paper documents the applicability of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) Social Resources Scale in six European Countries (the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Austria, the United Kingdom and Sweden). METHOD: A questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews in five countries, and postal interview in the sixth, to representative populations of adults aged 50-90 living independently (N=12478). The paper examines the missing values and distribution of the items in the social resources scale, and the consistency of skew and kurtosis across the countries. Item-total correlations are performed. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) are run to test a three factor model which was obtained in USA and Spanish analyses. Cronbach’s Alpha determines the reliability of the social resources sub-scales. RESULTS: Relatively large proportion of missing data is observed for one item (have someone who would help you). All items correlate with a score equal to or greater than 0.20. Although the CFA generally support the acceptability of the three factor structure in the European data, the reliability of two of the sub-scales (dependability and affective) is unacceptably low. DISCUSSION: Differences across countries makes it unlikely a single social resources scale can be developed that would have item equivalence in multiple countries.
  • Agahi, Neda, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and Physical Inactivity as Predictors of Mobility Impairment During Late Life : Exploring Differential Vulnerability Across Education Level in Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. - 1079-5014 .- 1758-5368. ; 73:4, s. 675-683
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To test whether older adults from high and low educational groups are differentially vulnerable to the impact of smoking and physical inactivity on the progression of mobility impairment during old age.Methods: A nationally representative sample of older Swedish adults (n = 1,311), aged 57-76 years at baseline (1991), were followed for up to 23 years (2014). Multilevel regression was used to estimate individual trajectories of mobility impairment over the study period and to test for differences in the progression of mobility impairment on the basis of smoking status, physical activity status, and level of education.Results: Compared to nonsmokers, heavy smokers had higher levels and steeper increases in mobility impairment with advancing age. However, there were only small and statistically nonsignificant differences in the impact of heavy smoking on mobility impairment in high versus low education groups. A similar pattern of results was found for physical inactivity.Discussion: Differential vulnerability to unhealthy behaviors may vary across populations, age, time-periods, and health outcomes. In this study of older adults in Sweden, low and high education groups did not differ significantly in their associations between heavy smoking or physical inactivity, and the progression of mobility impairment.
  • Amurwon, Jovita, et al. (författare)
  • "It's Like I Never Had a Child of My Own": Care and Support for the Elderly in a Changing Socioeconomic Context in Rural Uganda
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journals of Gerontology, Series B. - : Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B - Oxford Open Option D. - 1079-5014 .- 1758-5368. ; 74, s. 1483-1491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Individual households remain important for elderly care and support in resource-limited settings. Factors such as availability of young people and ownership of assets are important for care and support for the elderly. This article examines changing trends in accessing care and support for the elderly in a context of socioeconomic changes such as increasing school attendance and outmigration of youth from rural areas.Method: Rich data from the life stories of individuals from 22 households in rural Uganda collected in 2009-2010 were analyzed.Results: The elderly were lacking care and support, as the youth experienced increasing schooling and outmigration. The loss of young adults from HIV infection deprived the elderly of care and support, and increased their responsibilities of caring for the sick and the orphans. Mitigating factors included remittances and asset ownership. The availability of free health care encouraged people to stay in households to utilize these resources while also caring for the elderly members.Discussion: With the current socioeconomic transformations, the rules and resources used in the traditional care system no longer serve as a "safety network" for the elderly. Adaptation efforts from individual households cannot deal with the multiple concurrent changes. Programs to increase education should consider investing in additional social programs, especially for those who are negatively impacted by increased access to education.
  • Andel, Ross, et al. (författare)
  • Indicators of Job Strain at Midlife and Cognitive Functioning in Advanced Old Age
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. - 1079-5014 .- 1758-5368. ; 66B:3, s. 287-291
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. We used data from SWEOLD, a Swedish nationally representative study of individuals aged 77 years or older, to examine midlife indicators of job strain in relation to cognitive performance and impairment. Methods. In all, 827 participants completed an abridged 11-point version of the Mini-Mental State Examination in-person in 1992 and/or 2002 and had self-reported and/or occupation-based scores for job control and demands from data collected in 1968. Seventeen percent scored below the cutoff for cognitive impairment. Results. Controlling for age, sex, education, self-rated health, and year of cognitive screening, low self-reported and occupation-based job control at midlife was associated with poorer cognitive performance later (ps < .001). For the occupation-based measure, low job control was also associated with greater likelihood of impairment, whereas having an active job (high job control/high job demands) was associated with better cognitive performance and lower likelihood of impairment (ps < .01). Childhood environment, midlife depressive symptoms, and social activity had limited influence, whereas the influence of both adulthood socioeconomic position and work complexity on these results was more pronounced. Discussion. Job control at midlife, by itself and in combination with job demands, may influence cognitive functioning later above and beyond demographic variables and other occupational characteristics.
  • Andel, Ross, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Midlife Occupational Complexity and Leisure Activity in Late-Life Cognition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. - 1079-5014 .- 1758-5368. ; 70:2, s. 314-321
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To examine whether occupational complexity of working with data or people, and cognitive or social leisure activity at midlife predicted cognition in advanced old age.METHODS: We used 810 eligible participants from Longitudinal Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old, a Swedish nationally representative study of individuals aged 77+ with cognitive assessments (an abridged version of the Mini-Mental State Exam) administered in 1992 and 2002 and linked to information about their midlife occupation and leisure activities collected in 1968 and 1981. A bootstrapping technique was applied to examine the direct and interactive associations of occupational complexity and leisure activity with late-life cognition.RESULTS: Controlling for demographic and health-related factors from childhood, midlife, and late life, we found that greater work complexity, both with people and with data, and greater participation in cognitive or social leisure activities independently related to better late-life cognitive scores. The complexity-cognition link was moderated by leisure activity such that the cognitive benefit related to the complexity of work-especially complexity of working with people-was rendered insignificant when participation in leisure activities-especially social activities-was above average.DISCUSSION: Results are discussed in terms of using work complexity to compensate for lack of leisure activity as well as in terms of promoting leisure engagement to compensate for long-term cognitive disadvantage imposed by working in less challenging occupations.
  • Barbabella, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • Socioeconomic Predictors of the Employment of Migrant Care Workers by Italian Families Assisting Older Alzheimer's Disease Patients : Evidence From the Up-Tech Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. - 1079-5014 .- 1758-5368. ; 71:3, s. 514-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The availability of family caregivers of older people is decreasing in Italy as the number of migrant care workers (MCWs) hired by families increases. There is little evidence on the influence of socioeconomic factors in the employment of MCWs.METHOD: We analyzed baseline data from 438 older people with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), and their family caregivers enrolled in the Up-Tech trial. We used bivariate analysis and multilevel regressions to investigate the association between independent variables-education, social class, and the availability of a care allowance-and three outcomes-employment of a MCW, hours of care provided by the primary family caregiver, and by the family network (primary and other family caregivers).RESULTS: The availability of a care allowance and the educational level were independently associated with employing MCWs. A significant interaction between education and care allowance was found, suggesting that more educated families are more likely to spend the care allowance to hire a MCW.DISCUSSION: Socioeconomic inequalities negatively influenced access both to private care and to care allowance, leading disadvantaged families to directly provide more assistance to AD patients. Care allowance entitlement needs to be reformed in Italy and in countries with similar long-term care and migration systems.
  • de Frias, Cindy M, et al. (författare)
  • Cholesterol and triglycerides moderate the effect of apolipoprotein E on memory functioning in older adults
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. - Washington : The gerontological society of America. - 1079-5014 .- 1758-5368. ; 62:2, s. P112-P118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used data from the Betula Study to examine associations between total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein E on 10-year changes in cognitive performance. Tests assessing episodic memory (recall and recognition), semantic memory (knowledge and fluency), and visuospatial ability (block design) were administered to 524 nondemented adults (initial age of 55-80 years); multilevel modeling was applied to the data. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with a decline in verbal knowledge. Lipid levels moderated the influence of apolipoprotein E on episodic memory, such that among epsilon 4 allele carriers, decline in recognition was noted for individuals with higher cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels are pharmacologically modifiable risk factors that account for variation In normal cognitive aging.
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