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  • Abdelnour, Carla, et al. (författare)
  • Parsing heterogeneity within dementia with Lewy bodies using clustering of biological, clinical, and demographic data
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) includes various core clinical features that result in different phenotypes. In addition, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular pathologies are common in DLB. All this increases the heterogeneity within DLB and hampers clinical diagnosis. We addressed this heterogeneity by investigating subgroups of patients with similar biological, clinical, and demographic features.Methods: We studied 107 extensively phenotyped DLB patients from the European DLB consortium. Factorial analysis of mixed data (FAMD) was used to identify dimensions in the data, based on sex, age, years of education, disease duration, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of AD biomarkers, core features of DLB, and regional brain atrophy. Subsequently, hierarchical clustering analysis was used to subgroup individuals based on the FAMD dimensions.Results: We identified 3 dimensions using FAMD that explained 38% of the variance. Subsequent hierarchical clustering identified 4 clusters. Cluster 1 was characterized by amyloid-beta and cerebrovascular pathologies, medial temporal atrophy, and cognitive fluctuations. Cluster 2 had posterior atrophy and showed the lowest frequency of visual hallucinations and cognitive fluctuations and the worst cognitive performance. Cluster 3 had the highest frequency of tau pathology, showed posterior atrophy, and had a low frequency of parkinsonism. Cluster 4 had virtually normal AD biomarkers, the least regional brain atrophy and cerebrovascular pathology, and the highest MMSE scores.Conclusions: This study demonstrates that there are subgroups of DLB patients with different biological, clinical, and demographic characteristics. These findings may have implications in the diagnosis and prognosis of DLB, as well as in the treatment response in clinical trials.
  • Adamczuk, Katarzyna, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid A beta ratios in preclinical Alzheimer's disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: In this study of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) we assessed the added diagnostic value of using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A beta ratios rather than A beta 42 in isolation for detecting individuals who are positive on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Thirty-eight community-recruited cognitively intact older adults (mean age 73, range 65-80 years) underwent F-18-flutemetamol PET and CSF measurement of A beta 1-42, A beta 1-40, A beta 1-38, and total tau (ttau). F-18-flutemetamol retention was quantified using standardized uptake value ratios in a composite cortical region (SUVRcomp) with reference to cerebellar grey matter. Based on a prior autopsy validation study, the SUVRcomp cut-off was 1.57. Sensitivities, specificities and cut-offs were defined based on receiver operating characteristic analysis with CSF analytes as variables of interest and F-18-flutemetamol positivity as the classifier. We also determined sensitivities and CSF cut-off values at fixed specificities of 90 % and 95 %. Results: Seven out of 38 subjects (18 %) were positive on amyloid PET. A beta 42/ttau, A beta 42/A beta 40, A beta 42/A beta 38, and A beta 42 had the highest accuracy to identify amyloid-positive subjects (area under the curve (AUC) >= 0.908). A beta 40 and A beta 38 had significantly lower discriminative power (AUC = 0.571). When specificity was fixed at 90 % and 95 %, A beta 42/ttau had the highest sensitivity among the different CSF markers (85.71 % and 71.43 %, respectively). Sensitivity of A beta 42 alone was significantly lower under these conditions (57.14 % and 42.86 %, respectively). Conclusion: For the CSF-based definition of preclinical AD, if a high specificity is required, our data support the use of A beta 42/ttau rather than using A beta 42 in isolation.
  • Ashraf, A., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma transferrin and hemopexin are associated with altered A beta uptake and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease pathology
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers Research & Therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Heme and iron homeostasis is perturbed in Alzheimer's disease (AD); therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the levels and association of heme with iron-binding plasma proteins in cognitively normal (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD individuals from the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL) and Kerr Anglican Retirement Village Initiative in Ageing Health (KARVIAH) cohorts. Methods Non-targeted proteomic analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed to quantify relative protein abundances in plasma samples from 144 CN individuals from the AIBL and 94 CN from KARVIAH cohorts and 21 MCI and 25 AD from AIBL cohort. ANCOVA models were utilized to assess the differences in plasma proteins implicated in heme/iron metabolism, while multiple regression modeling (and partial correlation) was performed to examine the association between heme and iron proteins, structural neuroimaging, and cognitive measures. Results Of the plasma proteins implicated in iron and heme metabolism, hemoglobin subunit beta (p = 0.001) was significantly increased in AD compared to CN individuals. Multiple regression modeling adjusted for age, sex, APOE epsilon 4 genotype, and disease status in the AIBL cohort revealed lower levels of transferrin but higher levels of hemopexin associated with augmented brain amyloid deposition. Meanwhile, transferrin was positively associated with hippocampal volume and MMSE performance, and hemopexin was negatively associated with CDR scores. Partial correlation analysis revealed lack of significant associations between heme/iron proteins in the CN individuals progressing to cognitive impairment. Conclusions In conclusion, heme and iron dyshomeostasis appears to be a feature of AD. The causal relationship between heme/iron metabolism and AD warrants further investigation.
  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma levels of soluble TREM2 and neurofilament light chain in TREM2 rare variant carriers.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's research & therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results from recent clinical studies suggest that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that are indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be replicated in blood, e.g. amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ42 and Aβ40) and neurofilament light chain (NFL). Such data proposes that blood is a rich source of potential biomarkers reflecting central nervous system pathophysiology and should be fully explored for biomarkers that show promise in CSF. Recently, soluble fragments of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) protein in CSF have been reported to be increased in prodromal AD and also in individuals with TREM2 rare genetic variants that increase the likelihood of developing dementia.In this study, we measured the levels of plasma sTREM2 and plasma NFL using the MesoScale Discovery and single molecule array platforms, respectively, in 48 confirmed TREM2 rare variant carriers and 49 non-carriers.Our results indicate that there are no changes in plasma sTREM2 and NFL concentrations between TREM2 rare variant carriers and non-carriers. Furthermore, plasma sTREM2 is not different between healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD.Concentrations of plasma sTREM2 do not mimic the recent changes found in CSF sTREM2.
  • Baldacci, Filippo, et al. (författare)
  • Age and sex impact plasma NFL and t-Tau trajectories in individuals with subjective memory complaints: a 3-year follow-up study.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's research & therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plasma neurofilament light (NFL) and total Tau (t-Tau) proteins are candidate biomarkers for early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The impact of biological factors on their plasma concentrations in individuals with subjective memory complaints (SMC) has been poorly explored. We longitudinally investigate the effect of sex, age, APOE ε4 allele, comorbidities, brain amyloid-β (Aβ) burden, and cognitive scores on plasma NFL and t-Tau concentrations in cognitively healthy individuals with SMC, a condition associated with AD development.Three hundred sixteen and 79 individuals, respectively, have baseline and three-time point assessments (at baseline, 1-year, and 3-year follow-up) of the two biomarkers. Plasma biomarkers were measured with an ultrasensitive assay in a mono-center cohort (INSIGHT-preAD study).We show an effect of age on plasma NFL, with women having a higher increase of plasma t-Tau concentrations compared to men, over time. The APOE ε4 allele does not affect the biomarker concentrations while plasma vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with higher plasma t-Tau concentrations. Both biomarkers are correlated and increase over time. Baseline NFL is related to the rate of Aβ deposition at 2-year follow-up in the left-posterior cingulate and the inferior parietal gyri. Baseline plasma NFL and the rate of change of plasma t-Tau are inversely associated with cognitive score.We find that plasma NFL and t-Tau longitudinal trajectories are affected by age and female sex, respectively, in SMC individuals. Exploring the influence of biological variables on AD biomarkers is crucial for their clinical validation in blood.
  • Bayoumy, Sherif, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and analytical comparison of six Simoa assays for plasma P-tau isoforms P-tau181, P-tau217, and P-tau231.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's research & therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies using different assays and technologies showed highly promising diagnostic value of plasma phosphorylated (P-)tau levels for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to compare six P-tau Simoa assays, including three P-tau181 (Eli Lilly, ADx, Quanterix), one P-tau217 (Eli Lilly), and two P-tau231 (ADx, Gothenburg).We studied the analytical (sensitivity, precision, parallelism, dilution linearity, and recovery) and clinical (40 AD dementia patients, age 66±8years, 50%F; 40 age- and sex-matched controls) performance of the assays.All assays showed robust analytical performance, and particularly P-tau217 Eli Lilly; P-tau231 Gothenburg and all P-tau181 assays showed robust clinical performance to differentiate AD from controls, with AUCs 0.936-0.995 (P-tau231 ADx: AUC = 0.719). Results obtained with all P-tau181 assays, P-tau217 Eli Lilly assay, and P-tau231 Gothenburg assay strongly correlated (Spearman's rho > 0.86), while correlations with P-tau231 ADx results were moderate (rho < 0.65).P-tau isoforms can be measured robustly by several novel high-sensitive Simoa assays.
  • Belloy, Michael E., et al. (författare)
  • Challenges at the APOE locus : a robust quality control approach for accurate APOE genotyping
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. - : Springer Nature. - 1758-9193. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genetic variants within the APOE locus may modulate Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk independently or in conjunction with APOE*2/3/4 genotypes. Identifying such variants and mechanisms would importantly advance our understanding of APOE pathophysiology and provide critical guidance for AD therapies aimed at APOE. The APOE locus however remains relatively poorly understood in AD, owing to multiple challenges that include its complex linkage structure and uncertainty in APOE*2/3/4 genotype quality. Here, we present a novel APOE*2/3/4 filtering approach and showcase its relevance on AD risk association analyses for the rs439401 variant, which is located 1801 base pairs downstream of APOE and has been associated with a potential regulatory effect on APOE.Methods: We used thirty-two AD-related cohorts, with genetic data from various high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, whole-genome sequencing, and whole-exome sequencing. Study participants were filtered to be ages 60 and older, non-Hispanic, of European ancestry, and diagnosed as cognitively normal or AD (n = 65,701). Primary analyses investigated AD risk in APOE*4/4 carriers. Additional supporting analyses were performed in APOE*3/4 and 3/3 strata. Outcomes were compared under two different APOE*2/3/4 filtering approaches.Results: Using more conventional APOE*2/3/4 filtering criteria (approach 1), we showed that, when in-phase with APOE*4, rs439401 was variably associated with protective effects on AD case-control status. However, when applying a novel filter that increases the certainty of the APOE*2/3/4 genotypes by applying more stringent criteria for concordance between the provided APOE genotype and imputed APOE genotype (approach 2), we observed that all significant effects were lost. Conclusions: We showed that careful consideration of APOE genotype and appropriate sample filtering were crucial to robustly interrogate the role of the APOE locus on AD risk. Our study presents a novel APOE filtering approach and provides important guidelines for research into the APOE locus, as well as for elucidating genetic interaction effects with APOE*2/3/4.
  • Benussi, Alberto, et al. (författare)
  • Prodromal frontotemporal dementia: clinical features and predictors of progression.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's research & therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prodromal phase of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is still not well characterized, and conversion rates to dementia and predictors of progression at 1-year follow-up are currently unknown.In this retrospective study, disease severity was assessed using the global CDR plus NACC FTLD. Prodromal FTD was defined to reflect mild cognitive or behavioural impairment with relatively preserved functional independence (global CDR plus NACC = 0.5) as well as mild, moderate and severe dementia (classified as global CDR plus NACC = 1, 2, 3, respectively). Disease progression at 1-year follow-up and serum NfL measurements were acquired in a subgroup of patients.Of 563 participants, 138 were classified as prodromal FTD, 130 as mild, 175 as moderate and 120 as severe FTD. In the prodromal and mild phases, we observed an early increase in serum NfL levels followed by behavioural disturbances and deficits in executive functions. Negative symptoms, such as apathy, inflexibility and loss of insight, predominated in the prodromal phase. Serum NfL levels were significantly increased in the prodromal phase compared with healthy controls (average difference 14.5, 95% CI 2.9 to 26.1 pg/mL), but lower than in patients with mild FTD (average difference -15.5, 95% CI -28.4 to -2.7 pg/mL). At 1-year follow-up, 51.2% of patients in the prodromal phase had converted to dementia. Serum NfL measurements at baseline were the strongest predictors of disease progression at 1-year follow-up (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.11, p < 0.001).Prodromal FTD is a mutable stage with high rate of progression to fully symptomatic disease at 1-year follow-up. High serum NfL levels may support prodromal FTD diagnosis and represent a helpful marker to assess disease progression.
  • Binette, A. P., et al. (författare)
  • Combining plasma phospho-tau and accessible measures to evaluate progression to Alzheimer's dementia in mild cognitive impairment patients
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers Research & Therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Up to now, there are no clinically available minimally invasive biomarkers to accurately identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients who are at greater risk to progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. The recent advent of blood-based markers opens the door for more accessible biomarkers. We aimed to identify which combinations of AD related plasma biomarkers and other easily accessible assessments best predict progression to AD dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We included patients with amnestic MCI (n = 110) followed prospectively over 3 years to assess clinical status. Baseline plasma biomarkers (amyloid-beta 42/40, phosphorylated tau217 [p-tau217], neurofilament light and glial fibrillary acidic protein), hippocampal volume, APOE genotype, and cognitive tests were available. Logistic regressions with conversion to amyloid-positive AD dementia within 3 years as outcome was used to evaluate the performance of different biomarkers measured at baseline, used alone or in combination. The first analyses included only the plasma biomarkers to determine the ones most related to AD dementia conversion. Second, hippocampal volume, APOE genotype and a brief cognitive composite score (mPACC) were combined with the best plasma biomarker. Results: Of all plasma biomarker combinations, p-tau217 alone had the best performance for discriminating progression to AD dementia vs all other combinations (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.93). Next, combining p-tau217 with hippocampal volume, cognition, and APOE genotype provided the best discrimination between MCI progressors vs. non-progressors (AUC 0.89, 0.82-0.95). Across the few best models combining different markers, p-tau217 and cognition were consistently the main contributors. The most parsimonious model including p-tau217 and cognition had a similar model fit, but a slightly lower AUC (0.87, 0.79-0.95, p = 0 .07). Conclusion: We identified that combining plasma p-tau217 and a brief cognitive composite score was strongly related to greater risk of progression to AD dementia in MCI patients, suggesting that these measures could be key components of future prognostic algorithms for early AD.
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