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  • Massih, Ali R (författare)
  • Electronic transport in pure and doped UO2
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials. - : Elsevier. - 0022-3115 .- 1873-4820. ; 497, s. 166-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The thermoelectric properties of pure and doped UO2, namely the thermal and electrical conductivities and the thermopower, are assessed. We adopt the small polaron theory of the Mott type insulators, wherein the charge carriers, the electron and hole on the U3+ and U5+ ions, are treated as small polarons. For the thermal conductivity, the small polaron theory is applicable at temperatures above 1500 K. A review of the experimental data on the temperature dependence of the aforementioned transport properties is made. The data include UO2 with dopants such as Cr2O3, Gd2O3, Y2O3 and Nb2O5. We compare the applications of the theory with the data. Two limiting regimes, adiabatic and nonadiabatic, with the ensuing expressions for the conductivities and the thermoelectric power are considered. We discuss both the merits and shortcomings of the putative small polaron model and the simplification thereof as applied to pure and doped uranium dioxide. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Aardal-Eriksson, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Salivary cortisol and serum prolactin in relation to stress rating scales in a group of rescue workers
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - 0006-3223 .- 1873-2402. ; 46:6, s. 850-855
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Rescue service personnel are often exposed to traumatic events as part of their occupation, and higher prevalence rates of psychiatric illness have been found among this group.Methods: In 65 rescue workers, salivary cortisol at 8 am and 10 pm and serum prolactin at 8 am were related to the psychiatric self-rating scale General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) measuring psychiatric health, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES) and Post Traumatic Symptom Scale (PTSS) measuring posttraumatic symptoms.Results: Seventeen percent of the study population scored above the GHQ-28 cut-off limit but none scored beyond the cut-off limit in the IES and PTSS questionnaires. Salivary cortisol concentration at 10 pm correlated with statistical significance to anxiety (p < .005) and depressive symptoms (p < .01) measured with GHQ-28, as well as to posttraumatic symptoms, with avoidance behavior measured with IES (p < .01) and PTSS (p < .005). Two of the rescue workers were followed over time with the same sampling procedure after a major rescue commission.Conclusions: The correlation between evening salivary cortisol and anxiety, depressiveness, and posttraumatic avoidance symptoms indicates that these parameters can be used in screening and follow-up after traumatic stress events.
  • Aardal-Eriksson, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Salivary cortisol, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and general health in the acute phase and during 9-month follow-up
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - 0006-3223 .- 1873-2402. ; 50:12, s. 986-993
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Because traumatic events are unpredictable, there are few studies of psychobiological states immediately following such events. Our study aimed to determine the relation of salivary cortisol to psychologic distress immediately after a traumatic event and then during follow-up.Methods: Measurement of morning and evening salivary cortisol and ratings of psychologic distress (using the Impact of Events Scale [IES], the Post Traumatic Symptom Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire) were performed with 31 United Nations soldiers at three time points—5 days and 2 and 9 months—following a mine accident in Lebanon.Results: Five days after the accident, 15 subjects reported substantial posttraumatic distress according to the IES, as well as significantly lower morning and higher evening cortisol levels compared with the low-impact group. Within 9 months, the posttraumatic distress of the high-impact group was reduced, accompanied by an increase in morning and a decrease in evening cortisol levels. There were significant relationships between evening cortisol and all rating scales at the first and third time points.Conclusions: Subclinical posttraumatic stress following an adverse event can be measured biologically via salivary cortisol levels soon after the event.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal Cortical Thickness Changes in Bipolar Disorder and the Relationship to Genetic Risk, Mania, and Lithium Use.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - 1873-2402. ; 87:3, s. 271-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by episodes of manic and depressed mood states and associated with cortical brain abnormalities. Although the course of BD is often progressive, longitudinal brain imaging studies are scarce. It remains unknown whether brain abnormalities are static traits of BD or result from pathological changes over time. Moreover, the genetic effect on implicated brain regions remains unknown.Patients with BD and healthy control (HC) subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging at baseline (123 patients, 83 HC subjects) and after 6 years (90 patients, 61 HC subjects). Cortical thickness maps were generated using FreeSurfer. Using linear mixed effects models, we compared longitudinal changes in cortical thickness between patients with BD and HC subjects across the whole brain. We related our findings to genetic risk for BD and tested for effects of demographic and clinical variables.Patients showed abnormal cortical thinning of temporal cortices and thickness increases in visual/somatosensory brain areas. Thickness increases were related to genetic risk and lithium use. Patients who experienced hypomanic or manic episodes between time points showed abnormal thinning in inferior frontal cortices. Cortical changes did not differ between diagnostic BD subtypes I and II.In the largest longitudinal BD study to date, we detected abnormal cortical changes with high anatomical resolution. We delineated regional effects of clinical symptoms, genetic factors, and medication that may explain progressive brain changes in BD. Our study yields important insights into disease mechanisms and suggests that neuroprogression plays a role in BD.
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