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  • Svenmarker, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Static blood-flow control during cardiopulmonary bypass is a compromise of oxygen delivery
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. - 1873-734X (Electronic) 1010-7940 (Linking) ; 37:1, s. 218-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Blood-flow control during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is by tradition based on the patient's body surface area. Emergence of new techniques enables dynamic blood-flow control based on online measurement of venous oxygen saturation and oxygen consumption. Present investigation aimed to compare static versus dynamic blood-flow control with respect to use of oxygen and effects upon organ function. Methods: In this study, 100 coronary-artery-bypass surgical patients were prospectively randomised to static or dynamic hypothermic blood-flow control during CPB. In the static group, pump flow was set to 2.4 (litres per minute) times the patient's body surface area (m(2)) throughout the procedure. Pump flow in the dynamic group was varied according to the reading of the venous oxygen saturation and maintained at >75%. CPB-specific information was collected online. Blood samples were collected for analysis of haemoglobin, lactate, amylase, creatinine and C-reactive protein: pre-CPB, at weaning from CPB and on day 1 postoperatively. Results: Randomisation formed two uniform groups. Choice of static or dynamic blood-flow control during CPB had no significant effects on organ function as judged by lactate, amylase or creatinine levels. On increasing oxygen demand, oxygen balance was maintained by increasing venous oxygen extraction rates in the static flow mode and by increasing the pump flow rate in the dynamic group. Conclusions: Independent of the blood-flow control mode, oxygen balance remained preserved. However, the dynamic mode provided higher oxygen delivery, which may increase margins of safety and protection of organ function.
  • Ahlgren, Ewa, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Neurocognitive impairment and driving performance after coronary artery bypass surgery
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 23:3, s. 334-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is common after cardiac surgery but few studies have examined the relationship between postoperative neuropsychological test performance and everyday behavior. The influence of postoperative cognitive impairment on car driving has previously not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive function and driving performance after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).Methods: Twenty-seven patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with standard cardiopulmonary bypass technique and 20 patients scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) under local anesthesia (control group) were enrolled in this prospective study conducted from April 1999 to September 2000. Complete data were obtained in 23 and 19 patients, respectively. The patients underwent neuropsychological examination with a test battery including 12 tests, a standardized on-road driving test and a test in an advanced driving simulator before and 4–6 weeks after intervention.Results: More patients in the coronary artery bypass grafting group (n=11, 48%) than in the percutaneous coronary intervention group (n=2, 10%) showed a cognitive decline after intervention (P=0.01). In the on-road driving test, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting deteriorated after surgery in the cognitive demanding parts like traffic behavior (P=0.01) and attention (P=0.04). Patients who underwent percutaneous intervention deteriorated in maneuvering of the vehicle (P=0.04). No deterioration was detected in the simulator in any of the groups after intervention. Patients with a cognitive decline after intervention also tended to drop in the on-road driving scores to a larger extent than did patients without a cognitive decline.Conclusion: This study indicates that cognitive functions important for safe driving may be influenced after cardiac surgery.
  • Ahlsson, Anders, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Annular abscess leading to free wall rupture
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 45:2, s. E39-E39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Ahlsson, Anders, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery carries an eightfold risk of future atrial fibrillation and a doubled cardiovascular mortality
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 37:6, s. 1353-1359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: This article presents a study of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) and its long-term effects on mortality and heart rhythm.METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 571 patients with no history of AF who underwent primary aortocoronary bypass surgery from 1999 to 2000. Postoperative AF occurred in 165/571 patients (28.9%). After a median follow-up of 6 years, questionnaires were obtained from 91.6% of surviving patients and an electrocardiogram (ECG) from 88.6% of all patients. Data from hospitalisations due to arrhythmia or stroke during follow-up were analysed. The causes of death were obtained for deceased patients.RESULTS: In postoperative AF patients, 25.4% had atrial fibrillation at follow-up compared with 3.6% of patients with no AF at surgery (p<0.001). An episode of postoperative AF was the strongest independent risk factor for development of late AF, with an adjusted risk ratio of 8.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.20-16.43). Mortality was 29.7% (49 deaths/165 patients) in the AF group and 14.8% (60 deaths/406 patients) in the non-AF group (p<0.001). Death due to cerebral ischaemia was more common in the postoperative AF group (4.2% vs 0.2%, p<0.001), as was death due to myocardial infarction (6.7% vs 3.0%, p=0.041). Postoperative AF was an age-independent risk factor for late mortality, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.57 (95% CI 1.05-2.34).CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative AF patients have an eightfold increased risk of developing AF in the future, and a doubled long-term cardiovascular mortality.
  • Andell, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Outcome of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe coronary artery disease who had a coronary artery bypass graft or a percutaneous coronary intervention
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 52:5, s. 930-936
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who also have acute coronary syndromes are a high-risk population with a high mortality rate. Little is known about these patients following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes between 2006 and 2014 with an angiogram showing 3-vessel disease or left main coronary artery involvement who were treated with CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) only were included from the nationwide SWEDEHEART registry. Patients were stratified according to COPD status and compared with regard to outcome. The primary end-point was the 5-year mortality rate; secondary outcomes were the 30-day mortality rate and in-hospital complications after CABG. RESULTS: We identified 6985 patients in the population who had CABG (COPD prevalence = 8.0%) and 14 209 who had PCI only (COPD = 8.2%). Patients with COPD were older and had more comorbidities than patients without COPD. The 5-year mortality rate was nearly doubled in patients with COPD versus patients without COPD (CABG: 27.2% vs 14.5%, P < 0.001; PCI only: 50.1% vs 29.1%, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities, patients with COPD in both CABG-treated [hazard ratio = 1.52 (1.25-1.86), P < 0.001] and PCI-treated populations still had a significantly higher 5-year mortality rate. COPD was also independently associated with significantly more postoperative infections in need of antibiotics [odds ratio = 1.48 (1.07-2.04), P = 0.017] and pneumonia [odds ratio = 2.21 (1.39-3.52), P = 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COPD presenting with acute coronary syndromes and severe coronary artery disease are a high-risk population following CABG or PCI only, with higher risk of long-term and short-term death and postoperative infections. Preventive measures, including careful monitoring for signs of infection and prompt antibiotic treatment when indicated, should be considered.
  • Axelsson, Tomas A, et al. (författare)
  • Is emergency and salvage coronary artery bypass grafting justified? The Nordic Emergency/Salvage coronary artery bypass grafting study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. - 1873-734X. ; 49:5, s. 1451-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to the EuroSCORE-II criteria, patients undergoing emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are operated on before the beginning of the next working day after decision to operate while salvage CABG patients require cardiopulmonary resuscitation en route to the operating theatre. The objective of this multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of emergency and salvage CABG.
  • Batchelor, Timothy J. P., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for enhanced recovery after lung surgery : recommendations of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) Society and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - : Springer. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 55:1, s. 91-115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Enhanced recovery after surgery is well established in specialties such as colorectal surgery. It is achieved through the introduction of multiple evidence-based perioperative measures that aim to diminish postoperative organ dysfunction while facilitating recovery. This review aims to present consensus recommendations for the optimal perioperative management of patients undergoing thoracic surgery (principally lung resection). A systematic review of meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, large non-randomized studies and reviews was conducted for each protocol element. Smaller prospective and retrospective cohort studies were considered only when higher-level evidence was unavailable. The quality of the evidence base was graded by the authors and used to form consensus recommendations for each topic. Development of these recommendations was endorsed by the Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Society and the European Society for Thoracic Surgery. Recommendations were developed for a total of 45 enhanced recovery items covering topics related to preadmission, admission, intraoperative care and postoperative care. Most are based on good-quality studies. In some instances, good-quality data were not available, and subsequent recommendations are generic or based on data extrapolated from other specialties. In other cases, no recommendation can currently be made because either equipoise exists or there is a lack of available evidence. Recommendations are based not only on the quality of the evidence but also on the balance between desirable and undesirable effects. Key recommendations include preoperative counselling, nutritional screening, smoking cessation, prehabilitation for high-risk patients, avoidance of fasting, carbohydrate loading, avoidance of preoperative sedatives, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, prevention of hypothermia, short-acting anaesthetics to facilitate early emergence, regional anaesthesia, nausea and vomiting control, opioid-sparing analgesia, euvolemic fluid management, minimally invasive surgery, early chest drain removal, avoidance of urinary catheters and early mobilization after surgery. These guidelines outline recommendations for the perioperative management of patients undergoing lung surgery based on the best available evidence. As the recommendation grade for most of the elements is strong, the use of a systematic perioperative care pathway has the potential to improve outcomes after surgery.
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