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Sökning: L773:1937 1888 OR L773:1938 4114

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  • Baker, Jessica H., et al. (författare)
  • Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking, and Eating Disorder Symptoms : Associations in an Adolescent Twin Sample
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - : Alcohol Research Documentation. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 79:5, s. 720-724
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Twin studies have shown that genetic factors in part explain the established relation between alcohol use (i.e., problematic use or abuse/dependence) and eating disorder symptoms in adolescent and adult females. However, studies have yet to elucidate if there are similar shared genetic factors between other aspects of substance involvement, such as illicit drug use and repeated cigarette smoking.Method: For those sex-specific phenotypic correlations above our threshold of.20, we used a behavioral genetic design to examine potential shared genetic overlap between self-reported lifetime illicit drug use and repeated cigarette smoking and the eating disorder symptoms of drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (BU), and body dissatisfaction (BD), as assessed with the Eating Disorder Inventory-II in 16- to 17-year-old female and male twin pairs.Results: Only phenotypic correlations with illicit drug use met our threshold for twin modeling. Small to moderate genetic correlations were observed between illicit drug use and BU in both girls and boys and between illicit drug use and in girls.Conclusions: Similar etiological factors are at play in the overlap between illicit drug use and certain eating disorder symptoms in girls and boys during adolescence, such that genetic factors are important for covariance. Specifically, illicit drug use was associated with bulimia nervosa symptoms in girls and boys, which parallels previous substance use research finding a genetic overlap between alcohol use and bulimia nervosa symptoms. Future research should prospectively examine developmental trajectories to further understand the etiological overlap between substance involvement and eating disorder symptoms.
  • Burk, William J., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol use and friendship dynamics : selection and socialization in early-, middle-, and late-adolescent peer networks
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - : Rutgers University. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 73:1, s. 89-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study examined developmental trends of peer selection and socialization related to friends' alcohol use in early-, middle-, and late-adolescent peer networks, with the primary goal of identifying when these mechanisms emerge, when these mechanisms exert their strongest effects, and when (or if) they decrease in importance. Gender and reciprocity are also tested as moderators of selection and socialization.Method: Cross-sequential study (three age cohorts assessed at three annual measurements) of 950 youth (53% male) initially attending classrooms in Grade 4 (n = 314; M = 10.1 years), Grade 7 (n = 335; M = 13.1 years), and Grade 10 (n = 301; M = 16.2 years).Results: Similarity between friends' drinking behaviors emerged in Grade 6, peaked in Grade 8, and decreased throughout late adolescence. Adolescents in all three age groups selected peers with similar drinking behaviors, with effects being more robust for early-adolescent males and for late-adolescent females. Peers' alcohol use emerged as a significant predictor of middle-adolescent alcohol use and remained a significant predictor of individual drinking behaviors throughout late adolescence. Socialization did not differ as a function of gender or reciprocity.Conclusions: Alcohol-related peer selection was relatively more important than socialization in early-adolescent friendship networks; both mechanisms contributed to explaining similarity between the drinking behaviors of friends in middle and late adolescence. Effects of peer socialization emerged in middle adolescence and remained throughout late adolescence. (J Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 73, 89-98, 2012)
  • Callinan, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • Drinking Contexts and Alcohol Consumption : How Much Alcohol Is Consumed in Different Australian Locations?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 77:4, s. 612-619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to examine where Australians in different demographic groups and drinker categories consume their alcohol. Method: Results were taken from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study, a telephone survey of 2,020 Australian adults with an oversample of risky drinkers. The 1,789 respondents who reported consuming alcohol in the past 6 months were asked detailed questions about the location of their alcohol consumption and how much alcohol they consumed at each place. Results: Sixty-three percent of all alcohol consumption reported by respondents was consumed in the drinker's own home, with much less consumed at pubs, bars, and nightclubs (12%). This is driven primarily by the number of people who drink in the home and the frequency of these events, with the amount consumed per occasion at home no more than in other people's homes or pubs, and significantly less than at special events. The average consumption on a usual occasion at each of these locations was more than five Australian standard drinks (above the Australian low-risk guideline for episodic drinking). Short-term risky drinkers had the highest proportion of consumption in pubs (19%), but they still consumed 41% of their units in their own home. Conclusions: The majority of alcohol consumed in Australia is consumed in the drinker's own home. Efforts to reduce long-term harms from drinking need to address off-premise drinking and, in particular, drinking in the home.
  • Comasco, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescent alcohol consumption : Biomarkers PEth and FAEE in relation to interview and questionnaire data
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - : ALCOHOL RES DOCUMENTATION INC CENT ALCOHOL STUD RUTGERS UNIV. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 70:5, s. 797-804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE  The aim of this study was to investigate the congruence of biomarkers, questionnaires, and interviews as instruments to assess adolescent alcohol consumption. METHOD  The methodology used was a cross-sectional study with a randomized sample. Four different methods were used to estimate high adolescent alcohol consumption. The concordance of the results was investigated. Surveys were performed, and biological specimens were collected at all schools in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, in 2001. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls from a population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behaviors. Using a questionnaire (for a 1-hour session) and in-depth interviews, subjects were assessed regarding their alcohol-use habits. Blood and hair samples were analyzed for phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), respectively. RESULTS  High alcohol consumption was underreported in the questionnaire compared with the interviews. PEth and FAEE analyses weakly confirmed the self-reports, and the results of the two biochemical tests did not overlap. The PEth blood test was the most specific but the least sensitive, whereas the FAEE hair test revealed low specificity and an overrepresentation of positive results in girls. CONCLUSIONS The expected higher self-report of high alcohol consumption by interview rather than by questionnaire was confirmed partly because of the influence of a bogus pipeline procedure. The absence of overlap between PEth and FAEE results and their poor agreement with self-reports suggested that biomarkers are unsuitable as screening tools for alcohol consumption in adolescents.
  • Dietze, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Who Suggests Drinking Less? : Demographic and National Differences in Informal Social Controls on Drinking
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 74:6, s. 859-866
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine variation in reports of pressuring others to drink less, as a form of informal social control of drinking, across countries and different types of relationship to the respondent. Method: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 19,945 respondents ages 18-69 years in 14 countries included in the data set of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Outcome variables were respondents' reports of pressuring others to drink less (yes/no) across a variety of relationships (their partners, other family members, workmates, or friends). Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out on each outcome variable. The fixed-effects components included the Level 1 (individual) covariates of respondent age, gender, drinking status, and education level as well as the Level 2 (country level) covariates of percentage female drinkers and purchasing power parity. The random-effects components included country and current drinking status. Results: Respondents most frequently reported pressuring male friends to drink less (18%), followed by male family members (other than partners, 15%), partners (15%), work colleagues (12%), female friends (9%), female family members (other than partners, 6%), and children (5%). There was marked variation across countries, with pressuring frequently reported in Uganda, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua across most relationship types. Multivariable logistic regression revealed consistent effects of gender, with women more likely than men to report pressuring others to drink less across most relationship types. The patterns in relation to education status and age were less consistent and varied across relationship type. Conclusions: Informal social control of drinking varies dramatically according to whom is most likely to pressure whom to drink less as well as the country in which people live.
  • Eliason, Marcus (författare)
  • Alcohol-Related Morbidity and Mortality Following Involuntary Job Loss : Evidence From Swedish Register Data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 75:1, s. 35-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between involuntary job loss and alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality. Method: Swedish linked employee employer data were used to identify all establishment closures during 1990-1999, as well as the employees who were laid off and a comparison group. These data were merged with information on alcohol-attributable deaths and hospital admissions from the Causes of Death Register and the National Patient Register. The associations between job loss and alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality during a follow-up period of 12 years were estimated by propensity score weighting methods. Results: An excess risk of both alcohol-related hospitalization and mortality was found among both displaced men and women. For women, the wholly alcohol-attributable health problems were mainly limited to alcohol use disorders, whereas men also had an increased risk of hospitalization from poisoning and alcohol-induced liver disease and pancreatitis. Conclusions: The findings support previous evidence of increased risks of alcohol-related morbidity/mortality following involuntary job loss, although the estimates presented herein are more conservative. In addition, the findings suggest that alcohol-related problems manifest somewhat differently in men and women.
  • Evans, Brittany E, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Stress Reactivity as a Prospective Predictor of Risky Substance Use During Adolescence
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - : Alcohol Research Documentation. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 77:2, s. 208-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Youth who report risky substance use and who have a familial history of substance use disorders (SUDs) are at increased risk for developing SUDs themselves later in life. Physiological stress reactivity may be a potential biological mechanism underlying this increased risk. In the current study, we examined (a) whether physiological stress reactivity to a psychosocial stressor was prospectively related to risky substance use later in adolescence and (b) whether this relation was moderated by a familial history of SUDs.METHOD: Youth from the general population (n = 220) and the children of a parent/parents with an SUD (CPSUDs; n = 60) participated in a psychosocial stress procedure at Time 1. Cortisol and heart rate reactivity were measured during the procedure. Four years later, on average, risky substance use was self-reported (Time 2).RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that youth who had lower cortisol reactivity at Time 1 were more likely to report risky substance use at Time 2. Heart rate reactivity was not related to risky substance use at Time 2, and the relation between stress reactivity and risky substance use was not more pronounced in CPSUDs compared with youth from the general population. These analyses were controlled for alcohol use at Time 1.CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest hyporeactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in youth who are more likely to engage in risky substance use later in adolescence. These individuals may be inherently hypoaroused, which leads them to seek out substances in order to achieve a more normalized level of arousal.
  • Grüne, Bettina, et al. (författare)
  • Drinking Location and Drinking Culture and Their Association With Alcohol Use Among Girls and Boys in Europe
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 78:4, s. 549-557
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study aimed to (a) investigate the relationship between drinking location and adolescent alcohol use, (b) analyze the association of drinking culture indicators with alcohol use, and (c) explore interaction effects of drinking location and drinking culture indicators. Method: Analyses were based on the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The analytical sample consisted of 15-to 16-year-old students (N = 36,366; 51.6% female) from 11 countries. Alcohol volume and perceived drunkenness were used as outcomes. Drinking location was used as predictor variable. Per capita consumption and restrictions on public drinking were used as country-level predictors. Sex-stratified generalized linear models with cluster robust standard errors were applied. Results: Compared with drinking outdoors, the reported alcohol volume was lower when drinking at home and higher when drinking in multiple locations or at someone else's home. Drunkenness was highest among boys drinking at someone else's home and, compared with drinking outdoors, lower among girls drinking on premise. Per capita consumption was positively associated with alcohol volume. Among girls, the association between per capita consumption and both outcomes was stronger when drinking in multiple locations than when drinking outdoors. A ban on public drinking showed a negative effect on drinking volume and drunkenness among girls. Conclusions: The role of different drinking locations in alcohol use as well as sex differences should be considered in prevention and intervention of adolescent heavy drinking. Setting-specific prevention and intervention measures are of greater importance in medium-or high-consumption societies.
  • Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol's Harm to Others : Opportunities and Challenges in a Public Health Framework
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 79:2, s. 239-243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The emergent and growing body of research on alcohol's harm to others (AHTO), or secondhand effects of drinking, has important implications for prevention, intervention, and policy. Those victimized by other drinkers tend to favor effective alcohol policies more than their nonvictimized peers, but often a community's impulse will be to combat AHTO by targeting and stigmatizing individual heavy drinkers, rather than taking a public health approach to reducing harm. Here we discuss opportunities and challenges in selecting ways of reducing AHTO. We make a case for adopting joint public health and individual approaches to reduce AHTO.
  • Katainen, Anu, et al. (författare)
  • Regulating Alcohol Marketing on Social Media : Outcomes and Limitations of Marketing Restrictions of Finland's 2015 Alcohol Act
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. - 1937-1888 .- 1938-4114. ; 81:1, s. 39-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the 2015 law restricting alcohol marketing on social media in Finland.Method: The study compared posts that market alcohol on Finnish and Swedish social media in terms of number, content, and user engagement during the month of January in three separate years: 1 year before, 1 year after, and 2 years after the 2015 Alcohol Act came into effect in Finland. The data consisted of all posts (Finland, N = 1,536; Sweden, N = 1,204) published during the selected months by alcohol brands that had active national social media accounts at the time of data collection. The coding protocol included numbers of posts and measures of consumer engagement, as well as content restricted by the law.Results: Social media posting increased between the 2014 and 2016 samples in both countries. In Finland, the number of posts decreased in 2017. The proportion of posts with content restricted by the 2015 law increased in both countries between the 2014 and 2016 samples. However, in Finland, the amount of restricted content decreased in the 2017 sample, whereas in Sweden it increased, Pearson chi(2)(1) = 29.273, p <.001. The level of user engagement increased in both countries between the 2014 and 2017 samples.Conclusions: The social media regulation in the Finnish 2015 amendment has had an impact on alcohol brands' social media content, but it has not affected marketers' ability to increase consumer engagement.
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