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  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 107:4, s. 607-616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 2 major types of gastric cancer. Several foods, nutrients, and nonnutrient food components seem to be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation. Objective We assessed the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of gastric carcinoma, overall and for the 2 major subsites: cardia cancers and noncardia cancers. Design A total of 476,160 subjects (30% men, 70% women) from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were followed for 14 y, during which 913 incident cases of gastric carcinoma were identified, including 236 located in the cardia, 341 in the distal part of the stomach (noncardia), and 336 with overlapping or unknown tumor site. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated with the use of 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory scores. The association between the ISD and gastric cancer risk was estimated by HRs and 95% CIs calculated by multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for confounders. Results The inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The HR (95% CI) for each increase in 1 SD of the ISD were 1.25 (1.12, 1.39) for all gastric cancers, 1.30 (1.06, 1.59) for cardia cancers, and 1.07 (0.89, 1.28) for noncardia cancers. The corresponding values for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of the ISD were 1.66 (1.26, 2.20), 1.94 (1.14, 3.30), and 1.07 (0.70, 1.70), respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that low-grade chronic inflammation induced by the diet may be associated with gastric cancer risk. This pattern seems to be more consistent for gastric carcinomas located in the cardia than for those located in the distal stomach. This study is listed on the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN12136108.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury : data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : American Society for Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 102:6, s. 1498-1508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among 125 incident HCC cases matched to 250 controls using an incidence-density sampling procedure. The association of coffee intake with HCC risk was evaluated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression that accounted for smoking, alcohol consumption, hepatitis infection, and other established liver cancer risk factors. The mediating effects of 21 biomarkers were evaluated on the basis of percentage changes and associated 95% CIs in the estimated regression coefficients of models with and without adjustment for biomarkers individually and in combination. Results: The multivariable-adjusted RR of having >= 4 cups (600mL) coffee/d compared with <2 cups (300 mL)/d was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P-trend = 0.006). A statistically significant attenuation of the association between coffee intake and HCC risk and thereby suspected mediation was confirmed for the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 and for the biomarkers of hepatocellular injury glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total bilirubin, which-in combination-attenuated the regression coefficients by 72% (95% CI: 7%, 239%). Of the investigated biomarkers, IL-6, AST, and GGT produced the highest change in the regression coefficients: 40%, 56%, and 60%, respectively. Conclusion: These data suggest that the inverse association of coffee intake with HCC risk was partly accounted for by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury.
  • Andersson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle reflects dietary fat compositionin humans
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 76:6, s. 1222-1229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is still unknown whether the fatty acid composition of human skeletal muscle lipids is directly influenced by the fat composition of the diet.Objective: We investigated whether the fatty acid composition of the diet is reflected in the fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids and triacylglycerols.Design: Thirty-two healthy adults (25 men and 7 women) included in a larger controlled, multicenter dietary study were randomly assigned to diets containing a high proportion of either saturated fatty acids (SFAs) [total fat, 36% of energy; SFAs, 18% of energy; monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), 10% of energy] or MUFAs (total fat, 35% of energy; SFAs, 9% of energy; MUFAs, 19% of energy) for 3 mo. Within each diet group, there was a second random assignment to supplementation with fish oil capsules [containing 3.6 g n−3 fatty acids/d; 2.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n−3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n−3)] or placebo. A muscle biopsy sample was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle after the diet period. Parallel analyses of diet and supplementation effects were performed.Results: The proportions of myristic (14:0), pentadecanoic (15:0), heptadecanoic (17:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n−7) acids in the skeletal muscle phospholipids were higher and the proportion of oleic acid (18:1n−9) was lower in the SFA group than in the MUFA group. The proportion of total n−3 fatty acids in the muscle phospholipids was ≈2.5 times higher, with a 5 times higher proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n−3), in subjects supplemented with n−3 fatty acids than in those given placebo. Similar differences were observed in the skeletal muscle triacylglycerols.Conclusion: The fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle lipids reflects the fatty acid composition of the diet in healthy men and women.
  • Assi, Nada, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic signature of healthy lifestyle and its relation with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : American Society for Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 108:1, s. 117-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies using metabolomic data have identified metabolites from several compound classes that are associated with disease-related lifestyle factors.Objective: In this study, we identified metabolic signatures reflecting lifestyle patterns and related them to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.Design: Within a nested case-control study of 147 incident HCC cases and 147 matched controls, partial least squares (PLS) analysis related 7 modified healthy lifestyle index (HLI) variables (diet, BMI, physical activity, lifetime alcohol, smoking, diabetes, and hepatitis) to 132 targeted serum-measured metabolites and a liver function score. The association between the resulting PLS scores and HCC risk was examined in multivariable conditional logistic regression models, where ORs and 95% CIs were computed.Results: The lifestyle component's PLS score was negatively associated with lifetime alcohol, BMI, smoking, and diabetes, and positively associated with physical activity. Its metabolic counterpart was positively related to the metabolites sphingomyelin (SM) (OH) C14:1, C16:1, and C22:2, and negatively related to glutamate, hexoses, and the diacyl-phosphatidylcholine PC aaC32:1. The lifestyle and metabolomics components were inversely associated with HCC risk, with the ORs for a 1-SD increase in scores equal to 0.53 (95% CI: 0.38, 0.74) and 0.28 (0.18, 0.43), and the associated AUCs equal to 0.64 (0.57, 0.70) and 0.74 (0.69, 0.80), respectively.Conclusions: This study identified a metabolic signature reflecting a healthy lifestyle pattern which was inversely associated with HCC risk. The metabolic profile displayed a stronger association with HCC than did the modified HLI derived from questionnaire data. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites may identify strata of the population at higher risk for HCC and can add substantial discrimination compared with questionnaire data. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03356535.
  • Astrup, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease : where does the evidence stand in 2010?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 93:4, s. 684-688
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and mechanistic studies is consistent in finding that the risk of CHD is reduced when SFAs are replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In populations who consume a Western diet, the replacement of 1% of energy from SFAs with PUFAs lowers LDL cholesterol and is likely to produce a reduction in CHD incidence of >= 2-3%. No clear benefit of substituting carbohydrates for SFAs has been shown, although there might be a benefit if the carbohydrate is unrefined and has a low glycemic index. Insufficient evidence exists to judge the effect on CHD risk of replacing SFAs with MUFAs. No clear association between SFA intake relative to refined carbohydrates and the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes has been shown. The effect of diet on a single biomarker is insufficient evidence to assess CHD risk. The combination of multiple biomarkers and the use of clinical end-points could help substantiate the effects on CHD. Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total SFAs because individual SFAs may have different cardiovascular effects and major SFA food sources contain other constituents that could influence CHD risk. Research is needed to clarify the role of SFAs compared with specific forms of carbohydrates in CHD risk and to compare specific foods with appropriate alternatives.
  • Azadbakht, Leila, et al. (författare)
  • Soy inclusion in the diet improves features of the metabolicsyndrome: a randomized crossover study in postmenopausal women
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 85:3, s. 735-741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Little evidence exists regarding the effects of soyconsumption on the metabolic syndrome in humans.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of soy consumptionon components of the metabolic syndrome, plasma lipids, lipoproteins,insulin resistance, and glycemic control in postmenopausalwomen with the metabolic syndrome.Design: This randomized crossover clinical trial was undertaken in42 postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome. Participantswere randomly assigned to consume a control diet (DietaryApproaches to Stop Hypertension, DASH), a soy-protein diet, or asoy-nut diet, each for 8 wk. Red meat in the DASH period wasreplaced by soy-protein in the soy-protein period and by soy-nut inthe soy-nut period.Results: The soy-nut regimen decreased the homeostasis model ofassessment-insulin resistance score significantly compared with thesoy-protein (difference in percentage change:7.40.8; P0.01)or control (12.9 0.9; P 0.01) diets. Consumption of soy-nutalso reduced fasting plasma glucose more significantly than did thesoy-protein (5.30.5%; P0.01) or control (5.10.6%; P0.01) diet. The soy-nut regimen decreased LDL cholesterol morethan did the soy-protein period (5.0 0.6%; P 0.01) and thecontrol (9.5 0.6%; P 0.01) diet. Soy-nut consumptionsignificantly reduced serum C-peptide concentrations comparedwith control diet (8.0 2.1; P 0.01), but consumption ofsoy-protein did not.Conclusion: Short-term soy-nut consumption improved glycemiccontrol and lipid profiles in postmenopausal women with the metabolicsyndrome.
  • Bakker, Marije F., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherols, and retinol and the risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 103:2, s. 454-464
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Carotenoids and vitamin C are thought to be associated with reduced cancer risk because of their antioxidative capacity.Objective: This study evaluated the associations of plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and vitamin C concentrations and risk of breast cancer.Design: In a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1502 female incident breast cancer cases were included, with an oversampling of premenopausal (n = 582) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cases (n = 462). Controls (n = 1502) were individually matched to cases by using incidence density sampling. Prediagnostic samples were analyzed for alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and 454 vitamin C. Breast cancer risk was computed according to hormone receptor status and age at diagnosis (proxy for menopausal status) by using conditional logistic regression and was further stratified by smoking status, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were 2-sided.Results: In quintile 5 compared with quintile 1, alpha-carotene (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98) and beta-carotene (OR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.65) were inversely associated with risk of ER- breast tumors. The other analytes were not statistically associated with ER- breast cancer. For estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors, no statistically significant associations were found. The test for heterogeneity between ER- and ER+ tumors was statistically significant only for beta-carotene (P-heterogeneity = 0.03). A higher risk of breast cancer was found for retinol in relation to ER-/progesterone receptor-negative tumors (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20, 4.67; P-heterogeneity with ER+/progesterone receptor positive = 0.06). We observed no statistically significant interaction between smoking, alcohol, or BMI and all investigated plasma analytes (based on tertile distribution).Conclusion: Our results indicate that higher concentrations of plasma beta-carotene and alpha-carotene are associated with lower breast cancer risk of ER tumors.
  • Bellavia, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in survival associated with processed and with nonprocessed red meat consumption
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 100:3, s. 924-929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: High red meat consumption is associated with an increased mortality risk. This association is partly explained by the negative effect of processed meat consumption, which is widely established. The role of nonprocessed meat is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine the combined association of processed and nonprocessed meat consumption with survival in a Swedish large prospective cohort. Design: In a population-based cohort of 74,645 Swedish men (40,089) and women (34,556), red meat consumption was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. We estimated differences in survival [15th percentile differences (PDs), differences in the time by which the first 15% of the cohort died] according to levels of total red meat and combined levels of processed and nonprocessed red meat consumption. Results: During 15 y of follow-up (January 1998 to December 2012), we documented 16,683 deaths (6948 women; 9735 men). Compared with no consumption, consumption of red meat >100 g/d was progressively associated with shorter survival-up to 2 y for participants consuming an average of 300 g/d (15th PD: -21 mo; 95% CI: -31, -10). Compared with no consumption, high consumption of processed red meat (100 g/d) was associated with shorter survival (15th PD: -9 mo; 95% CI: -16, -2). High and moderate intakes of nonprocessed red meat were associated with shorter survival only when accompanied by a high intake of processed red meat. Conclusions: We found that high total red meat consumption was associated with progressively shorter survival, largely because of the consumption of processed red meat. Consumption of nonprocessed red meat alone was not associated with shorter survival. The Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127698 and NCT01127711, respectively.
  • Bellavia, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality : a dose-response analysis.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 98:2, s. 454-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The association between fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and overall mortality has seldom been investigated in large cohort studies. Findings from the few available studies are inconsistent.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the dose-response relation between FV consumption and mortality, in terms of both time and rate, in a large prospective cohort of Swedish men and women.DESIGN: FV consumption was assessed through a self-administrated questionnaire in a population-based cohort of 71,706 participants (38,221 men and 33,485 women) aged 45-83 y. We performed a dose-response analysis to evaluate 10th survival percentile differences (PDs) by using Laplace regression and estimated HRs by using Cox regression.RESULTS: During 13 y of follow-up, 11,439 deaths (6803 men and 4636 women) occurred in the cohort. In comparison with 5 servings FV/d, a lower consumption was progressively associated with shorter survival and higher mortality rates. Those who never consumed FV lived 3 y shorter (PD: -37 mo; 95% CI: -58, -16 mo) and had a 53% higher mortality rate (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.99) than did those who consumed 5 servings FV/d. Consideration of fruit and vegetables separately showed that those who never consumed fruit lived 19 mo shorter (PD: -19 mo; 95% CI: -29, -10 mo) than did those who ate 1 fruit/d. Participants who consumed 3 vegetables/d lived 32 mo longer than did those who never consumed vegetables (PD: 32 mo; 96% CI: 13, 51 mo).CONCLUSION: FV consumption <5 servings/d is associated with progressively shorter survival and higher mortality rates. The Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127698 and NCT01127711, respectively.
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