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  • Falhammar, H., et al. (författare)
  • Increased cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency : a Swedish population-based national cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0021-972X. ; 100:9, s. 3520-3528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is lethal in its most severe forms if not treated with glucocorticoids. However, glucocorticoids may increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to study cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in CAH. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 588; >80% with known CYP21A2 mutations) were compared with controls matched for sex, year, and place of birth (n = 58 800). Data were obtained by linking national population-based registers. Subgroup analyses were performed regarding sex, clinical severity (salt wasting, simple virilizing, nonclassic), CYP21A2 genotype (null, I2 splice, I172N, P30L), and stratified by the introduction of neonatal screening, age groups, and nonobesity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To study cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in CAH. RESULTS: In CAH, both any cardiovascular and metabolic disorders (OR [odds ratio], 3.9; 95% CI [confidence interval], 3.1-5.0), and cardiovascular disease (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9-3.9) were increased. Separate analyses of the individual diseases showed higher frequencies in CAH of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, obesity, diabetes (mainly type 2), obstructive sleep disorder, thyrotoxicosis, and hypothyroidism. Similar results were seen in the stratified groups. On the subgroup level, females were generally more affected (especially I172N and the nonclassic group), as were males with the null genotype. CONCLUSIONS: CAH was associated with excess cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity but the mechanism is not certain as the glucocorticoids were not assessed. Hypothyroidism and obesity may be an effect of close observation. However, more severe conditions were presumably detected equally in patients and controls. Screening for diabetes and other metabolic disorders that increase cardiovascular risk is important.
  • Falhammar, H., et al. (författare)
  • Increased mortality in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0021-972X. ; 99:12, s. E2715-E2721
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Reports on mortality in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are lacking. Objective: To study mortality and causes of death in CAH. Design, Setting and Participants: We studied patients with CAH (21-hydroxylase deficiency, n=588; CYP21A2 mutations known, >80%), and compared them with controls (n=58800). Data were derived through linkage of national population-based registers. Main Outcome Measures: Mortality and causes of death. Results: The mean age of death was 41.2±26.9 years in CAH patients and 47.7±27.7 years in controls (P<0.001). Among CAH patients 23 (3.9%) had deceased compared to 942 (1.6%) of controls. The hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of death was 2.3(1.2-4.3) in CAH males and 3.5(2.0-6.0) in CAH females. Including only patients born 1952-2009, gave similar total results but only patients with salt-wasting or with unclear phenotype had an increased mortality. The causes of death in CAH patients were adrenal crisis (42%), cardiovascular (32%), cancer (16%), and suicide (10%). There were seven additional deaths in CAH individuals with incomplete or reused personal identification number that could not be analyzed using linkage of registers. Of the latter all except one were deceased before the introduction of neonatal screening in 1986 and most of them in the first weeks of life, probably in an adrenal crisis. Conclusions: CAH is a potentially lethal condition and was associated with excess mortality due to adrenal crisis. The salt-wasting phenotype seemed to have worse outcome also in children and adults due to adrenal crisis and not only before the introduction of neonatal screening.
  • Strandqvist, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Suboptimal psychosocial outcomes in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia : epidemiological studies in a nonbiased national cohort in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0021-972X. ; 99:4, s. 1425-1432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), CYP21A2 deficiency, results in cortisol and aldosterone deficiency and increased production of androgens, with a good genotype phenotype correlation. Objective: To study psychosocial outcomes in relation to clinical severity, CYP21A2 genotype, in men and women. Design: An epidemiological study with a matched cohort control design. Setting: All known CAH patients in Sweden. Participants: 588 patients, >95% with known severity of CAH; 100 controls per patient matched for sex, year and place of birth. Main outcome and measures: Proxies for quality of life were selected: level of education, employment, income, sick-leave, disability pension, marriage and children. Results: Women with salt-wasting (SW) CAH had completed primary education less often (OR 0.3), not explained by neonatal salt-crisis or hypoglycemia since the men did not differ from controls. Men and women in the less severe I172N genotype group were more likely to have an academic education (OR 1.8) SW women were more likely to have an income in the top 20 percentile (OR 2.0 ). Both men and women had more disability pension (OR 1.5) and sick leave (OR 1.7). The men more often had long lasting employment (OR 3.1). Men were more often (OR 1.6) while women were less often married (OR 0.7). Patients had children less often (OR 0.3). Conclusions: This study shows important outcome differences regarding education, employment, marriage and fertility depending on sex and severity of CAH. The mechanisms behind this and the increased risk for sick leave or disability pension in both men and women should be identified to improve medical and psychological care.
  • Abrahamsson, Annelie, et al. (författare)
  • Estradiol, Tamoxifen, and Flaxseed Alter IL-1 beta and IL-1Ra Levels in Normal Human Breast Tissue in Vivo
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 97:11, s. E2044-E2054
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Sex steroid exposure increases the risk of breast cancer by unclear mechanisms. Diet modifications may be one breast cancer prevention strategy. The proinflammatory cytokine family of IL-1 is implicated in cancer progression. IL-1Ra is an endogenous inhibitor of the proinflammatory IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: The objective of this study was to elucidate whether estrogen, tamoxifen, and/or diet modification altered IL-1 levels in normal human breast tissue. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign and Methods: Microdialysis was performed in healthy women under various hormone exposures, tamoxifen therapy, and diet modifications and in breast cancers of women before surgery. Breast tissue biopsies from reduction mammoplasties were cultured. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: We show a significant positive correlation between estradiol and in vivo levels of IL-1 beta in breast tissue and abdominal sc fat, whereas IL-1Ra exhibited a significant negative correlation with estradiol in breast tissue. Tamoxifen or a dietary addition of 25 g flaxseed per day resulted in significantly increased levels of IL-1Ra in the breast. These results were confirmed in ex vivo culture of breast biopsies. Immunohistochemistry of the biopsies did not reveal any changes in cellular content of the IL-1s, suggesting that mainly the secreted levels were affected. In breast cancer patients, intratumoral levels of IL-1 beta were significantly higher compared with normal adjacent breast tissue. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: IL-1 may be under the control of estrogen in vivo and may be attenuated by antiestrogen therapy and diet modifications. The increased IL-1 beta in breast cancers of women strongly suggests IL-1 as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment and prevention.
  • Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Dose-dependent effect of growth hormone on final height in children with short stature without growth hormone deficiency
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 93:11, s. 4342-4350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: The effect of GH therapy in short non-GH-deficient children, especially those with idiopathic short stature (ISS), has not been clearly established owing to the lack of controlled trials continuing until final height (FH). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect on growth to FH of two GH doses given to short children, mainly with ISS, compared with untreated controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, long-term multicenter trial was conducted in Sweden. INTERVENTION: Two doses of GH (Genotropin) were administered, 33 or 67 microg/kg.d; control subjects were untreated. SUBJECTS: A total of 177 subjects with short stature were enrolled. Of these, 151 were included in the intent to treat (AllITT) population, and 108 in the per protocol (AllPP) population. Analysis of ISS subjects included 126 children in the ITT (ISSITT) population and 68 subjects in the PP (ISSPP) population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured FH sd score (SDS), difference in SDS to midparenteral height (diff MPHSDS), and gain in heightSDS. RESULTS: After 5.9+/-1.1 yr on GH therapy, the FHSDS in the AllPP population treated with GH vs. controls was -1.5+/-0.81 (33 microg/kg.d, -1.7+/-0.70; and 67 microg/kg.d, -1.4+/-0.86; P<0.032), vs. -2.4+/-0.85 (P<0.001); the diff MPHSDS was -0.2+/-1.0 vs. -1.0+/-0.74 (P<0.001); and the gain in heightSDS was 1.3+/-0.78 vs. 0.2+/-0.69 (P<0.001). GH therapy was safe and had no impact on time to onset of puberty. A dose-response relationship identified after 1 yr remained to FH for all growth outcome variables in all four populations. CONCLUSION: GH treatment significantly increased FH in ISS children in a dose-dependent manner, with a mean gain of 1.3 SDS (8 cm) and a broad range of response from no gain to 3 SDS compared to a mean gain of 0.2 SDS in the untreated controls. 
  • Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality Is Not Increased in Recombinant Human Growth Hormone-treated Patients When Adjusting for Birth Characteristics
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : ENDOCRINE SOC. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 101:5, s. 2149-2159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether reported high mortality in childhood recombinant human GH (rhGH)-treated patients was related to birth-characteristics and/or rhGH treatment. Design and Setting: We sought to develop a mortality model of the Swedish general population born between 1973 and 2010, using continuous-hazard functions adjusting for birth characteristics, sex, age intervals, and calendar year to estimate standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and to apply this model to assess expected deaths in Swedish rhGH-treated patients with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), idiopathic short stature (155) or born small for gestational age (SGA). Participants:The general population: Swedish Medical Birth Register (1973-2010: 1 880 668 males; 1 781 131 females) and Cause of Death Register (1985-2010). Intervention Population: Three thousand eight hundred forty-seven patients starting rhGH treatment between 1985 and 2010 and followed in the National GH Register and/or in rhGH trials diagnosed with IGHD (n = 1890), ISS (n = 975), or SGA (n=982). Main Outcome Measures: Death. Results: Using conventional models adjusting for age, sex, and calendar-year, the SMR was 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.19), P = .14, observed/expected deaths 21/14.68. The rhGH population differed (P amp;lt; .001) from the general population regarding birth weight, birth length, and congenital malformations. Application of an Advanced Model: When applying the developed mortality model of the general population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths in rhGH-treated patients was 21/21.99; SMR = 0.955 (0.591-1.456)P = .95. Model Comparison: Expected number of deaths were 14.68 (14.35-14.96) using the conventional model, and 21.99 (21.24-22.81) using the advanced model, P amp;lt; .001, which had at all ages a higher gradient of risk per SD of the model, 24% (range, 18-42%; P amp;lt; .001). Conclusions: Compared with the general Swedish population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths (21/21.99) was not increased in childhood rhGH-treated IGHD, ISS, and SGA patients when applying an advanced sex-specific mortality model adjusting for birth characteristics.
  • Almby, Kristina E., et al. (författare)
  • Time course of metabolic, neuroendocrine, and adipose effects during 2 years of follow-up after gastric bypass in patients with type 2 diabetes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 106:10, s. E4049-E4061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) markedly improves glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but underlying mechanisms and changes over time are incompletely understood.Objective: Integrated assessment of neuroendocrine and metabolic changes over time inT2D patients undergoing RYGB.Design and Setting: Follow-up of single-center randomized study.Patients: Thirteen patients with obesity andT2D compared to 22 healthy subjects.Interventions: Blood chemistry, adipose biopsies, and heart rate variability were obtained before and 4, 24, and 104 weeks post-RYGB.Results: After RYGB, glucose-lowering drugs were discontinued and hemoglobin A1c fell from mean 55 to 41 mmol/mol by 104 weeks (P < 0.001). At 4 weeks, morning cortisol (P < 0.05) and adrenocorticotropin (P = 0.09) were reduced by 20%. Parasympathetic nerve activity (heart rate variability derived) increased at 4 weeks (P < 0.05) and peaked at 24 weeks (P < 0.01). C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells were rapidly reduced (P < 0.01). At 104 weeks, basal and insulin-stimulated adipocyte glucose uptake increased by 3-fold vs baseline and expression of genes involved in glucose transport, fatty acid oxidation, and adipogenesis was upregulated (P < 0.01). Adipocyte volume was reduced by 4 weeks and more markedly at 104 weeks, by about 40% vs baseline (P < 0.01).Conclusions: We propose this order of events: (1) rapid glucose lowering (days); (2) attenuated cortisol axis activity and inflammation and increased parasympathetic tone (weeks); and (3) body fat and weight loss, increased adipose glucose uptake, and whole-body insulin sensitivity (months-years; similar to healthy controls).Thus, neuroendocrine pathways can partly mediate early glycemic improvement after RYGB, and adipose factors may promote long-term insulin sensitivity and normoglycemia.
  • Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina, 1963, et al. (författare)
  • Nocturnal application of transdermal estradiol patches produces levels of estradiol that mimic those seen at the onset of spontaneous puberty in girls.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X. ; 86:7, s. 3039-3044
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of pubertal induction in children with hypogonadism is to mimic spontaneous puberty in terms of physical and psychological development. In a clinical observation study, we induced puberty in 15 girls with hyper- or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism using low doses of transdermal estradiol patches attached only during the night and compared the estradiol concentrations obtained with those in healthy girls. Pubertal induction was started between the ages of 12.3 and 18.1 yr. A transdermal matrix patch of 17beta-estradiol (25 microg/24 h; Evorel, Janssen Pharmaceuticals-Cilag) was cut into pieces corresponding to 3.1, 4.2, or 6.2 microg/24 h initially and attached to the buttock. After 4-14 months, the dose was increased gradually. Serum 17beta-estradiol concentrations were measured every 2 h by RIA (detection limit, 6.0 pmol/L; 1.6 pg/mL). The results show that it is possible to mimic the spontaneous levels as well as the diurnal pattern of serum 17beta-estradiol in early puberty, by cutting a transdermal 17beta-estradiol matrix patch and attaching a part of it, corresponding to 0.08-0.12 microg estradiol/kg BW, to the buttock nocturnally. In most of the girls, breast development occurred within 3-6 months of the start of treatment.
  • Annerbo, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Left-shifted relation between calcium and parathyroid hormone in Graves' Disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 99:2, s. 545-551
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Patients with Graves' disease (GD) have disturbances in calcium regulation with manifestations such as postoperative hypocalcemia. We have investigated the thyroid as well as the parathyroid function in detail.Material and Method:A series of patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for GD (n=56) or Multi Nodular Goitre (MNG, n=50) were scrutinized for postoperative hypocalcemia, need for calcium and/or vitamin D substitution. CiCa-clamp was used in 14 patients and 21 controls to quantify the secretion of PTH in relation to the ionized plasma calcium level. The setpoint, equal to the plasma ionized calcium concentration at which 50% of the maximal secretion of PTH is inhibited, as well as other CiCa-related parameters were calculated.Results:Hypocalcemia was present in 48% of GD and 41.2% of patients with MNG postoperatively. Patients with GD had lower calcium levels, 18% had S-Ca< 2.00 mmol/L compared to 4.0% in the MNG group, p=0.02. A higher degree of GD patients were given parenteral calcium-substitution during the hospital stay (3.6% vs 0 %) and oral calcium substitution at discharge (48% vs 10%), although they had normal vitamin D3 levels. The GD group showed a significantly left-shifted setpoint compared to the normal group on CiCa clamp, 1.16 mmol/l vs. 1.20 mmol/L (p<0.001), as well as an increased PTH release to hypocalcemic stimulus. GD patients also show an association between degree of subclinical toxicosis at time of surgery and risk for developing postoperative hypocalcemia.Conclusion:Patients with GD demonstrate dysregulation of the calcium homeostasis by several parameters. GD patients have lower postoperative S-calcium compared to patients with MNG, lower calcium/PTH setpoint and a significantly increased release of PTH to hypocalcemic stimulus compared to controls. The CiCa clamp response in GD patients with normal 25-OH-vitamin D3 levels mimics that of obese patients in which vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as an underlying cause.
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