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Sökning: L773:2041 1723 OR L773:2041 1723

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  • Abbey-Lee, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive individual variation in phenological responses to perceived predation levels
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The adaptive evolution of timing of breeding (a component of phenology) in response to environmental change requires individual variation in phenotypic plasticity for selection to act upon. A major question is what processes generate this variation. Here we apply multi-year manipulations of perceived predation levels (PPL) in an avian predator-prey system, identifying phenotypic plasticity in phenology as a key component of alternative behavioral strategies with equal fitness payoffs. We show that under low-PPL, faster (versus slower) exploring birds breed late (versus early); the pattern is reversed under high-PPL, with breeding synchrony decreasing in conjunction. Timing of breeding affects reproductive success, yet behavioral types have equal fitness. The existence of alternative behavioral strategies thus explains variation in phenology and plasticity in reproductive behavior, which has implications for evolution in response to anthropogenic change.
  • Aben, Ralf C. H., et al. (författare)
  • Cross continental increase in methane ebullition under climate change
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methane (CH4) strongly contributes to observed global warming. As natural CH4 emissions mainly originate from wet ecosystems, it is important to unravel how climate change may affect these emissions. This is especially true for ebullition (bubble flux from sediments), a pathway that has long been underestimated but generally dominates emissions. Here we show a remarkably strong relationship between CH4 ebullition and temperature across a wide range of freshwater ecosystems on different continents using multi-seasonal CH4 ebullition data from the literature. As these temperature-ebullition relationships may have been affected by seasonal variation in organic matter availability, we also conducted a controlled year-round mesocosm experiment. Here 4 degrees C warming led to 51% higher total annual CH4 ebullition, while diffusion was not affected. Our combined findings suggest that global warming will strongly enhance freshwater CH4 emissions through a disproportional increase in ebullition (6-20% per 1 degrees C increase), contributing to global warming.
  • Abrahamsson, Katarina, 1957, et al. (författare)
  • Organic bromine compounds produced in sea ice in Antarctic winter
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During polar springtime, active bromine drives ozone, a greenhouse gas, to near-zero levels. Bromine production and emission in the polar regions have so far been assumed to require sunlight. Here, we report measurements of bromocarbons in sea ice, snow, and air during the Antarctic winter that reveal an unexpected new source of organic bromine to the atmosphere during periods of no sunlight. The results show that Antarctic winter sea ice provides 10 times more bromocarbons to the atmosphere than Southern Ocean waters, and substantially more than summer sea ice. The inclusion of these measurements in a global climate model indicates that the emitted bromocarbons will disperse throughout the troposphere in the southern hemisphere and through photochemical degradation to bromine atoms, contribute similar to 10% to the tropospheric reactive bromine budget. Combined together, our results suggest that winter sea ice could potentially be an important source of atmospheric bromine with implications for atmospheric chemistry and climate at a hemispheric scale.
  • Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo, et al. (författare)
  • Cidea improves the metabolic profile through expansion of adipose tissue
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In humans, Cidea (cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor alpha-like effector A) is highly but variably expressed in white fat, and expression correlates with metabolic health. Here we generate transgenic mice expressing human Cidea in adipose tissues (aP2-hCidea mice) and show that Cidea is mechanistically associated with a robust increase in adipose tissue expandability. Under humanized conditions (thermoneutrality, mature age and prolonged exposure to high-fat diet), aP2-hCidea mice develop a much more pronounced obesity than their wild-type littermates. Remarkably, the malfunctioning of visceral fat normally caused by massive obesity is fully overcome-perilipin 1 and Akt expression are preserved, tissue degradation is prevented, macrophage accumulation is decreased and adiponectin expression remains high. Importantly, the aP2-hCidea mice display enhanced insulin sensitivity. Our data establish a functional role for Cidea and suggest that, in humans, the association between Cidea levels in white fat and metabolic health is not only correlative but also causative.
  • Adamczyk, B., et al. (författare)
  • Plant roots increase both decomposition and stable organic matter formation in boreal forest soil
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Boreal forests are ecosystems with low nitrogen (N) availability that store globally significant amounts of carbon (C), mainly in plant biomass and soil organic matter (SOM). Although crucial for future climate change predictions, the mechanisms controlling boreal C and N pools are not well understood. Here, using a three-year field experiment, we compare SOM decomposition and stabilization in the presence of roots, with exclusion of roots but presence of fungal hyphae and with exclusion of both roots and fungal hyphae. Roots accelerate SOM decomposition compared to the root exclusion treatments, but also promote a different soil N economy with higher concentrations of organic soil N compared to inorganic soil N accompanied with the build-up of stable SOM-N. In contrast, root exclusion leads to an inorganic soil N economy (i.e., high level of inorganic N) with reduced stable SOM-N buildup. Based on our findings, we provide a framework on how plant roots affect SOM decomposition and stabilization.
  • Adami, C., et al. (författare)
  • Evolutionary instability of zero-determinant strategies demonstrates that winning is not everything
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Zero-determinant strategies are a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies that are able to unilaterally set the expected payoff of an opponent in iterated plays of the Prisoner's Dilemma irrespective of the opponent's strategy (coercive strategies), or else to set the ratio between the player's and their opponent's expected payoff (extortionate strategies). Here we show that zero-determinant strategies are at most weakly dominant, are not evolutionarily stable, and will instead evolve into less coercive strategies. We show that zero-determinant strategies with an informational advantage over other players that allows them to recognize each other can be evolutionarily stable (and able to exploit other players). However, such an advantage is bound to be short-lived as opposing strategies evolve to counteract the recognition. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
  • Adderley, Jack D., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of erythrocyte signalling pathways during Plasmodium falciparum infection identifies targets for host-directed antimalarial intervention
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracellular pathogens mobilize host signaling pathways of their host cell to promote their own survival. Evidence is emerging that signal transduction elements are activated in a-nucleated erythrocytes in response to infection with malaria parasites, but the extent of this phenomenon remains unknown. Here, we fill this knowledge gap through a comprehensive and dynamic assessment of host erythrocyte signaling during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. We used arrays of 878 antibodies directed against human signaling proteins to interrogate the activation status of host erythrocyte phospho-signaling pathways at three blood stages of parasite asexual development. This analysis reveals a dynamic modulation of many host signalling proteins across parasite development. Here we focus on the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) and the MAP kinase pathway component B-Raf, providing a proof of concept that human signaling kinases identified as activated by malaria infection represent attractive targets for antimalarial intervention.
  • Adhikari, Subash, et al. (författare)
  • A high-stringency blueprint of the human proteome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) launched the Human Proteome Project (HPP) in 2010, creating an international framework for global collaboration, data sharing, quality assurance and enhancing accurate annotation of the genome-encoded proteome. During the subsequent decade, the HPP established collaborations, developed guidelines and metrics, and undertook reanalysis of previously deposited community data, continuously increasing the coverage of the human proteome. On the occasion of the HPP’s tenth anniversary, we here report a 90.4% complete high-stringency human proteome blueprint. This knowledge is essential for discerning molecular processes in health and disease, as we demonstrate by highlighting potential roles the human proteome plays in our understanding, diagnosis and treatment of cancers, cardiovascular and infectious diseases.
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