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  • Si, Ran, et al. (författare)
  • A First Spectroscopic Measurement of the Magnetic-field Strength for an Active Region of the Solar Corona
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 898:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For all involved in astronomy, the importance of monitoring and determining astrophysical magnetic-field strengths is clear. It is also a well-known fact that the corona magnetic fields play an important part in the origin of solar flares and the variations of space weather. However, after many years of solar corona studies, there is still no direct and continuous way to measure and monitor the solar magnetic-field strength. We present here a scheme that allows such a measurement, based on a careful study of an exotic class of atomic transitions, known as magnetic induced transitions, in Fe9+. In this contribution we present a first application of this methodology and determine a value of the coronal field strength using the spectroscopic data from Hinode.
  • Izumi, T., et al. (författare)
  • On the Disappearance of a Cold Molecular Torus around the Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC 1097
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 845:1, s. L5-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to map the CO(3-2) and the underlying continuum emissions around the type-1low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN; bolometric luminosity less than or similar to 10(42) erg. s(-1)) of NGC 1097 at similar to 10 pc resolution. These observations revealed a detailed cold gas distribution within a similar to 100 pc of this LLAGN. In contrast to the luminous Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068, where a similar to 7 pc cold molecular torus was recently revealed, a distinctively dense and compact torus is missing in our CO(3-2) integrated intensity map of NGC 1097. Based on the CO(3-2) flux, the gas mass of the torus of NGC 1097 would be a factor of greater than or similar to 2-3 less than that found for NGC 1068 by using the same CO-to-H-2 conversion factor, which implies less active nuclear star formation and/or inflows in NGC 1097. Our dynamical modeling of the CO(3-2) velocity field implies that the cold molecular gas is concentrated in a thin layer as compared to the hot gas traced by the 2.12 mu m H-2 emission in and around the torus. Furthermore, we suggest that NGC 1097 hosts a geometrically thinner torus than NGC 1068. Although the physical origin of the torus thickness remains unclear, our observations support a theoretical prediction that geometrically thick tori with high opacity will become deficient as AGNs evolve from luminous Seyferts to LLAGNs.
  • Albert, A., et al. (författare)
  • Search for High-energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with ANTARES, IceCube, and the Pierre Auger Observatory
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 850:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), indicating particle acceleration by the source. The precise location of the event was determined by optical detections of emission following the merger. We searched for high-energy neutrinos from the merger in the GeV-EeV energy range using the ANTARES, IceCube, and Pierre Auger Observatories. No neutrinos directionally coincident with the source were detected within +/- 500 s around the merger time. Additionally, no MeV neutrino burst signal was detected coincident with the merger. We further carried out an extended search in the direction of the source for high-energy neutrinos within the 14 day period following the merger, but found no evidence of emission. We used these results to probe dissipation mechanisms in relativistic outflows driven by the binary neutron star merger. The non-detection is consistent with model predictions of short GRBs observed at a large off-axis angle
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • IceCube Search for Neutrinos Coincident with Compact Binary Mergers from LIGO-Virgo's First Gravitational-wave Transient Catalog
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : American Astronomical Society. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 898:1, s. L10-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, we search for high-energy neutrino emission coincident with compact binary mergers observed by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave (GW) detectors during their first and second observing runs. We present results from two searches targeting emission coincident with the sky localization of each GW event within a 1000 s time window centered around the reported merger time. One search uses a model-independent unbinned maximum-likelihood analysis, which uses neutrino data from IceCube to search for pointlike neutrino sources consistent with the sky localization of GW events. The other uses the Low-Latency Algorithm for Multi-messenger Astrophysics, which incorporates astrophysical priors through a Bayesian framework and includes LIGO-Virgo detector characteristics to determine the association between the GW source and the neutrinos. No significant neutrino coincidence is seen by either search during the first two observing runs of the LIGO-Virgo detectors. We set upper limits on the time-integrated neutrino emission within the 1000 s window for each of the 11 GW events. These limits range from 0.02 to 0.7 . We also set limits on the total isotropic equivalent energy, E-iso, emitted in high-energy neutrinos by each GW event. These limits range from 1.7 x 10(51) to 1.8 x 10(55) erg. We conclude with an outlook for LIGO-Virgo observing run O3, during which both analyses are running in real time.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Search for Multi-flare Neutrino Emissions in 10 yr of IceCube Data from a Catalog of Sources
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : IOP Publishing Ltd. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 920:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A recent time-integrated analysis of a catalog of 110 candidate neutrino sources revealed a cumulative neutrino excess in the data collected by IceCube between 2008 April 6 and 2018 July 10. This excess, inconsistent with the background hypothesis in the Northern Hemisphere at the 3.3 sigma level, is associated with four sources: NGC 1068, TXS 0506+056, PKS 1424+240, and GB6 J1542+6129. This Letter presents two time-dependent neutrino emission searches on the same data sample and catalog: a point-source search that looks for the most significant time-dependent source of the catalog by combining space, energy, and time information of the events, and a population test based on binomial statistics that looks for a cumulative time-dependent neutrino excess from a subset of sources. Compared to previous time-dependent searches, these analyses enable a feature to possibly find multiple flares from a single direction with an unbinned maximum-likelihood method. M87 is found to be the most significant time-dependent source of this catalog at the level of 1.7 sigma post-trial, and TXS 0506+056 is the only source for which two flares are reconstructed. The binomial test reports a cumulative time-dependent neutrino excess in the Northern Hemisphere at the level of 3.0 sigma associated with four sources: M87, TXS 0506+056, GB6 J1542+6129, and NGC 1068.
  • Albert, A., et al. (författare)
  • Joint Constraints on Galactic Diffuse Neutrino Emission from the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 868:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The existence of diffuse Galactic neutrino production is expected from cosmic-ray interactions with Galactic gas and radiation fields. Thus, neutrinos are a unique messenger offering the opportunity to test the products of Galactic cosmic-ray interactions up to energies of hundreds of TeV. Here we present a search for this production using ten years of Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch (ANTARES) track and shower data, as well as seven years of IceCube track data. The data are combined into a joint likelihood test for neutrino emission according to the KRA(gamma) model assuming a 5 PeV per nucleon Galactic cosmic-ray cutoff. No significant excess is found. As a consequence, the limits presented in this Letter start constraining the model parameter space for Galactic cosmic-ray production and transport.
  • Ahrens, Maryon, et al. (författare)
  • Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 848:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of similar to 1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg(2) at a luminosity distance of 40(-8)(+8) Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M-circle dot. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at similar to 40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over similar to 10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position similar to 9 and similar to 16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.
  • Meech, K. J., et al. (författare)
  • EPOXI: Comet 103P/Hartley 2 Observations from a Worldwide Campaign
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - London : IOP. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 734:L1, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Earth- and space-based observations provide synergistic information for space mission encounters by providing data over longer timescales, at different wavelengths and using techniques that are impossible with an in situ flyby. We report here such observations in support of the EPOXI spacecraft flyby of comet 103P/Hartley 2. The nucleus is small and dark, and exhibited a very rapidly changing rotation period. Prior to the onset of activity, the period was ~16.4?hr. Starting in 2010 August the period changed from 16.6?hr to near 19?hr in December. With respect to dust composition, most volatiles and carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, the comet is similar to other Jupiter-family comets. What is unusual is the dominance of CO 2 -driven activity near perihelion, which likely persists out to aphelion. Near perihelion the comet nucleus was surrounded by a large halo of water-ice grains that contributed significantly to the total water production.
  • Neufeld, D. A., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel/HIFI Observations of IRC+10216: Water Vapor in the Inner Envelope of a Carbon-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Star
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 727:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the results of observations of 10 rotational transitions of water vapor toward the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star IRC+10216 (CW Leonis), carried out with Herschel's HIFI instrument. Each transition was securely detected by means of observations using the dual beam switch mode of HIFI. The measured line ratios imply that water vapor is present in the inner outflow at small distances (
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Probing the Magnetic Field in the GW170817 Outflow Using HESS Observations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 894:2, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The detection of the first electromagnetic counterpart to the binary neutron star (BNS) merger remnant GW170817 established the connection between short gamma-ray bursts and BNS mergers. It also confirmed the forging of heavy elements in the ejecta (a so-called kilonova) via the r-process nucleosynthesis. The appearance of nonthermal radio and X-ray emission, as well as the brightening, which lasted more than 100 days, were somewhat unexpected. Current theoretical models attempt to explain this temporal behavior as either originating from a relativistic off-axis jet or a kilonova-like outflow. In either scenario, there is some ambiguity regarding how much energy is transported in the nonthermal electrons versus the magnetic field of the emission region. Combining the Very Large Array (radio) and Chandra (X-ray) measurements with observations in the GeV-TeV domain can help break this ambiguity, almost independently of the assumed origin of the emission. Here we report for the first time on deep H.E.S.S. observations of GW170817/GRB 170817A between 124 and 272 days after the BNS merger with the full H.E.S.S. array of telescopes, as well as on an updated analysis of the prompt (<5 days) observations with the upgraded H.E.S.S. phase-I telescopes. We discuss implications of the H.E.S.S. measurement for the magnetic field in the context of different source scenarios.
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