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  • Brusselaers, Nele, et al. (författare)
  • Education level influences long-term survival after esophageal cancer surgery in a nationwide Swedish cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 2044-6055.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether a higher education level is associated with an improved long-term survival after oesophagectomy for cancer. Design: A prospective, population-based cohort study. Setting: Sweden—nationwide. Participants: 90% of all patients with oesophageal and cardia cancer who underwent a resection in Sweden in 2001–2005 were enrolled in this study (N=600; 80.3% male) and followed up until death or the end of the study period (2012). The study exposure was level of education, defined as compulsory (≤9 years), moderate (10–12 years) or high (≥13 years). Outcome measures: The main outcome measure was overall 5-year survival after oesophagectomy. Cox regression was used to estimate the associations between education level and mortality, expressed as HRs with 95% CIs, with adjustment for sex, age, tumour stage, histological type, complications, comorbidities and annual surgeon volume. The patient group with highest education was used as the reference category. Results: Among the 600 included patients, 281 (46.8%) had compulsory education, 238 (39.7%) had moderate education and 81 (13.5%) had high education. The overall 5-year survival rate was 23.1%, 24.4% and 32.1% among patients with compulsory, moderate and high education, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, a slightly higher, yet not statistically significantly increased point HR was found among the compulsory educated patients (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.47). In patients with tumour stage IV, increased adjusted HRs were found for compulsory (HR 2.88, 95% CI 1.07 to 7.73) and moderately (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.15 to 6.95) educated patients. No statistically significant associations were found for the other tumour stages. Conclusions: This study provides limited evidence of an association between lower education and worse longterm survival after oesophagectomy for cancer.
  • Lagergren, Jesper, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical implementation of a new antibiotic prophylaxis regimen for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open.. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 2044-6055.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test the extent to which a new antibiotic prophylaxis regimen for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), identified as a justified and simpler alternative to conventional regimen in a randomised clinical trial, has been adopted in clinical practice. DESIGN: A Swedish nationwide implementation survey, conducted in February 2013, assessed the level of clinical implementation of a 20 ml dose of oral solution of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim deposited in the PEG catheter immediately after insertion. All hospitals inserting at least five PEGs annually were identified from the Swedish Patient Registry. A clinician involved in the PEG insertions at each hospital participated in a structured telephone interview addressing their routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis. SETTING: All Swedish hospitals inserting PEGs (n=60). PARTICIPANTS: Representatives of PEG insertions at each of the 60 eligible hospitals participated (100% participation). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Use of routine antibiotic prophylaxis for PEG. RESULTS: A total of 32 (53%) of the 60 hospitals had adopted the new regimen. It was more frequently adopted in university hospitals (67%) than in community hospitals (41%). An annual total of 1813 (70%) of 2573 patients received the new regimen. Higher annual hospital volume was associated with a higher level of adoption of the new regimen (80% in the highest vs 31% in the lowest). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical implementation of the new antibiotic prophylaxis regimen for PEG was high and rapid (70% of all patients within 3 years), particularly in large hospitals.
  • Lagergren, Jesper, et al. (författare)
  • Weekday of oesophageal cancer surgery in relation to early postoperative outcomes in a nationwide Swedish cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 2044-6055.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Later weekday of surgery for oesophageal cancer seems to increase 5-year mortality, but the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesised that early postoperative reoperations and mortality might explain this association, since reoperation after oesophagectomy decreases long-term prognosis, and later weekday of elective surgery increases 30-day mortality. Design: This was a population-based cohort study during the study period 1987–2014. Setting: All Swedish hospitals conducting elective surgery for oesophageal cancer in Sweden. Participants: Included were 1748 patients, representing almost all (98%) patients who underwent elective surgery for oesophageal cancer in Sweden during 1987–2010, with follow-up until 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The risk of reoperation or mortality within 30 days of oesophageal cancer surgery was assessed in relation to weekday of surgery by calculating ORs with 95% CIs using multivariable logistic regression. ORs were adjusted for age, comorbidity, tumour stage, histology, neoadjuvant therapy and surgeon volume. Results: Surgery Wednesday to Friday did not increase the risk of reoperation or mortality compared with surgery Monday to Tuesday (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.31). A decreased point estimate of reoperation (OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.21) was counteracted by an increased point estimate of mortality (OR=1.28, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.99). ORs did not increase from Monday to Friday when each weekday was analysed separately. There was no association between weekday of surgery and reoperation specifically for anastomotic leak, laparotomy or wound infection. Stratification for surgeon volume did not reveal any clear associations between weekday of surgery and risk of 30-day reoperation or mortality. Conclusions: Weekday of oesophageal cancer surgery does not seem to influence the risk of reoperation or mortality within 30 days of surgery, and thus cannot explain the association between weekday of surgery and long-term prognosis.
  • Maret-Ouda, John, et al. (författare)
  • Cohort profile: The Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 2044-6055.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To describe a newly created all-Nordic cohort of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), entitled the Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo), which will be used to compare participants having undergone antireflux surgery with those who have not regarding risk of cancers, other diseases and mortality. PARTICIPANTS: Included were individuals with a GORD diagnosis recorded in any of the nationwide patient registries in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) in 1964-2014 (with various start and end years in different countries). Data regarding cancer, other diseases and mortality were retrieved from the nationwide registries for cancer, patients and causes of death, respectively. FINDINGS TO DATE: The NordASCo includes 945 153 individuals with a diagnosis of GORD. Of these, 48 433 (5.1%) have undergone primary antireflux surgery. Median age at primary antireflux surgery ranged from 47 to 52 years in the different countries. The coding practices of GORD seem to have differed between the Nordic countries. FUTURE PLANS: The NordASCo will initially be used to analyse the risk of developing known or potential GORD-related cancers, that is, tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, pharynx and lung, and to evaluate the mortality in the short-term and long-term perspectives. Additionally, the cohort will be used to evaluate the risk of non-malignant respiratory conditions that might be caused by aspiration of gastric contents.
  • Abbott, Allan, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of implementing a best practice primary healthcare model for low back pain (BetterBack) compared with current routine care in the Swedish context : an internal pilot study informed protocol for an effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 2 trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 8:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem commonly requiring healthcare. In Sweden, there is a call from healthcare practitioners (HCPs) for the development, implementation and evaluation of a best practice primary healthcare model for LBP.Aims (1) To improve and understand the mechanisms underlying changes in HCP confidence, attitudes and beliefs for providing best practice coherent primary healthcare for patients with LBP; (2) to improve and understand the mechanisms underlying illness beliefs, self-care enablement, pain, disability and quality of life in patients with LBP; and (3) to evaluate a multifaceted and sustained implementation strategy and the cost-effectiveness of the BetterBack☺ model of care (MOC) for LBP from the perspective of the Swedish primary healthcare context.Methods This study is an effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 2 trial testing the hypothesised superiority of the BetterBack☺ MOC compared with current routine care. The trial involves simultaneous testing of MOC effects at the HCP, patient and implementation process levels. This involves a prospective cohort study investigating implementation at the HCP level and a patient-blinded, pragmatic, cluster, randomised controlled trial with longitudinal follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months post baseline for effectiveness at the patient level. A parallel process and economic analysis from a healthcare sector perspective will also be performed. Patients will be allocated to routine care (control group) or the BetterBack☺ MOC (intervention group) according to a stepped cluster dogleg structure with two assessments in routine care. Experimental conditions will be compared and causal mediation analysis investigated. Qualitative HCP and patient experiences of the BetterBack☺ MOC will also be investigated.Dissemination The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. Further national dissemination and implementation in Sweden and associated national quality register data collection are potential future developments of the project.
  • Abe, Takafumi, et al. (författare)
  • Hilly environment and physical activity among community-dwelling older adults in Japan : a cross-sectional study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2044-6055. ; 10:3, s. 033338-033338
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) level and walking time were associated with a hilly environment in rural Japanese older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Unnan city, Ohnan and Okinoshima towns in Shimane, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from 1115 adults from the Shimane CoHRE study, who were aged 60 years and older and living in rural Japan in 2012. MEASURES: We measured the total time spent on MVPA and walking using a Japanese short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The land slope in 400 or 800 m network buffers was assessed using the geographic information system. A multivariable Poisson regression model examined the prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CIs of walking time or MVPA levels meeting the WHO guideline (>150 min/week) in the land slope categories (low, middle and high), adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Engaging in the recommended level of MVPA was significantly associated with middle land slope (PR=1.07; p=0.03) and high land slope (PR=1.06; p=0.07) compared with low land slope in the 400 m network buffer, as well as with middle land slope (PR=1.02; p=0.48) and high land slope (PR=1.04; p=0.25) compared with the low land slope in the 800 m network buffer. Walking time was significantly associated with middle land slope (PR=1.13; p=0.04) and high land slope (PR=1.17; p=0.01) compared with low land slope in the 400 m network buffer, and with middle land slope (PR=1.09; p=0.16) and high land slope (PR=1.17; p<0.01) compared with low land slope in the 800 m network buffer. The sensitivity analysis found only a positive association between walking time and land slope in the 400 and 800 m network buffers. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a hilly environment was positively associated with walking time among older adults living in rural Japan.
  • Abrahamsen, R., et al. (författare)
  • Association of respiratory symptoms and asthma with occupational exposures: findings from a population-based cross-sectional survey in Telemark, Norway
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bmj Open. - 2044-6055. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and physiciandiagnosed asthma and assess the impact of current occupational exposure. Design: Cross-sectional analyses of the prevalence of self-reported respiratory health and association with current occupational exposure in a random sample of the general population in Telemark County, Norway. Settings: In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16-50, in Telemark, Norway. The overall response rate was 33%, comprising 16 099 responders. Outcome measures: The prevalence for respiratory symptoms and asthma, and OR of respiratory symptoms and asthma for occupational groups and exposures were calculated. Occupational exposures were assessed using self-reported exposure and an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). Results: The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 11.5%. For the occupational groups, the category with agriculture/fishery workers and craft/related trade workers was associated with wheezing and asthma attack in the past 12 months, showing OR 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6) and 1.9 (1.2 to 2.8), respectively. The group including technicians and associated professionals was also associated with wheezing OR 1.2 (1.0 to 1.3) and asthma attack OR 1.4 (1.1 to 1.9). The JEM data show that exposure to flour was associated with wheezing OR 3.2 (1.4 to 7.3) and woken with dyspnoea OR 3.5 (1.3 to 9.5), whereas exposures to diisocyanates, welding/soldering fumes and exposure to vehicle/motor exhaust were associated with dyspnoea OR 2.9 (1.5 to 5.7), 3.2 (1.6 to 6.4) and 1.4 (1.0 to 1.8), respectively. Conclusions: The observed prevalence of physiciandiagnosed asthma was 11.5%. The 'manual' occupations were associated with respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to flour, diisocyanates, welding/soldering fumes and vehicle/motor exhaust was associated with respiratory symptoms in the past 12 months and use of asthma medication. However, prospective data are needed to confirm the observed associations.
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