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1.
  • Ott, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Lithium treatment, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and the risk of hypernatraemia : a retrospective cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. - : Sage Publications. - 2045-1253 .- 2045-1261. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Hypernatraemia is a serious condition that can potentially become life threatening. It is known that lithium is associated with polyuria and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, risk factors for hypernatraemia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lithium treatment was a risk factor for hypernatraemia.Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in the Swedish region of Norrbotten into the effects and potential adverse effects of lithium treatment and other mood stabilizers (LiSIE). For this particular study, we included all patients who had experienced at least one episode with a sodium concentration > 150 mmol/L between 1997 and 2013. Medical records were reviewed regarding past or current lithium exposure, diabetes insipidus and other potential risk factors for hypernatraemia.Results: Of 2463 patients included, 185 (7.5%) had experienced 204 episodes of hypernatraemia within the 17-year review period. In patients 65 years or older, infections dominated as the cause with 51%. In patients younger than 65 years, intoxications, particularly with alcohol, dominated as the cause with 35%. In the whole sample, dehydration accounted for 12% of episodes, 25% of which in the context of suspected or confirmed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Of all episodes, 25% resulted in death, with infection being the most common cause of death in 62% of cases.Conclusions: In our sample, infections and harmful use of substances including alcohol were the most common causes of hypernatraemia. Both current and past use of lithium also led to episodes of hypernatraemia, when associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Clinicians should remain vigilant, have a low threshold for checking sodium concentrations and consider even risk factors for hypernatraemia beyond lithium.
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2.
  • Ott, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Management of severe arterial hypertension associated with serotonin syndrome : a case report analysis based on systematic review techniques
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. - : Sage Publications. - 2045-1253 .- 2045-1261. ; 9, s. 1-32
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serotonin syndrome is thought to arise from serotonin excess. In many cases, symptoms are mild and self-limiting. But serotonin syndrome can become life threatening, when neuromuscular hyperexcitability spins out of control. Uncontainable neuromuscular hyperexcitability may lead to cardiovascular complications, linked to extreme changes in blood pressure. Currently, there is little guidance on how to control blood pressure in hyperserotonergic states. We report a case with treatment-resistant arterial hypertension, followed by a clinical review (using systematic review principles and techniques) of the available evidence from case reports published between 2004 and 2016 to identify measures to control arterial hypertension associated with serotonin syndrome. We conclude that classic antihypertensives may not be effective for the treatment of severe hypertension associated with serotonin syndrome. Benzodiazepines may lower blood pressure. Patients with severe hypertension not responding to benzodiazepines may benefit from cyproheptadine, propofol or both. In severe cases, higher cyproheptadine doses than currently recommended may be necessary.
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3.
  • Ott, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Wernicke's encephalopathy - from basic science to clinical practice. Part 1 : Understanding the role of thiamine
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. - : Sage Publications. - 2045-1253 .- 2045-1261. ; 10
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neuropsychiatric state. Untreated, WE can lead to coma or death, or progress to Korsakoff syndrome (KS) - a dementia characterized by irreversible loss of anterograde memory. Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency lies at the heart of this condition. Yet, our understanding of thiamine regarding prophylaxis and treatment of WE remains limited. This may contribute to the current undertreatment of WE in clinical practice. The overall aim of this review is to identify the best strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of WE in regard to (a) dose of thiamine, (b) mode of administration, (c) timing of switch from one mode of administration to another, (d) duration of administration, and (e) use of magnesium along thiamine as an essential cofactor. Evidence from randomized controlled trials and other intervention studies is virtually absent. Therefore, we have to resort to basic science for proof of principle instead. Here, we present the first part of our clinical review, in which we explore the physiology of thiamine and the pathophysiology of thiamine deficiency. We first explore both of these in their historical context. We then review the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of thiamine, exploring the roles of the six currently known thiamine compounds, their transporters, and target enzymes. We also explore the significance of magnesium as a cofactor in thiamine-facilitated enzymatic reactions and thiamine transport. In the second (forthcoming) part of this review, we will use the findings of the current review to make evidence-based inferences about strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of WE.
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4.
  • Öhlund, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour in patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder after initiation of central stimulant treatment : a mirror-image study based on the LiSIE retrospective cohort
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. - : Sage Publications. - 2045-1253 .- 2045-1261. ; 10, s. 1-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Currently, our understanding regarding treatment of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) co-occurring with bipolar disorder (BD) remains limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of central stimulant (CS) treatment on suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour in patients with a pre-existing diagnosis of BD or schizoaffective disorder (SZD). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that CS treatment significantly decreased the number of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury events.Methods: A mirror-image study in patients with a dual diagnosis of BD or SZD and ADHD, comparing suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury events within 6 months and 2 years before and after CS initiation. This study was part of a retrospective cohort study (LiSIE) into effects and side-effects of lithium for maintenance treatment of BD as compared with other mood stabilisers.Results: Of 1564 eligible patients, 206 patients met the inclusion criteria. Within the 6 months after CS initiation, suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury events decreased significantly, both in terms of numbers of patients having such events (p = 0.013) and numbers of events experienced (p = 0.004). These effects were preserved 2 years after CS initiation.Conclusions: CS treatment may reduce the risk of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury events in patients with a dual diagnosis of BD or SZD and ADHD. Based on our findings, clinicians should not withhold CS treatment from patients with concomitant ADHD for fear of deterioration of the underlying BD. However, to minimise the risk of manic episodes concomitant mood stabiliser treatment and close monitoring remains warranted.
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10.
  • Reimers, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • The emerging role of omega-3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option in neuropsychiatric disorders
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology. - : SAGE Publications. - 2045-1253. ; 9
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of neurologic and psychiatric diseases has been increasing for decades and, given the moderate therapeutic efficacy and safety profile of existing pharmacological treatments, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches. Nutrition has recently been recognized as an important factor for the prevention and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) play critical roles in neuronal cell function and neurotransmission as well as inflammatory and immune reactions that are involved in neuropsychiatric disease states. A large number of experimental and epidemiological studies provide a strong basis for interventional clinical trials that assessed the clinical efficacy of n-3 PUFAs in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Most of these trials found beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with EPA and DHA, and no serious safety concerns have emerged. This review gives an introduction to recent findings on the clinical efficacy of n-3 PUFAs in various neuropsychiatric disorders and the underlying biochemical mechanisms. In addition, the reader will be enabled to identify common methodological weaknesses of clinical studies on n-3 PUFAs, and suggestions for the design of future studies are given.
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