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  • Aasebö, Kristine Ö., et al. (författare)
  • Consequences of a high incidence of microsatellite instability and BRAF-mutated tumors : A population-based cohort of metastatic colorectal cancer patients
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - : WILEY. - 2045-7634 .- 2045-7634. ; 8:7, s. 3623-3635
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Immunotherapy for patients with microsatellite-instable (MSI-H) tumors or BRAF-inhibitors combination treatment for BRAF-mutated (mutBRAF) tumors in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is promising, but the frequency of these molecular changes in trial patients are low. Unselected population-based studies of these molecular changes are warranted.Methods: A population-based cohort of 798 mCRC patients in Scandinavia was studied. Patient and molecular tumor characteristics, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated.Results: Here, 40/583 (7%) tumor samples were MSI-H and 120/591 (20%) were mutBRAF; 87% of MSI-H tumors were mutBRAF (non-Lynch). Elderly (>75 years) had more often MSI-H (10% vs 6%) and MSI-H/mutBRAF (9% vs 4%) tumors. Response rate (5% vs 44%), PFS (4 vs 8 months), and OS (9 vs 18 months) after first-line chemotherapy was all significantly lower in patients with MSI-H compared to patients with microsatellite stable tumors. MSI-H and mutBRAF were both independent poor prognostic predictors for OS (P = 0.049, P < 0.001) and PFS (P = 0.045, P = 0.005) after first-line chemotherapy. Patients with MSI-H tumors received less second-line chemotherapy (15% vs 37%, P = 0.005).Conclusions: In unselected mCRC patients, MSI-H and mutBRAF cases were more common than previously reported. Patients with MSI-H tumors had worse survival, less benefit from chemotherapy, and they differed considerably from recent third-line immunotherapy trial patients as they were older and most had mutBRAF tumor (non-Lynch).
  • Abolhalaj, Milad, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptional profiling demonstrates altered characteristics of CD8 + cytotoxic T-cells and regulatory T-cells in TP53-mutated acute myeloid leukemia
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2045-7634.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients have limited effect from T-cell-based therapies, such as PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade. However, recent data indicate that AML patients with TP53 mutation have higher immune infiltration and other immunomodulatory therapies could thus potentially be effective. Here, we performed the transcriptional analysis of distinct T-cell subpopulations from TP53-mutated AML to identify gene expression signatures suggestive of altered functional properties.Methods: CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), conventional helper T cells (Th), and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were sorted from peripheral blood of AML patients with TP53 mutation (n = 5) and healthy donors (n = 3), using FACS, and the different subpopulations were subsequently subjected to RNA-sequencing. Differentially expressed genes were identified and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to outline altered pathways and exhaustion status. Also, expression levels for a set of genes encoding established and emerging immuno-oncological targets were defined.Results: The results showed altered transcriptional profiles for each of the T-cell subpopulations from TP53-mutated AML as compared to control subjects. IFN-α and IFN-γ signaling were stronger in TP53-mutated AML for both CTLs and Tregs. Furthermore, in TP53-mutated AML as compared to healthy controls, Tregs showed gene expression signatures suggestive of metabolic adaptation to their environment, whereas CTLs exhibited features of exhaustion/dysfunction with a stronger expression of TIM3 as well as enrichment of a gene set related to exhaustion.Conclusions: The results provide insights on mechanisms underlying the inadequate immune response to leukemic cells in TP53-mutated AML and open up for further exploration toward novel treatment regimens for these patients.
  • Amirian, E. Susan, et al. (författare)
  • History of chickenpox in glioma risk : a report from the glioma international case-control study (GICC)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - 2045-7634 .- 2045-7634. ; 5:6, s. 1352-1358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alpha-herpesvirus that causes chickenpox and establishes life-long latency in the cranial nerve and dorsal root ganglia of the host. To date, VZV is the only virus consistently reported to have an inverse association with glioma. The Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC) is a large, multisite consortium with data on 4533 cases and 4171 controls collected across five countries. Here, we utilized the GICC data to confirm the previously reported associations between history of chickenpox and glioma risk in one of the largest studies to date on this topic. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling, we found that a positive history of chickenpox was associated with a 21% lower glioma risk, adjusting for age and sex (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.65-0.96). Furthermore, the protective effect of chickenpox was stronger for high-grade gliomas. Our study provides additional evidence that the observed protective effect of chickenpox against glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. Future studies, including meta-analyses of the literature and investigations of the potential biological mechanism, are warranted.
  • Andersson, Charlotta, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic significance of specific anti-WT1 IgG antibody level in plasma in patients with ovarian carcinoma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - 2045-7634 .- 2045-7634. ; 3:4, s. 909-918
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ovarian carcinoma (OC) has a poor prognosis and lack early effective screening markers. Wilm's tumor gene 1 (WT1) is overexpressed in OCs. Therefore, it is of great interest to investigate whether WT1-specific antibody (Ab) measurements in plasma can serve as a biomarker of anti-OC response, and is of importance in relation to patient prognosis. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from a total of 103 women with ovarian tumors with median being 1 day (range 0-48 days) before operation. WT1 IgG Ab levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunohistochemical analysis of WT1 protein expression was performed on OC tissue samples. We found that low-WT1 Ab level in plasma was related to improved survival in patients diagnosed at stages III-IV and grade 3 carcinomas. Positive WT1 protein staining on OC tissue samples had a negative impact on survival in the entire cohort, both overall survival (OS) (P = 0.046) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.006), but not in the serous OC subtype. Combining WT1 IgG Ab levels and WT1 staining, patients with high-WT1 IgG Ab levels in plasma and positive WT1 protein staining in cancer tissues had shorter survival, with a significant association in PFS (P = 0.016). These results indicated that WT1 Ab measurements in plasma and WT1 staining in tissue specimens could be useful as biomarkers for patient outcome in the high-risk subtypes of OCs for postoperative individualized therapy.
  • Arthur, Rhonda, et al. (författare)
  • Association between baseline serum glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol, and prostate cancer risk categories
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - 2045-7634 .- 2045-7634. ; 5:6, s. 1307-1318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lifestyle-related risk factors such as hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia have been associated with several cancers. However, studies exploring their link with prostate cancer (PCa) clinicopathological characteristics are sparse and inconclusive. Here, we investigated the associations between serum metabolic markers and PCa clinicopathological characteristics. The study comprised 14,294 men from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) cohort who were diagnosed with PCa between 1996 and 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to investigate the relation between glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol and PCa risk categories, PSA, Gleason score, and T-stage. Mean age at time of PCa diagnosis was 69 years. Men with glucose levels >6.9 mmol/L tend to have PSA<4 mu g/L, while those with glucose levels of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L had a greater odds of PSA>20 mu g/L compared to PSA 4.0-9.9 mu g/L. Hypertriglyceridemia was also positively associated with PSA>20 mu g/L. Hyperglycemic men had a greater odds of intermediate-and high-grade PCa and advanced stage or metastatic PCa. Similarly, hypertriglyceridemia was positively associated with high-grade PCa. There was also a trend toward an increased odds of intermediate risk localized PCa and advanced stage PCa among men with hypertriglyceridemia. Total cholesterol did not have any statistically significant association with any of the outcomes studied. Our findings suggest that high serum levels of glucose and triglycerides may influence PCa aggressiveness and severity. Further investigation on the role of markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in influencing PCa aggressiveness and severity is needed as this may help define important targets for intervention.
  • Biccler, Jorne, et al. (författare)
  • Simplicity at the cost of predictive accuracy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma : A critical assessment of the R-IPI, IPI, and NCCN-IPI
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2045-7634. ; 7:1, s. 114-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The international prognostic index (IPI) and similar models form the cornerstone of clinical assessment in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While being simple and convenient to use, their inadequate use of the available clinical data is a major weakness. In this study, we compared performance of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and its variations (R-IPI and NCCN-IPI) to a Cox proportional hazards (CPH) model using the same covariates in nondichotomized form. All models were tested in 4863 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients from population-based Nordic registers. The CPH model led to a substantial increase in predictive accuracy as compared to conventional prognostic scores when evaluated by the area under the curve and other relevant tests. Furthermore, the generation of patient-specific survival curves rather than assigning patients to one of few predefined risk groups is a relevant step toward personalized management and treatment. A test-version is available on lymphomapredictor.org.
  • Bozoky, Benedek, et al. (författare)
  • Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - 2045-7634 .- 2045-7634. ; 3:3, s. 485-491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor.
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