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  • Achtert, Peggy, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Hygroscopic growth of tropospheric particle number size distributions over the North China Plain
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 114, s. D00G07-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric submicrometer particle size distributions (diameter D-p ranging from 22 to 900 nm) was studied at a rural/suburban site in the North China Plain within the framework of the international Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006) research project. The goal was to characterize the regional aerosol in the polluted northeastern plain in China. Size descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DHGFs) were determined as a function of relative humidity (RH) by relating the particle number size distribution at a dry condition ( 100 nm), the DHGF are substantially higher than in the Aitken particle mode (D-p < 100 nm) as a result of different chemical composition. The size-dependent behavior of the DHGF highlights the relevance of particulate sulfate production over the North China Plain, accomplished by secondary formation from the gas phase and, potentially, liquid phase processes in convective clouds. Furthermore, all results concerning the DHGF show a significant dependency on meteorological air masses. The hygroscopic growth of accumulation mode particles correlates significantly with the PM1-mass fraction of sulfate ions determined by chemical analysis. Finally, this investigation provides a parameterization of the hygroscopic growth of 250-nm particles, which might be useful when predicting visibility and radiative forcing and performing atmospheric aerosol model validations.
  • Achtert, Peggy, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of polar stratospheric clouds in January 2008 by means of ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements and microphysical box model simulations
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 116, s. D07201-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in heterogeneous chemistry and ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere. The type of PSC as well as their temporal and spatial extent are important for the occurrence of heterogeneous reactions and, thus, ozone depletion. In this study a combination of ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements were used together with microphysical box model simulations along back trajectories to investigate the formation and alteration of Arctic PSCs. The measurements were made by the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar system at Esrange and by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite. Between 20 and 23 January 2008 PSCs composed of liquid particles were observed by CALIPSO between Greenland and the western side of the Scandinavian Mountains. Between 21 and 23 January 2008 the Esrange lidar observed a PSC composed of distinct layers of liquid and solid particles on the eastern side of the mountain range. Microphysical box model simulations along air parcel back trajectories indicate that liquid particles had formed at least 40 h before the observation at Esrange. Furthermore, the model indicates a high HNO(3) uptake into the liquid layer between 10 and 20 h before the observation. The PSC was formed when the air mass was over Greenland. On two occasions during these 20 h, CALIPSO observed PSCs when its measurement tracks crossed the air parcel back trajectory ending at the location of the Esrange lidar. Backscatter ratios calculated from the output of the box model simulation indicate good agreement with the values observed with the Esrange lidar and by CALIPSO. The box model simulations along the back trajectories from Esrange to the CALIPSO ground track and beyond provide us with the unique opportunity to relate ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements that were not performed at the same spatial location and time. Furthermore, possible differences in the observations from ground and space can be traced to temporal and/or geographically induced changes in particle microphysics within the measured PSCs.
  • Adriani, O., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of quasi-trapped electron and positron fluxes with PAMELA
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 114, s. A12218-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents precise measurements of the differential energy spectra of quasi-trapped secondary electrons and positrons and their ratio between 80 MeV and 10 GeV in the near-equatorial region (altitudes between 350 km and 600 km). Latitudinal dependences of the spectra are analyzed in detail. The results were obtained from July until November 2006 onboard the Resurs-DK satellite by the PAMELA spectrometer, a general purpose cosmic ray detector system built around a permanent magnet spectrometer and a silicon-tungsten calorimeter.
  • Agapitov, Oleksiy, et al. (författare)
  • Multispacecraft observations of chorus emissions as a tool for the plasma density fluctuations' remote sensing
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 116, s. A09222-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Discrete ELF/VLF chorus emissions are the most intense electromagnetic plasma waves that are observed in the radiation belts and in the outer magnetosphere of the Earth. They are assumed to propagate approximately along the magnetic field lines and are generated in source regions in the vicinity of the magnetic equator and in minimum B pockets in the dayside outer zone of the magnetosphere. The presence of plasma density irregularities along the raypath causes a loss of phase coherence of the chorus wave packets. These irregularities are often present around the plasmapause and in the radiation belts; they occur at scales ranging from a few meters up to several hundred kilometers and can be highly anisotropic. Such irregularities result in fluctuations of the dielectric permittivity, whose statistical properties can be studied making use of intersatellite correlations of whistler waves' phases and amplitudes. We demonstrate how the whistler-mode wave properties can be used to infer statistical characteristics of the density fluctuations. The analogy between weakly coupled oscillators under the action of uncorrelated random forces and wave propagation in a randomly fluctuating medium is used to determine the wave phase dependence on the duration of signal recording time. We study chorus whistler-mode waves observed by the Cluster WBD instrument and apply intersatellite correlation analysis to determine the statistical characteristics of the waveform phases and amplitudes. We then infer the statistical characteristics of the plasma density fluctuations and evaluate the spatial distribution of the irregularities using the same chorus events observed by the four Cluster spacecraft.
  • Aikio, A T, et al. (författare)
  • On the origin of the high-altitude electric field fluctuations in the auroral zone
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 101:A12, s. 27157-27170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intense fluctuations in the electric field at high altitudes in the auroral zone are frequently measured by the Viking satellite. We have made an analysis of the origin of electric and magnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of 0.1 - 1 Hz by assuming four different sources for the signals: (I) spatial structures, (2) spatial structures with a parallel potential drop below the satellite, (3) traveling; shear Alfven waves, and (4) interfering shear Alfven waves. We will shaw that these different sources of the signals may produce similar amplitude ratios and phase differences between the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. Since the different sources have different frequency dependencies, this can be used as an additional test if the signals are broadband. In other cases, additional information is needed, for example, satellite particle measurements or ground; magnetic measurements. The ideas presented in the theory were tested for one Viking eveningside pass over Scandinavia, where ground-based magnetometer and EISCAT radar measurements were available. The magnetic conditions were active during this pass and several interfering shear Alfven waves were found. Also, a spatial structure with a parallel potential drop below the satellite was identified. The magnitude of the 10-km-wide potential drop was at least 2 kV and the upward field-aligned current 26 mu A m(-2) (value mapped to the ionospheric level). The held-aligned conductance was estimated as 1.3 - 2.2x10(-8) S m(-2).
  • Aires, F., et al. (författare)
  • Microwave hyperspectral measurements for temperature and humidity atmospheric profiling from satellite: The clear-sky case
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202 .- 2169-897X .- 2169-8996. ; 120:21, s. 11334-11351
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigates the benefits of a satellite HYperspectral Microwave Sensor (HYMS) for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, in the context of numerical weather prediction (NWP). In the infrared, hyperspectral instruments have already improved the accuracy of NWP forecasts. Microwave instruments so far only provide observations for a limited number of carefully selected channels. An information content analysis is conducted here to assess the impact of hyperspectral microwave measurements on the retrieval of temperature and water vapor profiles under clear-sky conditions. It uses radiative transfer simulations over a large variety of atmospheric situations. It accounts for realistic observation (instrument and radiative transfer) noise and for a priori information assumptions compatible with NWP practices. The estimated retrieval performance of the HYMS instrument is compared to those of the microwave instruments to be deployed on board the future generation of European operational meteorological satellites (MetOp-SG). The results confirm the positive impact of a HYMS instrument on the atmospheric profiling capabilities compared to MetOp-SG. Temperature retrieval uncertainty, compared to a priori information, is reduced by 2 to 10%, depending on the atmospheric height, and improvement rates are much higher than what will be obtained with MetOp-SG. For humidity sounding these improvements can reach 30%, a significant benefit as compared to MetOp-SG results especially below 250 hPa. The results are not very sensitive to the instrument noise, under our assumptions. The main impact provided by the hyperspectral information originates from the higher resolution in the O2 band around 60 GHz. The results are presented over ocean at nadir, but similar conclusions are obtained for other incidence angles and over land. Key Points A hyperspectral MW instrument could improve temperature & humidity retrieval compared to MetOp-SG The main impact from HYMS comes from higher resolution in the O2 band around 60 GHz Hyperspectral information is not really sensitive to instrument noise.
  • Akkermans, T., et al. (författare)
  • Validation and comparison of two soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models for tropical Africa
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2156-2202. ; 117, s. 02013-02013
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aims to compare and validate two soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) schemes: TERRA-ML and the Community Land Model (CLM). Both SVAT schemes are run in standalone mode (decoupled from an atmospheric model) and forced with meteorological in-situ measurements obtained at several tropical African sites. Model performance is quantified by comparing simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes with eddy-covariance measurements. Our analysis indicates that the Community Land Model corresponds more closely to the micrometeorological observations, reflecting the advantages of the higher model complexity and physical realism. Deficiencies in TERRA-ML are addressed and its performance is improved: (1) adjusting input data (root depth) to region-specific values (tropical evergreen forest) resolves dry-season underestimation of evapotranspiration; (2) adjusting the leaf area index and albedo (depending on hard-coded model constants) resolves overestimations of both latent and sensible heat fluxes; and (3) an unrealistic flux partitioning caused by overestimated superficial water contents is reduced by adjusting the hydraulic conductivity parameterization. CLM is by default more versatile in its global application on different vegetation types and climates. On the other hand, with its lower degree of complexity, TERRA-ML is much less computationally demanding, which leads to faster calculation times in a coupled climate simulation.
  • Al-Wardy, W, et al. (författare)
  • Effective stress law for the permeability of clay-rich sandstones
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 109:4, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two models of clay-rich sandstones are analyzed to explain the relative sensitivity ofpermeability to pore pressure and confining pressure. In one model the clay lines the entire pore wall in a layer of uniform thickness, and in the second model the clay is distributed in the form of particles that are only weakly coupled to the pore walls. Equations of elasticity and fluid flow are solved for both models, giving expressions for theeffective stress coefficients in terms of clay content and the elastic moduli of the rock andclay. Both models predict that the permeability will be much more sensitive to changes in pore pressure than to changes in confining pressure. The clay particle model gives somewhat better agreement with data from the literature and with new data on a Staintonsandstone having a solid volume fraction of 8% clay. 
  • Alm, Love, et al. (författare)
  • Electron density and parallel electric field distribution of the auroral density cavity
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - : American Geophysical Union (AGU). - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 120:11, s. 9428-9441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present an event study in which Cluster satellites C1 and C3 encounters the flux tube of a stable auroral arc in the pre-midnight sector. C1 observes the mid cavity, while C3 enters the flux tube of the auroral arc at an altitude which is below the acceleration region, before crossing into the top half of the acceleration region. This allows us to study the boundary between the ionosphere and the density cavity, as well as large portion of the upper density cavity. The position of the two satellites, in relation to the acceleration region, is described using a pseudo altitude derived from the distribution of the parallel potential drop above and below the satellites.The electron density exhibits an anti-correlation with the pseudo altitude, indicating that the lowest electron densities are found near the top of the density cavity. Over the entire pseudo altitude range, the electron density distribution is similar to a planar sheath, formed out of a plasma sheet dominated electron distribution, in response to the parallel electric field of the acceleration region. This indicates that the parallel electric fields on the ionosphere-cavity boundary, as well as the mid cavity parallel electric fields, are part of one unified structure rather than two discrete entities.The results highlight the strong connection between the auroral density cavity and auroral acceleration as well as the necessity of studying them in a unified fashion.
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