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  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical brain structure and sexual orientation in adult females with bipolar disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - : Wiley. - 2162-3279 .- 2162-3279. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Nonheterosexual individuals have higher risk of psychiatric morbidity. Together with growing evidence for sexual orientation‐related brain differences, this raises the concern that sexual orientation may be an important factor to control for in neuroimaging studies of neuropsychiatric disorders.Methods: We studied sexual orientation in adult psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or ADHD in a large clinical cohort (N = 154). We compared cortical brain structure in exclusively heterosexual women (HEW, n = 29) with that of nonexclusively heterosexual women (nHEW, n = 37) using surface‐based reconstruction techniques provided by FreeSurfer.Results: The prevalence of nonheterosexual sexual orientation was tentatively higher than reported in general population samples. Consistent with previously reported cross‐sex shifted brain patterns among homosexual individuals, nHEW patients showed significantly larger cortical volumes than HEW in medial occipital brain regions.Conclusion: We found evidence for a sex‐reversed difference in cortical volume among nonheterosexual female patients, which provides insights into the neurobiology of sexual orientation, and may provide the first clues toward a better neurobiological understanding of the association between sexual orientation and mental health. We also suggest that sexual orientation is an important factor to consider in future neuroimaging studies of populations with certain mental health disorders.
  • Adebäck, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Children or adolescents who lost someone close during the Southeast Asia tsunami 2004 – The life as young
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - Oxford, United Kingdom : John Wiley & Sons. - 2162-3279 .- 2162-3279. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: To lose a person close suddenly, during childhood or adolescence, can be devastating. Many children or adolescents experienced the 2004 Indonesian tsunami when they were between 10- and 15-years-old. This study, from Stockholm, Sweden, describes the long-term effects of loss, eight- or nine-years post disaster, in young adulthood.Method: A mixed-method approach was used including statistical analyses (n = 210) and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA).Results: It was shown that there was a significant difference between bereaved (n=34) and nonbereaved (n = 176) respondents concerning, psychological distress, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and self-rated health. Three themes were found by using the IPA approach (n=9): Living in traumas, carrying heavy baggage, and living with change.Conclusion: The respondents described personal feelings of grief that are not expressed in their outward appearance or behavior in their daily living. When meeting young adults that have lost someone close in childhood or adolescence, this is important to have in mind.
  • Aesoy, M. S., et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology of persistent iatrogenic spinal cord injuries in Western Norway
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - : Wiley. - 2162-3279. ; 6:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Iatrogenic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) caused by invasive procedures or surgical interventions have previously been reported as case studies. The primary objective of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence, etiology, and prognosis of iatrogenic SCI in Western Norway. Methods: Medical records of all 183 patients admitted to the SCU between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2013 were reviewed. Gender, age, diagnosis, iatrogenic medical procedure, symptoms and findings before and after injury, mechanism of injury, level of injury, and ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) score prior iatrogenic SCI, at admittance and discharge were recorded, as were the length of the period prior to admittance and the length of stay. Results: Twenty-three (12.5%; 14 men, nine women) of 183 patients met the criteria for iatrogenic SCI. The annual incidence rate was estimated 2,3 per 1,000,000 (SD +/-1.0). Mean age at iatrogenic SCI was 55.5 years (range 16-79 years). Intervention for cervical spinal stenosis was the leading cause of iatrogenic SCI, followed by operations on the aorta and spine. Iatrogenic SCIs was most frequently located on the thoracic level. The patients suffered from clinical incomplete injuries (AIS score C and D) both at admittance and discharge from the SCU. Most patients improved, but no patient recovered completely after SCI. Conclusion: Although the annual incidence rate of iatrogenic SCI is low in Norway, individual consequences are serious. Increased awareness of the causes of SCI may decrease the risk of iatrogenic SCI.
  • Alghadir, Ahmad H., et al. (författare)
  • Can jaw position affect the fine motor activity of the hand during writing?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2162-3279 .- 2162-3279. ; 10:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Jaw and neck systems have been shown to be functionally related and changes in either system can modulate gross motor functions, such as posture control. It remains to be seen if any change in jaw position can affect fine motor skills. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of resting, open and clenched jaw positions on various handwriting parameters while standing on firm and unstable surfaces.Methods: Handwriting samples were collected from 36 healthy male participants (age, 15-35 years) using a digitizer tablet (WACOM Intuos 4) with noninking pen in the resting, open and clenched jaw positions while standing on firm and unstable surfaces. The measured handwriting parameters included duration, vertical size, horizontal size, absolute size, average absolute velocity, and absolute jerk. Recordings and analyses were performed using NeuroScript MovAlyzeR software.Results: All handwriting parameters varied among the resting, open, and clenched jaw positions on both the firm and unstable surfaces. However, based on statistical analyses, there were no significant differences in the handwriting parameters among three jaw positions on both surfaces (p > .05).Conclusion: This study revealed that all handwriting parameters varied among the resting, open, and clenched jaw positions on both the firm and unstable surfaces, showing that change in the jaw motor system may potentially affect the fine motor skills. However, on statistical analysis, there was no significant effect of 3 studied jaw positions on fine motor skills as seen on gross motor skills among healthy individuals.
  • Alsholm, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • - Interrupted transport by the emergency medical service in stroke/transitory ischemic attack: A consequence of changed treatment routines in prehospital emergency care
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - : Wiley. - 2162-3279. ; 9:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • - Background: The discovery that not all patients who call for the emergency medical service (EMS) require transport to hospital has changed the structure of prehospital emergency care. Today, the EMS clinician at the scene already distinguishes patients with a time-critical condition such as stroke/transitory ischemic attack (TIA) from patients without. This highlights the importance of the early identification of stroke/TIA. Aim: To describe patients with a final diagnosis of stroke/TIA whose transport to hospital was interrupted either due to a lack of suspicion of the disease by the EMS crew or due to refusal by the patient or a relative/friend. Methods: Data were obtained from a register in Gothenburg, covering patients hospitalised due to a final diagnosis of stroke/TIA. The inclusion criterion was that patients were assessed by the EMS but were not directly transported to hospital by the EMS. Results: Among all the patients who were assessed by the EMS nurse and subsequently diagnosed with stroke or TIA in 2015, the transport of 34 of 1,310 patients (2.6%) was interrupted. Twenty-five of these patients, of whom 20 had a stroke and five had a TIA, are described in terms of initial symptoms and outcome. The majority had residual symptoms at discharge from hospital. Initial symptoms were vertigo/disturbed balance in 11 of 25 cases. Another three had symptoms perceived as a change in personality and three had a headache. Conclusion: From this pilot study, we hypothesise that a fraction of patients with stroke/TIA who call for the EMS have their direct transport to hospital interrupted due to a lack of suspicion of the disease by the EMS nurse at the scene. These patients appear to have more vague symptoms including vertigo and disturbed balance. Instruments to identify these patients at the scene are warranted. © 2019 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Aniszewska, Agata, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling Parkinson's disease-related symptoms in alpha-synuclein overexpressing mice
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2162-3279 .- 2162-3279. ; 12:7
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Intracellular deposition of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is a central event in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other alpha-synucleinopathies. Transgenic mouse models overexpressing human alpha-syn, are useful research tools in preclinical studies of pathogenetic mechanisms. Such mice develop alpha-syn inclusions as well as neurodegeneration with a topographical distribution that varies depending on the choice of promoter and which form of alpha-syn that is overexpressed. Moreover, they display motor symptoms and cognitive disturbances that to some extent resemble the human conditions.Purpose: One of the main motives for assessing behavior in these mouse models is to evaluate the potential of new treatment strategies, including their impact on motor and cognitive symptoms. However, due to a high within-group variability with respect to such features, the behavioral studies need to be applied with caution. In this review, we discuss how to make appropriate choices in the experimental design and which tests that are most suitable for the evaluation of PD-related symptoms in such studies.Methods: We have evaluated published results on two selected transgenic mouse models overexpressing wild type (L61) and mutated (A30P) alpha-syn in the context of their validity and utility for different types of behavioral studies.Conclusions: By applying appropriate behavioral tests, alpha-syn transgenic mouse models provide an appropriate experimental platform for studies of symptoms related to PD and other alpha-synucleinopathies.
  • Atalan, Pelin, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of mobility restrictions on post-stroke pain
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Brain and behavior. - : Wiley. - 2162-3279. ; 11:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study was to investigate the role of mobility limitations and vitality, as well as additional factors such as comorbidities, to predict post-stroke pain.This study included cross-sectional data from 214 participants living in varied settings in different parts of Sweden. Participants were asked to complete the Stroke Impact Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, and Self-administered Comorbidity Questionnaire to evaluate mobility, vitality, comorbidities, and pain. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic and clinical characteristics. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the pain domain score on Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36.The mean age of all participants in the sample was 66 years (SD 14); 43.4% of the study population were women. After analyses, "standing without losing balance and vitality'' were found to be significant predictors in the model which explained the pain score on Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36.In conclusion, the results suggest that restrictions in mobility and low vitality have an important role on the occurrence of post-stroke pain. Having post-stroke pain could be due to not able to stand without losing balance and low vitality. Thus, rehabilitation professionals may consider the importance of these factors, especially mobility restrictions, in preventing post-stroke pain.
  • Attieh, Randa, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of the Canadian French version of the fear of COVID-19 scale in the general population of Quebec
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2162-3279 .- 2162-3279. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to develop a Canadian French translation of the fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S) and assess its psychometric characteristics.MethodsA forward and backtranslation process was conducted for the Canadian French version of the FCV-19S. The guidance of the ISPOR task force for translation and cultural adaptation was followed and cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with six citizens. The final proofread Canadian French FCV-19S was then administered to a large sample of citizens from the province of Quebec in Canada through an online survey. A quota sampling was conducted in 2020. Respondents from the survey also completed the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE)-6D and the Sense of Coherence (SOC-3) questionnaires. Several psychometric tests were performed to investigate the reliability (internal consistency) and validity of the Canadian French FCV-19S, including construct validity, concurrent validity, and Rasch analysis.ResultsThe translation process was conducted without any major difficulties. The cognitive debriefing interviews led to no change in the reconciled translation. The survey collected answers from 3428 citizens. Results indicated that the factor structure of the Canadian French FCV-19S is a unidimensional factor fitting well with the data. The scale showed adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha of .903) and concurrent validity, as indicated by significantly negative correlation with CORE-6D (r = -.410) and SOC-3 (r = -.233). The Canadian French FCV-19S properties tested using Rasch analysis was also very satisfactory.ConclusionsThe results of the present study indicated that the Canadian French version of FCV-19S is a unidimensional tool with robust psychometric properties in the adult's population of all ages residing in the province of Quebec, Canada.
  • Bager, Johan-Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Acute blood pressure levels and long-term outcome in ischemic stroke.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain and behavior. - : Wiley. - 2162-3279. ; 8:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated blood pressure (BP) is common in acute ischemic stroke, but its effect on outcome is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association of baseline BP and BP change within the first day after stroke with stroke severity, functional outcome, and mortality.Patients admitted to hospital with acute ischemic stroke (IS) from 15 February 2005 through 31 May 2009 were consecutively included. Acute stroke severity and functional outcome at three and twelve months were investigated using multivariate regression analysis; the association between BP and all-cause mortality at one, three, and twelve was investigated by Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier survival curves.A total of 799 patients (mean age 78.4 ± 8.0, 48% men) were included. Higher decreases in systolic and mean arterial blood pressure (ΔSBP and ΔMAP) were associated with decreased 1-month mortality (ΔSBP: hazard ratio, HR: 0.981; 95% CI: 0.968 - 0.994; p = .005), 3-month mortality (ΔSBP: HR 0.989; 95% CI 0.981 - 0.998; p-value .014), and twelve-month mortality (ΔSBP: HR 0.989; 95% CI 0.982 - 0.996; p-value .003). Stroke severity was associated with ΔMAP (B coefficient -.46, p-value .011). Higher SBP and MAP on admission were associated with better functional outcome at three (SBP: OR 0.987; 95% CI 0.978 - 0.997; p-value .008 - MAP: OR 0.985; 95% CI 0.971 - 1; p-value .046) and twelve (SBP: OR 0.988; 95% CI 0.979 - 0.998; p-value .015 - MAP: OR 0.983; 95% CI 0.968 - 0.997; p-value .02) months.In this elderly population, higher BP on arrival to the emergency room (ER) and decrease in BP after the patients' arrival to the ward were associated with improved functional outcome and reduced mortality, respectively. These results may reflect a regulatory situation in which elevated initial blood pressure indicates adequate response to cerebral tissue ischemia while subsequent blood pressure decrease instead may be a consequence of partial, successful reperfusion.
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