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Träfflista för sökning "L773:2211 1247 OR L773:2211 1247 "

Sökning: L773:2211 1247 OR L773:2211 1247

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  • Hagberg, C. E., et al. (författare)
  • Flow Cytometry of Mouse and Human Adipocytes for the Analysis of Browning and Cellular Heterogeneity
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - 2211-1247. ; 24:10, s. 2746-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adipocytes, once considered simple lipid-storing cells, are rapidly emerging as complex cells with many biologically diverse functions. A powerful high-throughput method for analyzing single cells is flow cytometry. Several groups have attempted to analyze and sort freshly isolated adipocytes; however, using an adipocyte-specific reporter mouse, we demonstrate that these studies fail to detect the majority of white adipocytes. We define critical settings required for adipocyte flow cytometry and provide a rigid strategy for analyzing and sorting white and brown adipocyte populations. The applicability of our protocol is shown by sorting mouse adipocytes based on size or UCP1 expression and demonstrating that a subset of human adipocytes lacks the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, particularly in the insulin-resistant state. In conclusion, the present study confers key technological insights for analyzing and sorting mature adipocytes, opening up numerous downstream research applications.
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  • Adam, J., et al. (författare)
  • Fumarate Hydratase Deletion in Pancreatic beta Cells Leads to Progressive Diabetes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - 2211-1247. ; 20:13, s. 3135-3148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We explored the role of the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mice lacking Fh1 in pancreatic beta cells (Fh1 beta KO mice) appear normal for 6-8 weeks but then develop progressive glucose intolerance and diabetes. Glucose tolerance is rescued by expression of mitochondrial or cytosolic FH but not by deletion of Hif1 alpha or Nrf2. Progressive hyperglycemia in Fh1bKO mice led to dysregulated metabolism in b cells, a decrease in glucose-induced ATP production, electrical activity, cytoplasmic [Ca2+](i) elevation, and GSIS. Fh1 loss resulted in elevated intracellular fumarate, promoting succination of critical cysteines in GAPDH, GMPR, and PARK 7/DJ-1 and cytoplasmic acidification. Intracellular fumarate levels were increased in islets exposed to high glucose and in islets from human donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The impaired GSIS in islets from diabetic Fh1bKO mice was ameliorated after culture under normoglycemic conditions. These studies highlight the role of FH and dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism in T2D.
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  • Adam, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Fumarate Hydratase Deletion in Pancreatic β Cells Leads to Progressive Diabetes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - : Cell Press. - 2211-1247. ; 20:13, s. 3135-3148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We explored the role of the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mice lacking Fh1 in pancreatic β cells (Fh1βKO mice) appear normal for 6–8 weeks but then develop progressive glucose intolerance and diabetes. Glucose tolerance is rescued by expression of mitochondrial or cytosolic FH but not by deletion of Hif1α or Nrf2. Progressive hyperglycemia in Fh1βKO mice led to dysregulated metabolism in β cells, a decrease in glucose-induced ATP production, electrical activity, cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i elevation, and GSIS. Fh1 loss resulted in elevated intracellular fumarate, promoting succination of critical cysteines in GAPDH, GMPR, and PARK 7/DJ-1 and cytoplasmic acidification. Intracellular fumarate levels were increased in islets exposed to high glucose and in islets from human donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The impaired GSIS in islets from diabetic Fh1βKO mice was ameliorated after culture under normoglycemic conditions. These studies highlight the role of FH and dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism in T2D. Adam et al. have shown that progressive diabetes develops if fumarate hydratase is deleted in mouse pancreatic β cells. Such β cells exhibit elevated fumarate and protein succination and show progressively reduced ATP production and insulin secretion. The depleted insulin response to glucose recovers when diabetic islets are cultured in reduced glucose.
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  • Adler, Andrew F., et al. (författare)
  • hESC-Derived Dopaminergic Transplants Integrate into Basal Ganglia Circuitry in a Preclinical Model of Parkinson's Disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - : Cell Press. - 2211-1247. ; 28:13, s. 5-3473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cell replacement is currently being explored as a therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disease. Using stem cells as a source, transplantable progenitors can now be generated under conditions compliant with clinical application in patients. In this study, we elucidate factors controlling target-appropriate innervation and circuitry integration of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived grafts after transplantation to the adult brain. We show that cell-intrinsic factors determine graft-derived axonal innervation, whereas synaptic inputs from host neurons primarily reflect the graft location. Furthermore, we provide evidence that hESC-derived dopaminergic grafts transplanted in a long-term preclinical rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) receive synaptic input from subtypes of host cortical, striatal, and pallidal neurons that are known to regulate the function of endogenous nigral dopamine neurons. This refined understanding of how graft neurons integrate with host circuitry will be important for the design of clinical stem-cell-based replacement therapies for PD, as well as for other neurodegenerative diseases. Adler et al. graft hESC-derived dopaminergic progenitors into a rat model of Parkinson's disease. They find grafts correctly innervate host targets and receive appropriate synaptic input after intranigral and intrastriatal placement. Furthermore, the same host neurons projecting toward endogenous dopamine neurons are found to also connect to the grafts.
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  • Aguilo, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Deposition of 5-Methylcytosine on Enhancer RNAs Enables the Coactivator Function of PGC-1α
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cell reports. - 2211-1247 .- 2211-1247. ; 14:3, s. 479-492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional co-activator that plays a central role in adapted metabolic responses. PGC-1α is dynamically methylated and unmethylated at the residue K779 by the methyltransferase SET7/9 and the Lysine Specific Demethylase 1A (LSD1), respectively. Interactions of methylated PGC-1α[K779me] with the Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex, the Mediator members MED1 and MED17, and the NOP2/Sun RNA methytransferase 7 (NSUN7) reinforce transcription, and are concomitant with the m(5)C mark on enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). Consistently, loss of Set7/9 and NSun7 in liver cell model systems resulted in depletion of the PGC-1α target genes Pfkl, Sirt5, Idh3b, and Hmox2, which was accompanied by a decrease in the eRNAs levels associated with these loci. Enrichment of m(5)C within eRNA species coincides with metabolic stress of fasting in vivo. Collectively, these findings illustrate the complex epigenetic circuitry imposed by PGC-1α at the eRNA level to fine-tune energy metabolism.
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