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  • Eriksson, Berne, et al. (författare)
  • Only severe COPD is associated with being underweight: Results from a population survey
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ERS Monograph. - Sheffield : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 2312-508X. ; 2:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low body mass index (BMI) and malnutrition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with a poor prognosis. The prevalence of underweight, as well as overweight, in severity grades of COPD is sparsely investigated in studies of the general population and the associated patterns of risk factors are not well established. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between severity grades of airflow limitation in COPD, and both underweight and obesity when corrected for possible confounding factors. The study is based on pooled data from the OLIN (Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden) studies. Complete records with lung function, BMI and structured interview data were available from 3942 subjects (50.7% women and 49.3% men). COPD and severity grading were defined using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. In sensitivity analyses, the lower limit of normal was used. The prevalence of underweight was 7.3% in severe COPD (grades 3 and 4) versus 2.0% in those with normal spirometry. The prevalence of obesity increased from 9.7% in grade 1, to 16.3% in grade 2 and 20.0% in severe COPD, versus 17.7% in those with normal spirometry. In adjusted analysis, of the COPD severity grades, only severe COPD was associated with underweight (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.0004–10.5), while the COPD severity grades tended to be inversely associated with overweight. © ERS 2016.
  • Vogiatzis, I., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical highlights: Messages from Munich
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ERS Monograph. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 2312-508X. ; 1:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article reviews a selection of presentations in the area of clinical problems that were presented at the 2014 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Munich, Germany. We review the most recent and relevant topics of interest in the area of clinical respiratory medicine, encompassing novel reports and studies that are of particular interest to healthcare professionals. Topics ranging from basic science to translation research are presented and discussed in the context of the most up-to-date literature. In particular, the reviewed topics deal with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (pathogenesis and therapy), advances in functional chest imaging, interventional pulmonology, pulmonary rehabilitation, and chronic care. © ERS 2015.
  • Adermark, Louise, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective association between use of electronic cigarettes and use of conventional cigarettes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Erj Open Research. - Sheffield : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 2312-0541. ; 7:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the association between e-cigarette use and subsequent initiation or recurrence of cigarette smoking. Data sources A systematic literature search was finalised on 11 November 2019 using PubMed (including MEDLINE), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed Health, NICE Evidence Search, PROSPERO, CRD and PsycInfo. Study selection Studies were included if meeting the following criteria: reporting empirical results; longitudinal observational design with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up; including general population samples; allowing for the comparison between users and nonusers of e-cigarettes. Studies rated as having high risk of bias were excluded. Studies were independently assessed by at least two authors. The procedures described by PRISMA were followed, and the quality of evidence was rated using GRADE. Data synthesis 30 longitudinal studies from 22 different cohorts assessing e-cigarette use among nonsmokers or never-smokers at baseline, and subsequent use of cigarette smoking at follow-up, were included in this review. A random-effects meta-analysis based on 89076 participants showed a pooled unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of cigarette smoking among baseline nonsmoker e-cigarette users compared with nonusers of 4.68 (CI 3.64-6.02), while the adjusted OR was 3.37 (CI 2.68-4.24). These results were consistent irrespective of whether the outcome was measured as ever-smoking or as past 30-day smoking. The evidence was graded as moderate. Conclusions Use of e-cigarettes may predict the initiation or recurrence of cigarette smoking.
  • Ahmadi, Zainab, et al. (författare)
  • Agreement of the modified Medical Research Council and New York Heart Association scales for assessing the impact of self-rated breathlessness in cardiopulmonary disease
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: ERJ Open Research. - : European Respiratory Society. - 2312-0541. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The functional impact of breathlessness is assessed using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale for chronic respiratory disease and with the New York Heart Association Functional Classification (NYHA) scale for heart failure. We evaluated agreement between the scales and their concurrent validity with other clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes in cardiorespiratory disease.Methods: Outpatients with stable chronic respiratory disease or heart failure were recruited. Agreement between the mMRC and NYHA scales was analysed using Cramér's V and Kendall's tau B tests. Concurrent validity was evaluated using correlations with clinically relevant measures of breathlessness, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. Analyses were conducted for all participants and separately in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure.Results: In a total of 182 participants with cardiorespiratory disease, the agreement between the mMRC and NYHA scales was moderate (Cramér's V: 0.46; Kendall's tau B: 0.57) with similar results for COPD (Cramér's V: 0.46; Kendall's tau B: 0.66) and heart failure (Cramér's V: 0.46; Kendall's tau B: 0.67). In the total population, the scales correlated in similar ways to other patient-reported outcomes.Conclusion: In outpatients with cardiorespiratory disease, the mMRC and NYHA scales show moderate to strong correlations and similar associations with other patient-reported outcomes. This supports that the scales are comparable when assessing the impact of breathlessness on function and patient-reported outcomes.
  • Akbarshahi, Hamid, et al. (författare)
  • No gender-related bias in COPD diagnosis and treatment in Sweden : a randomised, controlled, case-based trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ERJ Open Research. - : European Respiratory Society. - 2312-0541. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence, morbidity and mortality of COPD among females have increased. Previous studies indicate a possible gender bias in the diagnosis and management of COPD. The present study aims to determine if there is gender bias in the management of COPD in Sweden.Methods: This was a double-blind, randomised (1:1), controlled, parallel-group, web-based trial using the hypothetical case scenario of a former smoker (40 pack-years and quit smoking 3 years ago) who was male or female. The participants were blind to the randomisation and the purpose of the trial. The case progressively revealed more information with associated questions on how the physician would manage the patient. Study participants chose from a list of tests and treatments at each step of the case scenario.Results: In total, 134 physicians were randomised to a male (n=62) or a female (n=72) case. There was no difference in initial diagnosis (61 (98%) male cases and 70 (97%) female cases diagnosed with COPD) and planned diagnostic procedures between the male and female cases. Spirometry was chosen by all the physicians as one of the requested diagnostic tests. The management of the hypothetical COPD case did not differ by sex of the responding physician.Conclusion: In Sweden, diagnosis and management of a hypothetical patient with COPD did not differ by the gender of the patient or physician.
  • Almqvist, Linnéa, et al. (författare)
  • Remission of adult-onset asthma is rare: a 15-year follow-up study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Erj Open Research. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 2312-0541. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There are few long-term clinical follow-up studies of adult-onset asthma. The aim of this article was to study clinical characteristics of adult-onset asthma in relation to remission and persistence of the disease in a 15-year follow-up. Methods: A cohort of 309 adults aged 20-60 years with asthma onset during the last 12 months verified by bronchial variability, was recruited between 1995 and 1999 from the general population in northern Sweden. The cohort was followed-up in 2003 (n=250) and between 2012 and 2014 (n=205). Structured interviews and spirometry were performed at recruitment and the follow-ups. Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) and skin-prick tests were performed at recruitment and blood samples were collected at the last follow-up. Remission of asthma was defined as no asthma symptoms and no use of asthma medication during the last 12 months. Results: Of eight individuals in remission in 2003, five had relapsed between 2012 and 2014 and in total, 23 (11%) were in remission, while 182 had persistent asthma. Those in remission had higher mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted at recruitment than those with persistent asthma (94.6 versus 88.3, p=0.034), fewer had severe BHR (27.3% versus 50.9%, p=0.037) and they had less body mass index increase (+1.6 versus +3.0, p=0.054). Of those with persistent asthma, 13% had uncontrolled asthma and they had higher levels of blood neutrophils than those with partly controlled or controlled asthma. Conclusion: Higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted and less-severe BHR was associated with remission of adult-onset asthma, but still, the proportion in remission in this 15-year follow-up was low.
  • Andersén, Heidi, et al. (författare)
  • NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease: a population study.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: ERJ open research. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 2312-0541. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may exacerbate respiratory symptoms. A recent European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology position paper recommended the use of an acronym, N-ERD (NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease), for this hypersensitivity associated with asthma or chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyposis. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of N-ERD and identify factors associated with N-ERD.In 2016, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a random adult population of 16 000 subjects aged 20-69 years was performed in Helsinki and Western Finland. The response rate was 51.5%.The prevalence was 1.4% for N-ERD, and 0.7% for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The prevalence of N-ERD was 6.9% among subjects with asthma and 2.7% among subjects with rhinitis. The risk factors for N-ERD were older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, long-term smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants. Asthmatic subjects with N-ERD had a higher risk of respiratory symptoms, severe hypersensitivity reactions and hospitalisations than asthmatic subjects without N-ERD. The subphenotype of N-ERD with asthma was most symptomatic. Subjects with rhinitis associated with N-ERD, which would not be included in AERD, had the fewest symptoms.We conclude that the prevalence of N-ERD was 1.4% in a representative Finnish adult population sample. Older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, and occupational exposures increased odds of N-ERD. N-ERD was associated with significant morbidity.
  • Andersson, Cecilia K, et al. (författare)
  • Distal respiratory tract viral infections in young children trigger a marked increase in alveolar mast cells
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ERJ Open Research. - : European Respiratory Society. - 2312-0541. ; 4:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Viral infections predispose to the development of childhood asthma, a disease associated with increased lung mast cells (MCs). This study investigated whether viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) can already evoke a MC response during childhood. Lung tissue from young children who died following LRTIs were processed for immunohistochemical identification of MCs. Children who died from nonrespiratory causes served as controls. MCs were examined in relation to sensitisation in infant mice exposed to allergen during influenza A infection. Increased numbers of MCs were observed in the alveolar parenchyma of children infected with LRTIs (median (range) 12.5 (0-78) MCs per mm2) compared to controls (0.63 (0-4) MCs per mm2, p=0.0005). The alveolar MC expansion was associated with a higher proportion of CD34+ tryptase+ progenitors (controls: 0% (0-1%); LRTIs: 0.9% (0-3%) CD34+ MCs (p=0.01)) and an increased expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 (controls: 0.2 (0.07-0.3); LRTIs: 0.3 (0.02-2) VCAM-1 per mm2 (p=0.04)). Similarly, infant mice infected with H1N1 alone or together with house dust mite (HDM) developed an increase in alveolar MCs (saline: 0.4 (0.3-0.5); HDM: 0.6 (0.4-0.9); H1N1: 1.4 (0.4-2.0); HDM+H1N1: 2.2 (1.2-4.4) MCs per mm2 (p<0.0001)). Alveolar MCs continued to increase and remained significantly higher into adulthood when exposed to H1N1+HDM (day 36: 2.2 (1.2-4.4); day 57: 4.6 (1.6-15) MCs per mm2 (p=0.01)) but not when infected with H1N1 alone. Our data demonstrate that distal viral infections in young children evoke a rapid accumulation of alveolar MCs. Apart from revealing a novel immune response to distal infections, our data may have important implications for the link between viral infections during early childhood and subsequent asthma development.
  • Andersson, C, et al. (författare)
  • Research highlights from the 2017 ERS International Congress: airway diseases in focus
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ERJ open research. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 2312-0541. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5) and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges.
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