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  • Aagaard Hagemann, Frederik (författare)
  • From place to emplacement: the scalar politics of sustainability
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Local Environment. - : Taylor & Francis (Routledge): STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles. - 1354-9839 .- 1469-6711. ; 25, s. 447-462
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sustainability has emerged as a central concept for discussing the current state of the human-environment system and planning for its future. To delve into the depths of sustainability means to talk about ecology, economy, and equity as fundamentally interconnected. However, each continues to be colonised by normative epistemologies of ecological sciences, neoclassical economics, and development, suggesting that with enough science and development, a more equitable sustainability is achievable. In our analysis, place emerges as an alternative epistemology through which to analyze sustainability. Place exists at multiple spatial and temporal scales, understood through direct observation of boundaries, processes and patterns, phenomenologically through individual experience, and as a complex hybrid: always emerging through interactions among individuals and institutions. Despite the ubiquity of place in the socio-ecological literature, the complexity of place in relation to sustainability is under-theorised, and in as much as sustainability happens or does not happen in real places rather than in policies and models, a place-based sustainability framework is necessary to move forward. To address this gap, we developed the emplacement framework, consisting of four domains: displacement, misplacement, replacement, and emplacement. Each domain is dynamic, constructing place as praxis, and reframing sustainability as a site of collective inquiry and choices. Our goal is to facilitate the active and on-going practices of place-based research and engagement among scholars, activists, and other community members by providing a structure for transdisciplinary dialogue and the application of transdisciplinary research to enable better decision-making.
  • Aagaard Hagemann, Frederik, et al. (författare)
  • Urban ecosystem services in strategic planning in Swedish municipalities
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Urban Ecosystems. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 1083-8155 .- 1573-1642. ; 24, s. 1343-1357
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research to date on urban ecosystem services has mainly been conducted in large cities, particularly in China, the USA and some European countries. This study examined the provision of urban ecosystem services in a Swedish municipality context, based on interviews with municipal stakeholders in strategic management and planning from six municipalities and a review of existing publications readily available to practitioners. The analysis focused on (1) the ecosystem services explicitly covered, (2) whether multifunctionality was covered and specific synergies and trade-offs identified and, (3) the spatial scale and context used for ecosystem services (valuation/mapping, planning, design or maintenance) in practical application. The results showed that regulatory services are very much the focus in municipal operations as well as in publications available to practitioners. This is reflected in the implementation of the concept through problem solving often related to regulatory services, using multifunctionality and win-win situations in ecosystem service supply. These findings contribute to the growing body of work exploring how the concept of ecosystem services is adapted and utilised in practice.
  • Aballay, Erwin (författare)
  • Rhizobacteria associated to Vitis vinifera and their effect on the control of Xiphinema index, Meloidogyne ethiopica and Vitis growth
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of the most important pests affecting the growth of vineyards due to the destruction of new roots. Several species are associated with this problem, the most important being the ectoparasite Xiphinema index and the endoparasite Meloidogyne ethiopica. The search for new pest and disease control methods based on bioantagonist microorganisms is an important aspect of modern agriculture and the development of tools based on the use of rhizobacteria is becoming a widely evaluated alternative. The present study on suppressive soils started with a survey undertaken in productive Chilean vineyards to explore the younger roots of grapevines and identify the presence of rhizobacteria. More than 1800 soils were surveyed and a set of 11 vineyards were selected and considered suitable for bacteria isolation, as they showed low densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. A total of 400 bacterial isolates in 25 genera were obtained using tryptic soy broth agar and identified with fatty acid profiling. Two of the most frequently isolated species were Pseudomonas putida (35.1%) and P. fluorescens (6.1%). The effect of these isolates on the parasitism and reproduction of X. index was assessed through assays using potted vine plants (cv. Thompson Seedless) and a bacterial suspension containing 1×106 CFU/mL. Some isolates from Bacillus megaterium, B. brevis, B. mycoides, B. sphaericus, B. thuringiensis, Pseudomonas corrugata, P. putida, P. alcaligenes, P. savastanoi, P. fluorescens, P. pseudoalcaligenes, P. viridiflava, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia plymuthica, Cytophaga johnsonae, Rahnella aquatilis, Stenotrophomonas sp., Variovorax paradoxus and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens reduced root damage and suppressed populations. Isolates of B. brevis, Comamonas acidovorans, B. megaterium, Pantoea agglomerans and P. savastanoi increased plant growth or root weight, but did not control nematodes. Most of the culture filtrates obtained from isolates from four vineyards were effective in killing X. index and decreasing egg hatching, which was not related to damage or population control. It was estimated that 89, 32 and 16% of the isolates were effective against X. index under supernatant conditions, in potted plants growing in sterile substrate and in potted plants growing in field soil, respectively. Sixteen bacterial isolates previously assessed were also evaluated on M. ethiopica in vine cv. Chardonnay. Seven isolates (Serratia marcescens, C. acidovorans, P. agglomerans, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, B. mycoides, Alcaligenes piechaudii and S. plymuthica) decreased damage or reproduction, showing that different species of nematodes can respond differently to a particular isolate.
  • Abbasi, Alireza, et al. (författare)
  • Ambidentate coordination of dimethyl sulfoxide in rhodium(III) complexes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Dalton Transactions. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1477-9226 .- 1477-9234. ; 40:5, s. 1111-1118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The two dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rhodium(III) compounds, [Rh(dmso-kappa O)(5)(dmso-kappa S)](CF(3)SO(3))(3) (1 & 1* at 298 K and 100 K, respectively) and [Rh(dmso-kappa O)(3)(dmso-kappa S)(2)Cl](CF(3)SO(3))(2) (2), crystallize with orthorhombic unit cells in the space group Pna2(1) (No. 33), Z = 4. In the [Rh(dmso)(6)](3+) complex with slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, the Rh-O bond distance is significantly longer with O trans to S, 2.143(6) angstrom (1) and 2.100(6) angstrom (1*), than the mean Rh-O bond distance with O trans to O, 2.019 angstrom (1) and 2.043 angstrom (1*). In the [RhCl(dmso)(5)](3+) complex, the mean Rh-O bond distance with O trans to S, 2.083 angstrom, is slightly longer than that for O trans to Cl, 2.067(4) angstrom, which is consistent with the trans influence DMSO-kappa S > Cl > DMSO-kappa O of the opposite ligands. Raman and IR absorption spectra were recorded and analyzed and a complete assignment of the vibrational bands was achieved with support by force field calculations. An increase in the Rh-O stretching vibrational frequency corresponded to a decreasing trans-influence from the opposite ligand. The Rh-O force constants obtained were correlated with the Rh-O bond lengths, also including previously obtained values for other M(dmso)(6)(3+) complexes with trivalent metal ions. An almost linear correlation was obtained for the MO stretching force constants vs. the reciprocal square of the MO bond lengths. The results show that the metal ion-oxygen bonding of dimethyl sulfoxide ligands is electrostatically dominated in those complexes and that the stretching force constants provide a useful measure of the relative trans-influence of the opposite ligands in hexa-coordinated Rh(III)-complexes.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Bacillus velezensis 5113 Induced Metabolic and Molecular Reprogramming during Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Wheat
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group: Open Access Journals - Option C / Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abiotic stresses are main limiting factors for agricultural production around the world. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been shown to improve abiotic stress tolerance in several plants. However, the molecular and physiological changes connected with PGPR priming of stress management are poorly understood. The present investigation aimed to explore major metabolic and molecular changes connected with the ability of Bacillus velezensis 5113 to mediate abiotic stress tolerance in wheat. Seedlings treated with Bacillus were exposed to heat, cold/freezing or drought stress. Bacillus improved wheat survival in all stress conditions. SPAD readings showed higher chlorophyll content in 5113-treated stressed seedlings. Metabolite profiling using NMR and ESI-MS provided evidences for metabolic reprograming in 5113-treated seedlings and showed that several common stress metabolites were significantly accumulated in stressed wheat. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of wheat leaves resolved more than 300 proteins of which several were differentially expressed between different treatments and that cold stress had a stronger impact on the protein pattern compared to heat and drought. Peptides maps or sequences were used for database searches which identified several homologs. The present study suggests that 5113 treatment provides systemic effects that involve metabolic and regulatory functions supporting both growth and stress management.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying potential molecular factors involved in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 5113 mediated abiotic stress tolerance in wheat
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plant Biology. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 1435-8603 .- 1438-8677. ; 20, s. 271-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abiotic stressors are main limiting factors for agricultural production around the world. Plant growth-promoting bacteria have been successfully used to improve abiotic stress tolerance in several crops including wheat. However, the molecular changes involved in the improvement of stress management are poorly understood. The present investigation addressed some molecular factors involved in bacterially induced plant abiotic stress responses by identifying differentially expressed genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings treated with the beneficial bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5113 prior to challenge with abiotic stress conditions such as heat, cold or drought. cDNA-AFLP analysis revealed differential expression of more than 200 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in wheat leaves. Expression of selected TDFs was confirmed using RT-PCR. DNA sequencing of 31 differentially expressed TDFs revealed significant homology with both known and unknown genes in database searches. Virus-induced gene silencing of two abscisic acid-related TDFs showed different effects upon heat and drought stress. We conclude that treatment with B.amyloliquefaciens 5113 caused molecular modifications in wheat in order to induce tolerance against heat, cold and drought stress. Bacillus treatment provides systemic effects that involve metabolic and regulatory functions supporting both growth and stress management.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of bacterial priming on some stress tolerance mechanisms and growth of cold stressed wheat seedlings
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Plant Biology. - : PAGEpress. - 2037-0156 .- 2037-0164. ; 4, s. 29-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The potential to enhance growth of cold stressed wheat by seed treatment (priming) with the beneficial bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 5113 and Azospirillum brasilense NO40 were tested. Results showed an improved ability of bacteria-treated seedlings to survive at −5°C up to 12 h. Cold stress increased transcript levels of three stress marker genes and increased activity for the ascorbate-glutathione redox enzymes. However, primed and stressed seedlings generally showed smaller effects on the stress markers correlating with better growth and improved stress tolerance. Bacterial priming to improve crop plant performance at low temperature seems a useful strategy to explore further.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Improved heat stress tolerance of wheat seedlings by bacterial seed treatment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plant and Soil. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0032-079X .- 1573-5036. ; 379, s. 337-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate if rhizosphere bacteria can improve heat tolerance of wheat. MethodsWheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds of the cultivars Olivin and Sids1 were treated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 or Azospirillum brasilense NO40 and young seedlings tested for management of short term heat stress. ResultsBacterial treatment improved heat stress management of wheat. Olivin showed higher heat tolerance than Sids1 both with non-inoculated and inoculated seeds. Heat increased transcript levels of several stress related genes in the leaves, while expression was lower in inoculated plants but elevated compared with the control. Enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione redox cycle were activated in leaves after heat challenge but showed a lower response in inoculated plants. Metabolite profiling distinguished different treatments dependent on analysis technique with respect to primary and secondary metabolites. Analysis of some plant stress regulatory genes showed that bacterial treatment increased transcript levels while effects of heat treatment varied. Conclusions: The improvement of heat tolerance by bacteria seems associated with reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (and consequently less cell damage), small changes in the metabolome while preactivation of certain heat shock transcription factors seems important. Seed inoculation with beneficial bacteria seems a promising strategy to improve heat tolerance of wheat.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Paenibacillus polymyxa A26 Sfp-type PPTase inactivation limits bacterial antagonism against Fusarium graminearum but not of F. culmorum in kernel assay
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science. - : Frontiers Media. - 1664-462X. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum are the causing agents of a destructive disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB). FHB is a re-emerging disease in small grain cereals which impairs both the grain yield and the quality. Most serious consequence is the contamination of grain with Fusarium mycotoxins that are severe threat to humans and animals. Biological control has been suggested as one of the integrated management strategies to control FHB. Paenibacillus polymyxa is considered as a promising biocontrol agent due to its unique antibiotic spectrum. P. polymyxa A26 is an efficient antagonistic agent against Fusarium spp. In order to optimize strain A26 production, formulation and application strategies traits important for its compatibility need to be revealed. Here we developed a toolbox, comprising of dual culture plate assays and wheat kernel assays, including simultaneous monitoring of FHB causing pathogens, A26, and mycotoxin production. Using this system we show that, besides generally known lipopeptide antibiotic production by P. polymyxa, biofilm formation ability may play a crucial role in the case of stain A26 F. culmorum antagonism. Application of the system for effective strain selection and maintenance is discussed.
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