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1.
  • Enache, D., et al. (författare)
  • Antidepressants and mortality risk in a dementia cohort : data from SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0001-690X .- 1600-0447. ; 134:5, s. 430-440
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The association between mortality risk and use of antidepressants in people with dementia is unknown. Objective: To describe the use of antidepressants in people with different dementia diagnoses and to explore mortality risk associated with use of antidepressants 3 years before a dementia diagnosis. Methods: Study population included 20 050 memory clinic patients from the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem) diagnosed with incident dementia. Data on antidepressants dispensed at the time of dementia diagnosis and during 3-year period before dementia diagnosis were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Cox regression models were used. Results: During a median follow-up of 2 years from dementia diagnosis, 25.8% of dementia patients died. A quarter (25.0%) of patients were on antidepressants at the time of dementia diagnosis, while 21.6% used antidepressants at some point during a 3-year period before a dementia diagnosis. Use of antidepressant treatment for 3 consecutive years before a dementia diagnosis was associated with a lower mortality risk for all dementia disorders and in Alzheimer's disease. Conclusion: Antidepressant treatment is common among patients with dementia. Use of antidepressants during prodromal stages may reduce mortality in dementia and specifically in Alzheimer's disease.
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2.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in amyloid β positive subjects across the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 14:7, s. 913-924
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its prevalence is unclear because earlier studies did not require biomarker evidence of amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. Methods: We included 3451 Aβ+ subjects (853 AD-type dementia, 1810 mild cognitive impairment, and 788 cognitively normal). Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess APOE ε4 prevalence in relation to age, sex, education, and geographical location. Results: The APOE ε4 prevalence was 66% in AD-type dementia, 64% in mild cognitive impairment, and 51% in cognitively normal, and it decreased with advancing age in Aβ+ cognitively normal and Aβ+ mild cognitive impairment (P <.05) but not in Aβ+ AD dementia (P =.66). The prevalence was highest in Northern Europe but did not vary by sex or education. Discussion: The APOE ε4 prevalence in AD was higher than that in previous studies, which did not require presence of Aβ pathology. Furthermore, our results highlight disease heterogeneity related to age and geographical location.
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  • Bereczki, E., et al. (författare)
  • Synaptic proteins predict cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 12:11, s. 1149-1158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Our objective was to compare the levels of three synaptic proteins involved in different steps of the synaptic transmission: Rab3A, SNAP25, and neurogranin, in three common forms of dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and Parkinson's disease dementia. Methods A total of 129 postmortem human brain samples were analyzed in brain regional specific manner exploring their associations with morphologic changes and cognitive decline. Results We have observed robust changes reflecting synaptic dysfunction in all studied dementia groups. There were significant associations between the rate of cognitive decline and decreased levels of Rab3 in DLB in the inferior parietal lobe and SNAP25 in AD in the prefrontal cortex. Of particular note, synaptic proteins significantly discriminated between dementia cases and controls with over 90% sensitivity and specificity. Discussion Our findings suggest that the proposition that synaptic markers can predict cognitive decline in AD, should be extended to Lewy body diseases. © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association
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5.
  • Abdelnour, C., et al. (författare)
  • Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers predict cognitive decline in lewy body dementia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 31:8, s. 1203-1208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IntroductionAlzheimer's disease pathologies are common in dementia with Lewy bodies, but their clinical relevance is not clear. CSF biomarkers amyloid beta 1-42, total tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 reflect Alzheimer's disease neuropathology antemortem. In PD, low CSF amyloid beta 1-42 predict long-term cognitive decline, but little is known about these biomarkers as predictors for cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia. The aim of this study was to assess whether Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers predict cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia. MethodsFrom a large European dementia with Lewy bodies multicenter study, we analyzed baseline Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and serial MMSE (baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up) in 100 patients with Lewy body dementia. Linear mixed-effects analyses, adjusted for sex, age, baseline MMSE, and education, were performed to model the association between CSF biomarkers and rate of cognitive decline measured with MMSE. An Alzheimer's disease CSF profile was defined as pathological amyloid beta 1-42 plus pathological total tau or phosphorylated tau. ResultsThe Alzheimer's disease CSF profile, and pathological levels of amyloid beta 1-42, were associated with a more rapid decline in MMSE (2.2 [P < 0.05] and 2.9 points difference [P < 0.01], respectively). Higher total tau values showed a trend toward association without statistical significance (2.0 points difference; P = 0.064), whereas phosphorylated tau was not associated with decline. ConclusionsReduced levels of CSF amyloid beta 1-42 were associated with more rapid cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia patients. Future prospective studies should include larger samples, centralized CSF analyses, longer follow-up, and biomarker-pathology correlation. (c) 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
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6.
  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • An update on blood-based biomarkers for non-Alzheimer neurodegenerative disorders.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Reviews Neurology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1759-4766. ; 16:5, s. 265-284
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid analyses and neuroimaging can identify the underlying pathophysiology at the earliest stage of some neurodegenerative disorders, but do not have the scalability needed for population screening. Therefore, a blood-based marker for such pathophysiology would have greater utility in a primary care setting and in eligibility screening for clinical trials. Rapid advances in ultra-sensitive assays have enabled the levels of pathological proteins to be measured in blood samples, but research has been predominantly focused on Alzheimer disease (AD). Nonetheless, proteins that were identified as potential blood-based biomarkers for AD, for example, amyloid-β, tau, phosphorylated tau and neurofilament light chain, are likely to be relevant to other neurodegenerative disorders that involve similar pathological processes and could also be useful for the differential diagnosis of clinical symptoms. This Review outlines the neuropathological, clinical, molecular imaging and cerebrospinal fluid features of the most common neurodegenerative disorders outside the AD continuum and gives an overview of the current status of blood-based biomarkers for these disorders.
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9.
  • Jansen, I. E., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies new loci and functional pathways influencing Alzheimer’s disease risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:3, s. 404-413
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is highly heritable and recent studies have identified over 20 disease-associated genomic loci. Yet these only explain a small proportion of the genetic variance, indicating that undiscovered loci remain. Here, we performed a large genome-wide association study of clinically diagnosed AD and AD-by-proxy (71,880 cases, 383,378 controls). AD-by-proxy, based on parental diagnoses, showed strong genetic correlation with AD (rg = 0.81). Meta-analysis identified 29 risk loci, implicating 215 potential causative genes. Associated genes are strongly expressed in immune-related tissues and cell types (spleen, liver, and microglia). Gene-set analyses indicate biological mechanisms involved in lipid-related processes and degradation of amyloid precursor proteins. We show strong genetic correlations with multiple health-related outcomes, and Mendelian randomization results suggest a protective effect of cognitive ability on AD risk. These results are a step forward in identifying the genetic factors that contribute to AD risk and add novel insights into the neurobiology of AD. 
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