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Sökning: WFRF:(Abramson Michael J.)

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1.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:6, s. 1788-1795
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective: We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods: Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results: Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion: Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years.
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2.
  • Silventoinen, Karri, et al. (författare)
  • Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years : An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - Stockholm : Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 20:5, s. 395-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
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3.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline, et al. (författare)
  • Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age : A Study of the CODATwins Project
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 18:5, s. 557-570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m(2) in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m(2) in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
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4.
  • Silventoinen, Karri, et al. (författare)
  • The CODATwins Project : The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 18:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
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5.
  • Canova, C., et al. (författare)
  • The influence of sensitisation to pollens and moulds on seasonal variations in asthma attacks
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 42:4, s. 935-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • No large study has described the seasonal variation in asthma attacks in population-based asthmatics in whom sensitisation to allergen has been measured. 2637 young adults with asthma living in 15 countries reported the months in which they usually had attacks of asthma and had skin-prick tests performed. Differences in seasonal patterns by sensitisation status were assessed using generalised estimating equations. Most young adults with asthma reported periods of the year when their asthma attacks were more common (range: 47% in Sweden to 86% in Spain). Seasonal variation in asthma was not modified by sensitisation to house dust mite or cat allergens. Asthmatics sensitised to grass, birch and Alternaria allergens had different seasonal patterns to those not sensitised to each allergen, with some geographical variation. In southern Europe, those sensitised to grass allergens were more likely to report attacks occurred in spring or summer than in winter (OR March/April 2.60, 95% CI 1.70-3.97; OR May/June 4.43, 95% CI 2.34-8.39) and smaller later peaks were observed in northern Europe (OR May/June 1.25, 95% CI 0.60-2.64; OR July/August 1.66, 95% CI 0.89-3.10). Asthmatics reporting hay fever but who were not sensitised to grass showed no seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in asthma attacks in young adults are common and are different depending on sensitisation to outdoor, but not indoor, allergens.
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6.
  • Knudsen, G. T. M., et al. (författare)
  • Parents' smoking onset before conception as related to body mass index and fat mass in adult offspring: Findings from the RHINESSA generation study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Emerging evidence suggests that parents' preconception exposures may influence offspring health. We aimed to investigate maternal and paternal smoking onset in specific time windows in relation to offspring body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index (FMI). We investigated fathers (n = 2111) and mothers (n = 2569) aged 39-65 years, of the population based RHINE and ECRHS studies, and their offspring aged 18-49 years (n = 6487, mean age 29.6 years) who participated in the RHINESSA study. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight, and FMI was estimated from bioelectrical impedance measures in a subsample. Associations with parental smoking were analysed with generalized linear regression adjusting for parental education and clustering by study centre and family. Interactions between offspring sex were analysed, as was mediation by parental pack years, parental BMI, offspring smoking and offspring birthweight. Fathers' smoking onset before conception of the offspring (onset >= 15 years) was associated with higher BMI in the offspring when adult (beta 0.551, 95%CI: 0.174-0.929, p = 0.004). Mothers' preconception and postnatal smoking onset was associated with higher offspring BMI (onset <15 years: beta 1.161, 95%CI 0.378-1.944; onset >= 15 years: beta 0.720, 95%CI 0.293-1.147; onset after offspring birth: beta 2.257, 95%CI 1.220-3.294). However, mediation analysis indicated that these effects were fully mediated by parents' postnatal pack years, and partially mediated by parents' BMI and offspring smoking. Regarding FMI, sons of smoking fathers also had higher fat mass (onset <15 years beta 1.604, 95%CI 0.269-2.939; onset >= 15 years beta 2.590, 95%CI 0.544-4.636; and onset after birth beta 2.736, 95%CI 0.621-4.851). There was no association between maternal smoking and offspring fat mass. We found that parents' smoking before conception was associated with higher BMI in offspring when they reached adulthood, but that these effects were mediated through parents' pack years, suggesting that cumulative smoking exposure during offspring's childhood may elicit long lasting effects on offspring BMI.
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7.
  • Li, Jian-Liang, et al. (författare)
  • A genome scan for modifiers of age at onset in Huntington disease : The HD MAPS study.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 73:3, s. 682-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Huntington disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat within the coding region of a novel gene on 4p16.3. Although the variation in age at onset is partly explained by the size of the expanded repeat, the unexplained variation in age at onset is strongly heritable (h2=0.56), which suggests that other genes modify the age at onset of HD. To identify these modifier loci, we performed a 10-cM density genomewide scan in 629 affected sibling pairs (295 pedigrees and 695 individuals), using ages at onset adjusted for the expanded and normal CAG repeat sizes. Because all those studied were HD affected, estimates of allele sharing identical by descent at and around the HD locus were adjusted by a positionally weighted method to correct for the increased allele sharing at 4p. Suggestive evidence for linkage was found at 4p16 (LOD=1.93), 6p21-23 (LOD=2.29), and 6q24-26 (LOD=2.28), which may be useful for investigation of genes that modify age at onset of HD.
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8.
  • Bergqvist, Joel, et al. (författare)
  • Non-infectious rhinitis is more strongly associated with early-rather than late-onset of COPD: data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. - : Springer. - 0937-4477 .- 1434-4726. ; 277, s. 1353-1359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with several co-morbidities and non-infectious rhinitis (NIR) has emerged as a new possible co-morbidity. The primary aim of this study is to confirm a previously reported association between NIR and COPD in a multicentre population over time. The secondary aim is to investigate the course over time of such an association through a comparison between early- and late-onset COPD. Methods This study is part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). A random adult population from 25 centres in Europe and one in Australia was examined with spirometry and answered a respiratory questionnaire in 1998-2002 (ECRHS II) and in 2008-2013 (ECRHS III). Symptoms of non-infectious rhinitis, hay fever and asthma, and smoking habits were reported. Subjects reporting asthma were excluded. COPD was defined as a spirometry ratio of FEV1/FVC < 0.7. A total of 5901 subjects were included. Results Non-infectious rhinitis was significantly more prevalent in subjects with COPD compared with no COPD (48.9% vs 37.1%, p < 0.001) in ECRHS II (mean age 43) but not in ECHRS III (mean age 54). In the multivariable regression model adjusted for COPD, smoking, age, BMI, and gender, non-infectious rhinitis was associated with COPD in both ECRHS II and III. Conclusion Non-infectious rhinitis was significantly more common in subjects with COPD at a mean age of 43. Ten years later, the association was weaker. The findings indicate that NIR could be associated with the early onset of COPD.
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9.
  • Jarvis, Debbie, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms with ageing
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:1, s. 37-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Change in the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms in populations of ageing adults is likely to be influenced by smoking, asthma treatment and atopy.METHODS: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey collected information on prevalent asthma-like symptoms from representative samples of adults aged 20-44 years (29 centres in 13 European countries and Australia) at baseline and 10 and 20 years later (n=7844). Net changes in symptom prevalence were determined using generalised estimating equations (accounting for non-response through inverse probability weighting), followed by meta-analysis of centre level estimates.FINDINGS: Over 20 years the prevalence of 'wheeze' and 'wheeze in the absence of a cold' decreased (-2.4%, 95% CI -3.5 to -1.3%; -1.5%, 95% CI -2.4 to -0.6%, respectively) but the prevalence of asthma attacks, use of asthma medication and hay fever/nasal allergies increased (0.6%, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.11; 3.6%, 95% CI 3.0 to 4.2; 2.7%, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.7). Changes were similar in the first 10 years compared with the second 10 years, except for hay fever/nasal allergies (increase seen in the first 10 years only). Decreases in these wheeze-related symptoms were largely seen in the group who gave up smoking, and were seen in those who reported hay fever/nasal allergies at baseline.INTERPRETATION: European adults born between 1946 and 1970 have, over the last 20 years, experienced less wheeze, although they were more likely to report asthma attacks, use of asthma medication and hay fever. Decrease in wheeze is largely attributable to smoking cessation, rather than improved treatment of asthma. It may also be influenced by reductions in atopy with ageing.
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10.
  • Szatmari, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 39:3, s. 319-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are common, heritable neurodevelopmental conditions. The genetic architecture of ASDs is complex, requiring large samples to overcome heterogeneity. Here we broaden coverage and sample size relative to other studies of ASDs by using Affymetrix 10K SNP arrays and 1,168 families with at least two affected individuals, performing the largest linkage scan to date while also analyzing copy number variation in these families. Linkage and copy number variation analyses implicate chromosome 11p12-p13 and neurexins, respectively, among other candidate loci. Neurexins team with previously implicated neuroligins for glutamatergic synaptogenesis, highlighting glutamate-related genes as promising candidates for contributing to ASDs.
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