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Sökning: WFRF:(Adolfsson Ann Sofie)

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1.
  • Adolfsson, Annsofie, et al. (författare)
  • Guilt and emptiness : women's experiences of miscarriage
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Health Care for Women International. - 0739-9332 .- 1096-4665. ; 25:6, s. 543-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Women who lose an early pregnancy are shocked when they are first given the information that they have miscarried. Later they feel guilt and emptiness. Heideggerian interpretive phenomenology has been used with 13 women from southwest Sweden to uncover their lived experience of miscarriage. Women plan their future with a child during early pregnancy. When miscarriage occurs it is not a gore, an embryo, or a fetus they lose, it is their child. They feel that they are the cause of the miscarriage through something they have done, eaten, or thought. They feel abandonment and they grieve for their profound loss; they are actually in bereavement.
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2.
  • Adolfsson, Annsofie, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Miscarriage : women’s experience and its cumulative incidence
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Many women experience miscarriage every year. Every fourth woman who has given birth reports that she has previous experience of miscarriage. In a study of all women in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1983-2003, we found that the number of cases of self reported miscarriage had increased in Sweden during this 21 year period. This increase can be explained by the introduction of sensitive pregnancy tests around 1990, as well as an increase in the mean age of the mothers, by approximately 3 years, during the observation period. The risk of miscarriage is 13% with the first child. With subsequent pregnancies, the risk of miscarriage is 8%, 6% and 4% with the second, third and fourth child, respectively.Thirteen of these women who had suffered a recent miscarriage were interviewed four months later, and their feelings of guilt and emptiness were explored. Their experience was that they wanted their questions to be answered, and that they wanted others to treat them as the mothers to be that they felt themselves to be. They also experienced the need for time to grieve their loss.Measurement of grief by means of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) is used in research but has also been proposed for clinical use. We have translated this psychological instrument to Swedish, back-translated and tested it in a small pilot study. In a randomized controlled study, women with early miscarriage were allocated, either to a structured visit (study group) or a regular visit (control group) to a midwife. The structured visit was conducted according to the Swanson caring theory. We could conclude that the structured visit had no significant effect on grief compared to the regular visit, as measured using the PGS. However, women with the sub-diagnosis missed abortion have significantly more grief four months after early miscarriage, regardless of visit type.We also performed a content analysis of the tape-recorded structured follow-up visit. The code-key used was Bonanno and Kaltman’s general grief categorization. Women’s expression of grief after miscarriage was found to be very similar to the grief experienced following the death of a relative. Furthermore, the grief was found to be independent of number of children, women’s age, or earlier experience of miscarriage.Conclusions: Every fourth woman who gives birth reports that she has also experienced early miscarriage. The experience of these women is that they have suffered a substantial loss and their reaction is grief similar to that experienced following the death of a relative.
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3.
  • Adolfsson, Ann-Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • Translation of the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale into Swedish
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of caring sciences. - 1471-6712 .- 0283-9318. ; 20:3, s. 269-273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Women's emotions and grief after miscarriage are influenced not only by the context in which the miscarriage occurred but also by their past experience, the circumstances around the miscarriage and their future prospects. Their emotions therefore express a specific form of grief. Normally the time needed to work through the loss varies. A number of different scales, measuring women's emotions and grief after miscarriage have been published. One instrument that measures the specific grief, such as the grief after miscarriage is the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) that was designed to measure grief after perinatal loss and has good reliability and validity. Aims: The purpose of this study was to translate the PGS into Swedish and to use the translation in a small pilot study. Material and method: The original short version of the PGS was first translated from English into Swedish and then back-translated into English, using different translators. During translation and back-translation, not only the linguistic and grammatical aspects were considered but also cultural differences. The Likert 5-point and a 10-point scale were tested in a pilot study where 12 volunteers anonymously answered the PGS twice. The intra-personal correlations were compared and analysed with weighted κ-coefficient. Findings: In all, five different versions were tested before the final Swedish version was established. The weighted κ-coefficient for the volunteers was 0.58, which is regarded as representing good reproducibility. Conclusion: The PGS was translated successfully into Swedish and could be used in a Swedish population. As this work is rather time-consuming we therefore wish to publish the Swedish version so that it may be used by other researchers.
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4.
  • Eriksson, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • The prevalence of BV in the population on the Åland Islands during a 15-year period
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS). - Malden, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0903-4641 .- 1600-0463. ; 118:11, s. 903-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence and age distribution of bacterial vaginosis (BV) during an observation period of 15 years in a population study with cross-sectional samples of adult women living on the Åland Islands. The Åland Islands form an archipelago in the Baltic Sea and are a province of Finland. Every fifth year, specific age groups in the adult female population are invited to participate in a screening program for early diagnosis of cervical cancer using a papanicolaou (PAP)-stained vaginal smear. Women in the age groups of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 years are called each year. BV diagnosis of the PAP-stained smears uses the classification according to Nugent. The PAP-stained smears from the screening program of cervical cancer 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008 were used in this study. A total of 3456 slides were investigated and 271 women could be followed for the 15-year observation period. The prevalence of BV declined from 15.6% in 1993 to 8.6% in 2008. The highest prevalence occurred among the age groups of 35 and 50 years. Among the 271 women who could be followed for the 15-year observation period, two-third showed normal/intermediate flora and one-third were infected with BV at least once. As this is a cross-sectional population study spanning 15 years, the prevalence of BV in the female adult population of the Åland Islands can be estimated. The prevalence has declined between 1993 and 2008 from 15.6% to 8.6%.
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5.
  • Linden, Karoline, et al. (författare)
  • Person-centred web-based support in pregnancy and early motherhood for women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0742-3071 .- 1464-5491. ; 5:2, s. 232-241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To report results from and explore use of a multicentre, parallel-group, unblinded, randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness in terms of well-being and diabetes management of a person-centred, web-based support programme for women with Type 1 diabetes, in pregnancy and postpartum.Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, 174 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes were randomly allocated (1:1) to web-based support and standard care (intervention group, n=83), or standard care (control group, n=91). The web-based support consisted of evidence-based information; a self-care diary for monitoring of daily activities; and peer support in a discussion forum. The primary outcomes (mean difference, measured at 6 months after childbirth) were well-being and diabetes management.Results: No differences were found with regard to the primary outcome measure scores for general well-being [1.04 (95% CI -1.28 to 3.37); P= 0.68] and self-efficacy of diabetes management [0.076 (95% CI -0.123 to 0.275); P= 0.75], after adjustment for baseline differences in the insulin administration method, nor with regard to the secondary outcome measures.Conclusions: At 6 months after childbirth, the web-based support plus standard care was not superior to standard care in terms of general well-being or self-efficacy of diabetes management. This might be explained by the low number of participants who had a high activity level. Few simultaneously active participants in the web-based programme and stressors in motherhood and diabetes postpartum were the main barriers to its use. Further intervention studies that offer web-based support are needed, with lessons learned from the present study.
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6.
  • Wojnar, Danuta M., et al. (författare)
  • Confronting the inevitable : a conceptual model of miscarriage for use in clinical practice and research
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Death Studies. - : Routledge. - 0748-1187 .- 1091-7683. ; 35:6, s. 536-558
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In spite of scientific evidence that miscarriage has negative psychological consequences for many individuals and couples, silence and dismissal continue to surround this invisible loss in North American culture and beyond. The grief and sorrow of miscarriage has important implications for clinical practice. It indicates a need for therapeutic interventions delivered in a caring, compassionate, and culturally sensitive manner. This research, based on data from 3 phenomenological investigations conducted with 42 women from diverse geographical locations, sexual orientations, and cultural backgrounds offers a theoretical framework for addressing miscarriage in clinical practice and research.
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7.
  • Adolfsson, Ann-Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • Applicability of general grief theory to Swedish women’s experiences after early miscarriage, with factor analysis of Bonanno´s taxonomy, using the Perinatal Grief Scale.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - 0300-9734. ; 115:3, s. 201-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Grief is a normal phenomenon but showing great variation depending on cultural and personal features. Bonanno and Kaltman have nonetheless proposed five aspects of normal grief. The aim of this study was to investigate if women with miscarriage experience normal grief. Material and methods. Content analyses of 25 transcribed conversations with women 4 weeks after their early miscarriages were classified depending on the meaning-bearing units according to Bonanno and Kaltman's categories. In the factor analyses, these categories were compared with the Perinatal Grief Scale and women's age, number of children and number of miscarriages, and gestational weeks. Results. Women with miscarriage fulfill the criteria for having normal grief according to Bonanno and Kaltman. All of the 25 women had meaning-bearing units that were classified as cognitive disorganization, dysphoria, and health deficits, whereas disrupted social and occupational functioning and positive aspects of bereavement were represented in 22 of 25 women. From the factor analysis, there are no differences in the expression of the intensity of the grief, irrespective of whether or not the women were primiparous, younger, or had suffered a first miscarriage. Conclusion. Women's experience of grief after miscarriage is similar to general grief after death. After her loss, the woman must have the possibility of expressing and working through her grief before she can finish her pregnancy emotionally. The care-giver must facilitate this process and accept that the intensity of the grief is not dependent on the woman's age, or her number of earlier miscarriages.
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8.
  • Adolfsson, Ann-Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative incidence of previous spontaneous abortion in Sweden 1983-2003 : A register study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6349 .- 1600-0412. ; 85:6, s. 741-747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim. The aim of this study is to find out how common miscarriages are among women who have delivered a child. Methods. The numbers of deliveries and miscarriages were extracted from the Swedish Medical Birth Register between 1983 and 2003. Linear regression was performed in order to investigate whether the increasing mean age of mothers or differences in pregnancy identification methods could explain the increased frequency of miscarriage. Results. The reported number of miscarriages increased each year during the 21-year period, with a marked increase between 1991 and 1993 and only a slight increase during the final 10 years. For primiparous women, the frequency of reported miscarriages per delivery increased from 8.6% in 1983 to 13.9% in 2003. The corresponding figures for 2-parous women showed an increase from 14.5% to 21.3% respectively. Women aged 30-34 years had an odds ratio of 1.43 (95% CI 1.40-1.45) to suffer spontaneous abortion compared to the age group 25-29 years. Linear regression showed that an increase in mean age at delivery could only partly explain the increase in the frequency of reported miscarriages. A possible explanation could be differences in methods of identifying early pregnancy. Conclusion. Of all women who deliver a child, nearly 20% have experienced previous miscarriage. The increased mean age of women could only explain a small portion of the seen increase in miscarriage. The marked increase from 1991 to 1993 is interesting. Possible reasons for the increase are discussed.
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9.
  • Berg, Marie, 1955, et al. (författare)
  • Person-Centred Web Support to Women with Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy and Motherhood - The Development Process
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. - 1520-9156. ; 15:1, s. 20-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Pregnancy and early motherhood are extraordinarily demanding periods for women with type 1 diabetes, who therefore need optimal support. This article describes the process of developing person-centered Web-based support for women with type 1 diabetes during the period of pregnancy through early motherhood. Important aspects of person-centeredness are a broader scope of medicine, viewing the patient as a person, shared decision-making to accomplish a therapeutic alliance, and the role of documentation. Materials and Methods: A participatory design was used in the development process to capture the target group’s knowledge, experiences, and needs, and a systematic process map for Web-based support was used to describe the process. Results: Content and layout in the Web support were developed collaboratively by project managers, advisory and scientific reference groups, technical producers, and representatives for the target group. Based on needs assessment and evidence synthesis, three main components of complementary Web-based support were identified: (1) specific information about pregnancy, childbirth, and early motherhood in relation to type 1 diabetes; (2) a self-care diary, including a device for documenting and evaluating blood glucose levels, insulin doses, food intake, physical activities, and overall well-being; and (3) a forum for communication between women with type 1 diabetes in the childbearing period. Conclusions: Using a perspective of person-centered care, a participatory design and the process map was fruitful for developing person-centered Web support for self-care and self-learning. The developed Web support product will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial and further developed based on this result.
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10.
  • Eriksson, Katarina (författare)
  • Bacterial Vaginosis : Diagnosis, Prevalence, and Treatment
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by a foul smelling vaginal discharge, loss or reduction of the normal vaginal Lactobacilli, and overgrowth of other anaerobic bacteria. Thus, it presents a formidable problem for clinicians as well as microbiologists researching its etiology, clinical course, treatment, and epidemiology. The present work focuses on the unresolved issues of the epidemiology and treatment of BV in order to provide valid methods for treatment studies of this condition and to describe the prevalence of BV in defined populations.The first study validates the use of PAP-stained smears in the diagnosis of BV. The study assesses the methods of Amsel’s clinical criteria and Nugent criteria on Gram-stain smears, against Pap-stained smears and also validates different observers. The result shows that the PAP-staining of vaginal smears is a good method in BV diagnosis; the kappa value is 0.86 (interobserver weighted kappa index) compared to 0.81 for Gram-stained smears, and 0.70 for rehydrated air-dried smears using the mean Nugent score as the criterion standard. This enables population based studies on archived PAP-stained smears from the screening of cervical cancer.In the second study, we use the knowledge gained from study one to investigate the prevalence of BV in a cohort from the population of Åland. The prevalences of BV on the Åland Islands were: 15.6 %, 11.9 %, 8.7 %, and 8.6% in 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008, respectively. This means that the prevalence of BV decreased between1993-2008 from 15.6% to 8.6%. The confidence intervals are not overlapping, thus indicating a significant decrease in prevalence from 1993 to 2008.The third study is a prospective, double-blind placebo controlled treatment study of BV. After conventional treatment with clindamycin, the patients were treated with adjuvant treatment of Lactobacilli-loaded tampons or placebo. The study showed no differences between the treatment and the placebo group, indicating that the tampon does not work at all. There are a variety of possible explanations for the result, which are analyzed in this thesis.The fourth study aimed to evaluate whether clindamycin is retained for a long time in the vaginal mucosa, thus disturbing the Lactobacilli in an attempt to reimplant Lactobacilli in the probiotic treatment studies. In conventional treatment, it is also useful to know whether clindamycin is retained, especially when considering the pressure from antibiotics on the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. In the study, we found that the clindamycin disappears rapidly.Conclusion: BV research requires effort from many different scientific disciplines and the riddle of this condition and its treatment can only be resolved by concerted actions in research and treatment. The vision for the future includes, among other factors, better molecular biology based diagnostic tools, and knowledge of population based bacterial floras.
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