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  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Biological and environmental predictors of heterogeneity in neurocognitive ageing : Evidence from Betula and other longitudinal studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Ageing Research Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 1568-1637 .- 1872-9649. ; 64
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individual differences in cognitive performance increase with advancing age, reflecting marked cognitive changes in some individuals along with little or no change in others. Genetic and lifestyle factors are assumed to influence cognitive performance in aging by affecting the magnitude and extent of age-related brain changes (i.e., brain maintenance or atrophy), as well as the ability to recruit compensatory processes. The purpose of this review is to present findings from the Betula study and other longitudinal studies, with a focus on clarifying the role of key biological and environmental factors assumed to underlie individual differences in brain and cognitive aging. We discuss the vital importance of sampling, analytic methods, consideration of non-ignorable dropout, and related issues for valid conclusions on factors that influence healthy neurocognitive aging.
  • Stahl, Eli A, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 30 loci associated with bipolar disorder.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 51:5, s. 793-803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.
  • de Jong, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Applying polygenic risk scoring for psychiatric disorders to a large family with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2399-3642. ; 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. Traditionally, pedigrees are used to shed light on the latter only, while here we discuss the application of polygenic risk scores to also highlight patterns of common genetic risk. We analyze polygenic risk scores for psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree (n ~ 260) in which 30% of family members suffer from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. Joint analyses of rare and common variation may be a powerful way to understand the familial genetics of psychiatric disorders.
  • Hagg, S., et al. (författare)
  • Short telomere length is associated with impaired cognitive performance in European ancestry cohorts
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between telomere length (TL) dynamics on cognitive performance over the life-course is not well understood. This study meta-analyses observational and causal associations between TL and six cognitive traits, with stratifications on APOE genotype, in a Mendelian Randomization (MR) framework. Twelve European cohorts (N = 17 052; mean age = 59.2 +/- 8.8 years) provided results for associations between qPCR-measuredTL (T/S-ratio scale) and general cognitive function, mini-mental state exam (MMSE), processing speed by digit symbol substitution test (DSST), visuospatial functioning, memory and executive functioning (STROOP). In addition, a genetic risk score (GRS) for TL including seven known genetic variants for TL was calculated, and used in associations with cognitive traits as outcomes in all cohorts. Observational analyses showed that longer telomeres were associated with better scores on DSST (beta = 0.051 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.024, 0.077; P = 0.0002), and MMSE (beta = 0.025; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.047; P = 0.03), and faster STROOP (beta = -0.053; 95% CI: -0.087, -0.018; P = 0.003). Effects for DSST were stronger in APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers (beta = 0.081; 95% CI: 0.045, 0.117; P = 1.0 x 10(-5)), whereas carriers performed better in STROOP (beta = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.140, -0.009; P = 0.03). Causal associations were found for STROOP only (beta = -0.598 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% CI: -1.125, -0.072; P = 0.026), with a larger effect in epsilon 4-carriers (beta = -0.699; 95% CI: -1.330, -0.069; P = 0.03). Two-sample replication analyses using CHARGE summary statistics showed causal effects between TL and general cognitive function and DSST, but not with STROOP. In conclusion, we suggest causal effects from longer TL on better cognitive performance, where APOE epsilon 4-carriers might be at differential risk.
  • Kauppi, Karolina, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of polygenic risk for Alzheimer's disease on rate of cognitive decline in normal aging
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most people's cognitive abilities decline with age, with significant and partly genetically driven, individual differences in rate of change. Although APOE 4 and genetic scores for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) have been related to cognitive decline during preclinical stages of dementia, there is limited knowledge concerning genetic factors implied in normal cognitive aging. In the present study, we examined three potential genetic predictors of age-related cognitive decline as follows: (1) the APOE 4 allele, (2) a polygenic score for general cognitive ability (PGS-cog), and (3) a polygenic risk score for late-onset AD (PRS-LOAD). We examined up to six time points of cognitive measurements in the longitudinal population-based Betula study, covering a 25-year follow-up period. Only participants that remained alive and non-demented until the most recent dementia screening (1-3 years after the last test occasion) were included (n=1087). Individual differences in rate of cognitive change (composite score) were predicted by the PRS-LOAD and APOE 4, but not by PGS-cog. To control for the possibility that the results reflected a preclinical state of Alzheimer's disease in some participants, we re-ran the analyses excluding cognitive data from the last test occasion to model cognitive change up-until a minimum of 6 years before potential onset of clinical Alzheimers. Strikingly, the association of PRS-LOAD, but not APOE 4, with cognitive change remained. The results indicate that PRS-LOAD predicts individual difference in rate of cognitive decline in normal aging, but it remains to be determined to what extent this reflects preclinical Alzheimer's disease brain pathophysiology and subsequent risk to develop the disease.
  • Oudin, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden : A Longitudinal Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 124:3, s. 306-312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.RESULTS: Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia), with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 2.05 for the highest versus lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer's disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated for the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A sub-analysis that excluded a younger sample that had been re-tested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest versus lowest quartile).CONCLUSIONS: If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
  • Pudas, Sara, Fil. Dr. 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Short leukocyte telomeres, but not telomere attrition rates, predict memory decline in the 20-year longitudinal Betula study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - : Oxford University Press. - 1079-5006 .- 1758-535X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a proposed biomarker for aging-related disorders, including cognitive decline and dementia. Long-term longitudinal studies measuring intra-individual changes in both LTL and cognitive outcomes are scarce, precluding strong conclusions about a potential aging-related relationship between LTL shortening and cognitive decline. This study investigated associations between baseline levels and longitudinal changes in LTL and memory performance across an up to 20-year follow-up in 880 dementia-free participants from a population-based study (mean baseline age: 56.8 years, range: 40–80; 52% female). Shorter baseline LTL significantly predicted subsequent memory decline (r = .34, 95% confidence interval: 0.06, 0.82), controlling for age, sex, and other relevant covariates. No significant associations were however observed between intra-individual changes in LTL and memory, neither concurrently nor with a 5-year time-lag between LTL shortening and memory decline. These results support the notion of short LTL as a predictive factor for aging-related memory decline, but suggest that LTL dynamics in adulthood and older age may be less informative of cognitive outcomes in aging. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of long-term longitudinal evaluation of outcomes in biomarker research.
  • Szatkiewicz, Jin, et al. (författare)
  • The genomics of major psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree from Northern Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We searched for genetic causes of major psychiatric disorders (bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia) in a large, densely affected pedigree from Northern Sweden that originated with three pairs of founders born around 1650. We applied a systematic genomic approach to the pedigree via karyotyping (N = 9), genome-wide SNP arrays (N = 418), whole-exome sequencing (N = 26), and whole-genome sequencing (N = 10). Comprehensive analysis did not identify plausible variants of strong effect. Rather, pedigree cases had significantly higher genetic risk scores compared to pedigree and community controls.
  • Athanasiu, L., et al. (författare)
  • A genetic association study of CSMD1 and CSMD2 with cognitive function
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Brain Behavior and Immunity. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 61, s. 209-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The complement cascade plays a role in synaptic pruning and synaptic plasticity, which seem to be involved in cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. Genetic variants in the closely related CSMD1 and CSMD2 genes, which are implicated in complement regulation, are associated with schizophrenia. Since patients with schizophrenia often show cognitive impairments, we tested whether variants in CSMD1 and CSMD2 are also associated with cognitive functions per se. We took a discovery-replication approach, using well-characterized Scandinavian cohorts. A total of 1637 SNPs in CSMD1 and 206 SNPs in CSMD2 were tested for association with cognitive functions in the NCNG sample (Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics; n = 670). Replication testing of SNPs with p-value < 0.001 (7 in CSMD1 and 3 in CSMD2) was carried out in the TOP sample (Thematically Organized Psychosis; n =1025) and the BETULA sample (Betula Longitudinal Study on aging, memory and dementia; n = 1742). Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of these SNPs using all three samples. The previously identified schizophrenia marker in CSMD1 (SNP rs10503253) was also included. The strongest association was observed between the CSMDI SNP rs2740931 and performance in immediate episodic memory (p-value = 5 Chi 10(-6), minor allele A, MAF 0.48-0.49, negative direction of effect). This association reached the study-wide significance level (p <= 1.2 Chi 10(-5)). SNP rs10503253 was not significantly associated with cognitive functions in our samples. In conclusion, we studied n = 3437 individuals and found evidence that a variant in CSMD1 is associated with cognitive function. Additional studies of larger samples with cognitive phenotypes will be needed to further clarify the role of CSMD1 in cognitive phenotypes in health and disease. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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