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  • [1]234567...9Nästa
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1.
  • Brandt, Christine Lycke, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive effort and schizophrenia modulate large-scale functional brain connectivity
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia Bulletin. - 0586-7614 .- 1745-1701. ; 41:6, s. 1360-1369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia (SZ) is characterized by cognitive dysfunction and disorganized thought, in addition to hallucinations and delusions, and is regarded a disorder of brain connectivity. Recent efforts have been made to characterize the underlying brain network organization and interactions. However, to which degree connectivity alterations in SZ vary across different levels of cognitive effort is unknown. Utilizing independent component analysis (ICA) and methods for delineating functional connectivity measures from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we investigated the effects of cognitive effort, SZ and their interactions on between-network functional connectivity during 2 levels of cognitive load in a large and well-characterized sample of SZ patients (n = 99) and healthy individuals (n = 143). Cognitive load influenced a majority of the functional connections, including but not limited to fronto-parietal and default-mode networks, reflecting both decreases and increases in between-network synchronization. Reduced connectivity in SZ was identified in 2 large-scale functional connections across load conditions, with a particular involvement of an insular network. The results document an important role of interactions between insular, default-mode, and visual networks in SZ pathophysiology. The interplay between brain networks was robustly modulated by cognitive effort, but the reduced functional connectivity in SZ, primarily related to an insular network, was independent of cognitive load, indicating a relatively general brain network-level dysfunction.
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2.
  • Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of human brainstem structures and their involvement in common brain disorders
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brainstem regions support vital bodily functions, yet their genetic architectures and involvement in common brain disorders remain understudied. Here, using imaging-genetics data from a discovery sample of 27,034 individuals, we identify 45 brainstem-associated genetic loci, including the first linked to midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata volumes, and map them to 305 genes. In a replication sample of 7432 participants most of the loci show the same effect direction and are significant at a nominal threshold. We detect genetic overlap between brainstem volumes and eight psychiatric and neurological disorders. In additional clinical data from 5062 individuals with common brain disorders and 11,257 healthy controls, we observe differential volume alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, multiple sclerosis, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Parkinson's disease, supporting the relevance of brainstem regions and their genetic architectures in common brain disorders. The genetic architecture underlying brainstem regions and how this links to common brain disorders is not well understood. Here, the authors use MRI and GWAS data from 27,034 individuals to identify genetic and morphological brainstem features that influence common brain disorders.
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3.
  • Lycke Brandt, Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Working memory networks and activation patterns in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder : comparison with healthy controls
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - 0007-1250 .- 1472-1465. ; 204:4, s. 290-298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe mental disorders with overlapping genetic and clinical characteristics, including cognitive impairments. An important question is whether these disorders also have overlapping neuronal deficits.AIMS: To determine whether large-scale brain networks associated with working memory, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are the same in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and how they differ from those in healthy individuals.METHOD: Patients with schizophrenia (n = 100) and bipolar disorder (n = 100) and a healthy control group (n = 100) performed a 2-back working memory task while fMRI data were acquired. The imaging data were analysed using independent component analysis to extract large-scale networks of task-related activations.RESULTS: Similar working memory networks were activated in all groups. However, in three out of nine networks related to the experimental task there was a graded response difference in fMRI signal amplitudes, where patients with schizophrenia showed greater activation than those with bipolar disorder, who in turn showed more activation than healthy controls. Secondary analysis of the patient groups showed that these activation patterns were associated with history of psychosis and current elevated mood in bipolar disorder.CONCLUSIONS: The same brain networks were related to working memory in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and controls. However, some key networks showed a graded hyperactivation in the two patient groups, in line with a continuum of neuronal abnormalities across psychotic disorders.
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4.
  • Welander-Vatn, Audun, et al. (författare)
  • The neural correlates of cognitive control in bipolar I disorder : an fMRI study of medial frontal cortex activation during a Go/No-go task
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - 0304-3940 .- 1872-7972. ; 549, s. 51-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to dysregulation of mood, bipolar I disorder (BD I) is characterized by abnormalities in the execution of cognitive control. Hypoactivation of a specific sub-region in the cognitive control network, located in the medial frontal cortex, has been described among BD I patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with BD I showed decreased activation in this brain region as compared to healthy controls when performing a cognitive control task. Twenty-four BD I patients and 24 healthy controls performed a Go/No-go task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. Performance and response times were recorded. The BD I subjects had significantly slower response times and more patients made errors of omission compared to the healthy controls during the task. Both BD I subjects and healthy controls demonstrated activations in the brain region of interest during the task, but analyses revealed no statistically significant differences between groups. Although the patients display some deviances in behavioural measures, this study reveals no significant differences between BD I subjects and healthy controls in recruitment of the medial frontal cortex during a Go/No-go task.
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5.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal Structural Brain Changes in Bipolar Disorder: A Multicenter Neuroimaging Study of 1232 Individuals by the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - 1873-2402. ; 91:6, s. 582-592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with cortical and subcortical structural brain abnormalities. It is unclear whether such alterations progressively change over time, and how this is related to the number of mood episodes. To address this question, we analyzed a large and diverse international sample with longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical data to examine structural brain changes over time in BD.Longitudinal structural MRI and clinical data from the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) BD Working Group, including 307 patients with BD and 925 healthy control subjects, were collected from 14 sites worldwide. Male and female participants, aged 40 ± 17 years, underwent MRI at 2 time points. Cortical thickness, surface area, and subcortical volumes were estimated using FreeSurfer. Annualized change rates for each imaging phenotype were compared between patients with BD and healthy control subjects. Within patients, we related brain change rates to the number of mood episodes between time points and tested for effects of demographic and clinical variables.Compared with healthy control subjects, patients with BD showed faster enlargement of ventricular volumes and slower thinning of the fusiform and parahippocampal cortex (0.18
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6.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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7.
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8.
  • Brandt, Christine Lycke, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive effort and schizophrenia modulate large-scale functional brain connectivity
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia Bulletin. - : Oxford University Press. - 0586-7614 .- 1745-1701. ; 41:6, s. 1360-1369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia (SZ) is characterized by cognitive dysfunction and disorganized thought, in addition to hallucinations and delusions, and is regarded a disorder of brain connectivity. Recent efforts have been made to characterize the underlying brain network organization and interactions. However, to which degree connectivity alterations in SZ vary across different levels of cognitive effort is unknown. Utilizing independent component analysis (ICA) and methods for delineating functional connectivity measures from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we investigated the effects of cognitive effort, SZ and their interactions on between-network functional connectivity during 2 levels of cognitive load in a large and well-characterized sample of SZ patients (n = 99) and healthy individuals (n = 143). Cognitive load influenced a majority of the functional connections, including but not limited to fronto-parietal and default-mode networks, reflecting both decreases and increases in between-network synchronization. Reduced connectivity in SZ was identified in 2 large-scale functional connections across load conditions, with a particular involvement of an insular network. The results document an important role of interactions between insular, default-mode, and visual networks in SZ pathophysiology. The interplay between brain networks was robustly modulated by cognitive effort, but the reduced functional connectivity in SZ, primarily related to an insular network, was independent of cognitive load, indicating a relatively general brain network-level dysfunction.
  •  
9.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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10.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
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