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Sökning: WFRF:(Aitken Joanne)

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1.
  • Abrahams, Harriët J. G., et al. (författare)
  • Moderators of the effect of psychosocial interventions on fatigue in women with breast cancer and men with prostate cancer : Individual patient data meta-analyses
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Psycho-Oncology. - 1057-9249 .- 1099-1611. ; 29:11, s. 1772-1785
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivePsychosocial interventions can reduce cancer‐related fatigue effectively. However, it is still unclear if intervention effects differ across subgroups of patients. These meta‐analyses aimed at evaluating moderator effects of (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) clinical characteristics, (c) baseline levels of fatigue and other symptoms, and (d) intervention‐related characteristics on the effect of psychosocial interventions on cancer‐related fatigue in patients with non‐metastatic breast and prostate cancer.MethodsData were retrieved from the Predicting OptimaL cAncer RehabIlitation and Supportive care (POLARIS) consortium. Potential moderators were studied with meta‐analyses of pooled individual patient data from 14 randomized controlled trials through linear mixed‐effects models with interaction tests. The analyses were conducted separately in patients with breast (n = 1091) and prostate cancer (n = 1008).ResultsStatistically significant, small overall effects of psychosocial interventions on fatigue were found (breast cancer: β = −0.19 [95% confidence interval (95%CI) = −0.30; −0.08]; prostate cancer: β = −0.11 [95%CI = −0.21; −0.00]). In both patient groups, intervention effects did not differ significantly by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics, nor by baseline levels of fatigue or pain. For intervention‐related moderators (only tested among women with breast cancer), statistically significant larger effects were found for cognitive behavioral therapy as intervention strategy (β = −0.27 [95%CI = −0.40; −0.15]), fatigue‐specific interventions (β = −0.48 [95%CI = −0.79; −0.18]), and interventions that only targeted patients with clinically relevant fatigue (β = −0.85 [95%CI = −1.40; −0.30]).ConclusionsOur findings did not provide evidence that any selected demographic or clinical characteristic, or baseline levels of fatigue or pain, moderated effects of psychosocial interventions on fatigue. A specific focus on decreasing fatigue seems beneficial for patients with breast cancer with clinically relevant fatigue.
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  • Barrett, Jennifer H., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies three new melanoma susceptibility loci
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:11, s. 1108-1113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a genome-wide association study for melanoma that was conducted by the GenoMEL Consortium. Our discovery phase included 2,981 individuals with melanoma and 1,982 study-specific control individuals of European ancestry, as well as an additional 6,426 control subjects from French or British populations, all of whom were genotyped for 317,000 or 610,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our analysis replicated previously known melanoma susceptibility loci. Seven new regions with at least one SNP with P < 10(-5) and further local imputed or genotyped support were selected for replication using two other genome-wide studies (from Australia and Texas, USA). Additional replication came from case-control series from the UK and The Netherlands. Variants at three of the seven loci replicated at P < 10(-3): an SNP in ATM (rs1801516, overall P = 3.4 x 10(-9)), an SNP in MX2 (rs45430, P = 2.9 x 10-9) and an SNP adjacent to CASP8 (rs13016963, P = 8.6 x 10(-10)). A fourth locus near CCND1 remains of potential interest, showing suggestive but inconclusive evidence of replication (rs1485993, overall P = 4.6 x 10(-7) under a fixed-effects model and P = 1.2 x 10(-3) under a random-effects model). These newly associated variants showed no association with nevus or pigmentation phenotypes in a large British case-control series.
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  • Bishop, D. Timothy, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies three loci associated with melanoma risk
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 41:8, s. 920-925
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a genome-wide association study of melanoma conducted by the GenoMEL consortium based on 317K tagging SNPs for 1,650 selected cases and 4,336 controls, with replication in an additional two cohorts (1,149 selected cases and 964 controls from GenoMEL, and a population-based case-control study in Leeds of 1,163 cases and 903 controls). The genome-wide screen identified five loci with genotyped or imputed SNPs reaching P < 5 x 10(-7). Three of these loci were replicated: 16q24 encompassing MC1R (combined P = 2.54 x 10(-27) for rs258322), 11q14-q21 encompassing TYR (P = 2.41 x 10(-14) for rs1393350) and 9p21 adjacent to MTAP and flanking CDKN2A (P = 4.03 x 10(-7) for rs7023329). MC1R and TYR are associated with pigmentation, freckling and cutaneous sun sensitivity, well-recognized melanoma risk factors. Common variants within the 9p21 locus have not previously been associated with melanoma. Despite wide variation in allele frequency, these genetic variants show notable homogeneity of effect across populations of European ancestry living at different latitudes and show independent association to disease risk.
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  • Brown, Kevin M., et al. (författare)
  • Common sequence variants on 20q11.22 confer melanoma susceptibility
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 40:7, s. 838-840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted a genome-wide association pooling study for cutaneous melanoma and performed validation in samples totaling 2,019 cases and 2,105 controls. Using pooling, we identified a new melanoma risk locus on chromosome 20 (rs910873 and rs1885120), with replication in two further samples (combined P < 1 x 10(-15)). The per allele odds ratio was 1.75 (1.53, 2.01), with evidence for stronger association in early-onset cases.
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  • Devin, James L, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of high-intensity compared with moderate-intensity exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors : a randomised controlled trial.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of cancer survivorship. - 1932-2259 .- 1932-2267. ; 10:3, s. 467-479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Following colorectal cancer diagnosis and anti-cancer therapy, declines in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality. There is increasing interest within the field of exercise oncology surrounding potential strategies to remediate these adverse outcomes. This study compared 4 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity exercise (HIE) training on peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors.METHODS: Forty seven post-treatment colorectal cancer survivors (HIE = 27 months post-treatment; MIE = 38 months post-treatment) were randomised to either HIE [85-95 % peak heart rate (HRpeak)] or MIE (70 % HRpeak) in equivalence with current physical activity guidelines and completed 12 training sessions over 4 weeks.RESULTS: HIE was superior to MIE in improving absolute (p = 0.016) and relative (p = 0.021) V̇O2peak. Absolute (+0.28 L.min(-1), p < 0.001) and relative (+3.5 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), p < 0.001) V̇O2 peak were increased in the HIE group but not the MIE group following training. HIE led to significant increases in lean mass (+0.72 kg, p = 0.002) and decreases in fat mass (-0.74 kg, p < 0.001) and fat percentage (-1.0 %, p < 0.001), whereas no changes were observed for the MIE group. There were no severe adverse events.CONCLUSIONS: In response to short-term training, HIE is a safe, feasible and efficacious intervention that offers clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition for colorectal cancer survivors.IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: HIE appears to offer superior improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in comparison to current physical activity recommendations for colorectal cancer survivors and therefore may be an effective clinical utility following treatment.
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  • MacGregor, Stuart, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies a new melanoma susceptibility locus at 1q21.3
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:11, s. 1114-1118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed a genome-wide association study of melanoma in a discovery cohort of 2,168 Australian individuals with melanoma and 4,387 control individuals. In this discovery phase, we confirm several previously characterized melanoma-associated loci at MC1R, ASIP and MTAP-CDKN2A. We selected variants at nine loci for replication in three independent case-control studies (Europe: 2,804 subjects with melanoma, 7,618 control subjects; United States 1: 1,804 subjects with melanoma, 1,026 control subjects; United States 2: 585 subjects with melanoma, 6,500 control subjects). The combined meta-analysis of all case-control studies identified a new susceptibility locus at 1q21.3 (rs7412746, P = 9.0 x 10(-11), OR in combined replication cohorts of 0.89 (95% CI 0.85-0.95)). We also show evidence suggesting that melanoma associates with 1q42.12 (rs3219090, P = 9.3 x 10(-8)). The associated variants at the 1q21.3 locus span a region with ten genes, and plausible candidate genes for melanoma susceptibility include ARNT and SETDB1. Variants at the 1q21.3 locus do not seem to be associated with human pigmentation or measures of nevus density.
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  • Atun, Rifat, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainable care for children with cancer : a Lancet Oncology Commission
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1470-2045. ; 21:4, s. 185-224
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We estimate that there will be 13·7 million new cases of childhood cancer globally between 2020 and 2050. At current levels of health system performance (including access and referral), 6·1 million (44·9%) of these children will be undiagnosed. Between 2020 and 2050, 11·1 million children will die from cancer if no additional investments are made to improve access to health-care services or childhood cancer treatment. Of this total, 9·3 million children (84·1%) will be in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. This burden could be vastly reduced with new funding to scale up cost-effective interventions. Simultaneous comprehensive scale-up of interventions could avert 6·2 million deaths in children with cancer in this period, more than half (56·1%) of the total number of deaths otherwise projected. Taking excess mortality risk into consideration, this reduction in the number of deaths is projected to produce a gain of 318 million life-years. In addition, the global lifetime productivity gains of US$2580 billion in 2020–50 would be four times greater than the cumulative treatment costs of $594 billion, producing a net benefit of $1986 billion on the global investment: a net return of $3 for every $1 invested. In sum, the burden of childhood cancer, which has been grossly underestimated in the past, can be effectively diminished to realise massive health and economic benefits and to avert millions of needless deaths.
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