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Sökning: WFRF:(Akerman AK)

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1.
  • Vouzouneraki, K., et al. (författare)
  • Temporal relationship of sleep apnea and acromegaly: a nationwide study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Endocrine. - : Springer. - 1355-008X .- 1559-0100. ; 62:2, s. 456-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposePatients with acromegaly have an increased risk of sleep apnea, but reported prevalence rates vary largely. Here we aimed to evaluate the sleep apnea prevalence in a large national cohort of patients with acromegaly, to examine possible risk factors, and to assess the proportion of patients diagnosed with sleep apnea prior to acromegaly diagnosis.MethodsCross-sectional multicenter study of 259 Swedish patients with acromegaly. At patients' follow-up visits at the endocrine outpatient clinics of all seven university hospitals in Sweden, questionnaires were completed to assess previous sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment, cardiovascular diseases, smoking habits, anthropometric data, and S-IGF-1 levels. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients suspected to have undiagnosed sleep apnea were referred for sleep apnea investigations.ResultsOf the 259 participants, 75 (29%) were diagnosed with sleep apnea before the study start. In 43 (57%) of these patients, sleep apnea had been diagnosed before the diagnosis of acromegaly. After clinical assessment and sleep studies, sleep apnea was diagnosed in an additional 20 patients, yielding a total sleep apnea prevalence of 37%. Higher sleep apnea risk was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, and index finger circumference. Sleep apnea was more frequent among patients with S-IGF-1 levels in the highest quartile.ConclusionSleep apnea is common among patients with acromegaly, and is often diagnosed prior to their acromegaly diagnosis. These results support early screening for sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly and awareness for acromegaly in patients with sleep apnea.
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2.
  • Dalin, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and immunological characteristics of autoimmune addison disease : A nationwide swedish multicenter study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 102:2, s. 379-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Studies of the clinical and immunological features of autoimmune Addison disease (AAD) are needed to understand the disease burden and increased mortality. Objective: To provide upgraded data on autoimmune comorbidities, replacement therapy, autoantibody profiles, and cardiovascular risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional, population-based study that included 660 AAD patients from the Swedish Addison Registry (2008-2014). When analyzing the cardiovascular risk factors, 3594 individuals from the population-based survey in Northern Sweden, MONICA (monitoring of trends and determinants of cardiovascular disease), served as controls. Main Outcome Measures: The endpoints were the prevalence of autoimmune comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Autoantibodies against 13 autoantigens were determined. Results: The proportion of 21-hydroxylase autoantibody-positive patients was 83%, and 62% of patients had ≥1 associated autoimmune diseases, more frequently coexisting in females (P < 0.0001). AAD patients had a lower body mass index (P < 0.0001) and prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.027) compared with controls. Conventional hydrocortisone tablets were used by 89% of the patients, with a mean dose of 28.1 ± 8.5 mg/d. The mean hydrocortisone equivalent dose normalized to the body surface was 14.8±4.4 mg/m2/d. A greater hydrocortisone equivalent dose was associated with a greater incidence of hypertension (P = 0.046). Conclusions: Careful monitoring of AAD patients is warranted to detect associated autoimmune diseases. Contemporary Swedish AAD patients did not have an increased prevalence of overweight, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or hyperlipidemia. However, high glucocorticoid replacement doses could be a risk factor for hypertension.
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3.
  • Papakokkinou, Eleni, et al. (författare)
  • Excess Morbidity Persists in Patients With Cushing's Disease During Long-term Remission : A Swedish Nationwide Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - Washington : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 105:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Whether multisystem morbidity in Cushing's disease (CD) remains elevated during long-term remission is still undetermined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate comorbidities in patients with CD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: A retrospective, nationwide study of patients with CD identified in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1987 and 2013. Individual medical records were reviewed to verify diagnosis and remission status. MAIN OUTCOMES: Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using the Swedish general population as reference. Comorbidities were investigated during three different time periods: (i) during the 3 years before diagnosis, (ii) from diagnosis to 1 year after remission, and (iii) during long-term remission. RESULTS: We included 502 patients with confirmed CD, of whom 419 were in remission for a median of 10 (interquartile range 4 to 21) years. SIRs (95% CI) for myocardial infarction (4.4; 1.2 to 11.4), fractures (4.9; 2.7 to 8.3), and deep vein thrombosis (13.8; 3.8 to 35.3) were increased during the 3-year period before diagnosis. From diagnosis until 1 year after remission, SIRs (95% CI were increased for thromboembolism (18.3; 7.9 to 36.0), stroke (4.9; 1.3 to 12.5), and sepsis (13.6; 3.7 to 34.8). SIRs for thromboembolism (4.9; 2.6 to 8.4), stroke (3.1; 1.8 to 4.9), and sepsis (6.0; 3.1 to 10.6) remained increased during long-term remission. CONCLUSION: Patients with CD have an increased incidence of stroke, thromboembolism, and sepsis even after remission, emphasizing the importance of early identification and management of risk factors for these comorbidities during long-term follow-up.
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4.
  • Papakokkinou, Eleni, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Nelson's syndrome after bilateral adrenalectomy in patients with cushing's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - : Springer. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Bilateral adrenalectomy (BA) still plays an important role in the management of Cushing's disease (CD). Nelson's syndrome (NS) is a severe complication of BA, but conflicting data on its prevalence and predicting factors have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NS, and identify factors associated with its development. Data sources Systematic literature search in four databases. Study Selection Observational studies reporting the prevalence of NS after BA in adult patients with CD. Data extraction Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by three independent investigators. Data synthesis Thirty-six studies, with a total of 1316 CD patients treated with BA, were included for the primary outcome. Pooled prevalence of NS was 26% (95% CI 22-31%), with moderate to high heterogeneity (I-2 67%, P < 0.01). The time from BA to NS varied from 2 months to 39 years. The prevalence of NS in the most recently published studies, where magnet resonance imaging was used, was 38% (95% CI 27-50%). The prevalence of treatment for NS was 21% (95% CI 18-26%). Relative risk for NS was not significantly affected by prior pituitary radiotherapy [0.9 (95% CI 0.5-1.6)] or pituitary surgery [0.6 (95% CI 0.4-1.0)]. Conclusions Every fourth patient with CD treated with BA develops NS, and every fifth patient requires pituitary-specific treatment. The risk of NS may persist for up to four decades after BA. Life-long follow-up is essential for early detection and adequate treatment of NS.
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5.
  • Ragnarsson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • Overall and Disease-Specific Mortality in Patients With Cushing Disease: A Swedish Nationwide Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : ENDOCRINE SOC. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 104:6, s. 2375-2384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Whether patients with Cushing disease (CD) in remission have increased mortality is still debatable. Objective: To study overall and disease-specific mortality and predictive factors in an unselected nationwide cohort of patients with CD. Design, Patients, and Methods: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CD, identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry between 1987 and 2013. Medical records were systematically reviewed to verify the diagnosis. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% CIs were calculated and Cox regression models were used to identify predictors of mortality. Results: Of 502 identified patients with CD (n = 387 women; 77%), 419 (83%) were confirmed to be in remission. Mean age at diagnosis was 43 (SD, 16) years and median follow-up was 13 (interquartile range, 6 to 23) years. The observed number of deaths was 133 vs 54 expected, resulting in an overall SMR of 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1 to 2.9). The commonest cause of death was cardiovascular diseases (SMR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.6 to 4.3). Excess mortality was also found associated with infections and suicide. For patients in remission, the SMR was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.3); bilateral adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid replacement therapy were independently associated with increased mortality, whereas GH replacement was associated with improved outcome. Conclusion: Findings from this large nationwide study indicate that patients with CD have excess mortality. The findings illustrate the importance of achieving remission and continued active surveillance, along with adequate hormone replacement and evaluation of cardiovascular risk and mental health.
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6.
  • Saevik, Ase Bjorvatn, et al. (författare)
  • Residual Corticosteroid Production in Autoimmune Addison Disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Washington : Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 105:7, s. 2430-2441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Contrary to current dogma, growing evidence suggests that some patients with autoimmune Addison disease (AAD) produce corticosteroids even years after diagnosis.Objective: To determine frequencies and clinical features of residual corticosteroid production in patients with AAD.Design: Two-staged, cross-sectional clinical study in 17 centers (Norway, Sweden, and Germany). Residual glucocorticoid (GC) production was defined as quantifiable serum cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol and residual mineralocorticoid (MC) production as quantifiable serum aldosterone and corticosterone after > 18 hours of medication fasting. Corticosteroids were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Clinical variables included frequency of adrenal crises and quality of life. Peak cortisol response was evaluated by a standard 250 mu g cosyntropin test.Results: Fifty-eight (30.2%) of 192 patients had residual GC production, more common in men (n = 33; P < 0.002) and in shorter disease duration (median 6 [0-44] vs 13 [0-53] years; P< 0.001). Residual MC production was found in 26 (13.5%) patients and associated with shorter disease duration (median 5.5 [0.5-26.0] vs 13 [0-53] years; P< 0.004), lower fludrocortisone replacement dosage (median 0.075 [0.050-0.120] vs 0.100 [0.028-0.300] mg; P< 0.005), and higher plasma renin concentration (median 179 [22-915] vs 47.5 [0.6-658.0] mU/L; P< 0.001). There was no significant association between residual production and frequency of adrenal crises or quality of life. None had a normal cosyntropin response, but peak cortisol strongly correlated with unstimulated cortisol (r = 0.989; P< 0.001) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; r=-0.487; P< 0.001).Conclusion: In established AAD, one-third of the patients still produce GCs even decades after diagnosis. Residual production is more common in men and in patients with shorter disease duration but is not associated with adrenal crises or quality of life.
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7.
  • Ragnarsson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of Cushing's disease : a nationwide Swedish study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - : Springer. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403. ; 22:2, s. 179-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies on the incidence of Cushing’s disease (CD) are few and usually limited by a small number of patients. The aim of this study was to assess the annual incidence in a nationwide cohort of patients with presumed CD in Sweden.Methods: Patients registered with a diagnostic code for Cushing’s syndrome (CS) or CD, between 1987 and 2013 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry. The CD diagnosis was validated by reviewing clinical, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological data.Results: Of 1317 patients identified, 534 (41%) had confirmed CD. One-hundred-and-fifty-six (12%) patients had other forms of CS, 41 (3%) had probable but unconfirmed CD, and 334 (25%) had diagnoses unrelated to CS. The mean (95% confidence interval) annual incidence between 1987 and 2013 of confirmed CD was 1.6 (1.4–1.8) cases per million. 1987–1995, 1996–2004, and 2005–2013, the mean annual incidence was 1.5 (1.1–1.8), 1.4 (1.0–1.7) and 2.0 (1.7–2.3) cases per million, respectively. During the last time period the incidence was higher than during the first and second time periods (P < 0.05).Conclusion: The incidence of CD in Sweden (1.6 cases per million) is in agreement with most previous reports. A higher incidence between 2005 and 2013 compared to 1987–2004 was noticed. Whether this reflects a truly increased incidence of the disease, or simply an increased awareness, earlier recognition, and earlier diagnosis can, however, not be answered. This study also illustrates the importance of validation of the diagnosis of CD in epidemiological research.
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8.
  • Saevik, Å B, et al. (författare)
  • Clues for early detection of autoimmune Addison's disease - myths and realities.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - : WILEY. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 283:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early detection of autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is important as delay in diagnosis may result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis and death. The classical clinical picture of untreated AAD is well-described, but methodical investigations are scarce.Perform a retrospective audit of patient records with the aim of identifying biochemical markers for early diagnosis of AAD.A multicentre retrospective study including 272 patients diagnosed with AAD at hospitals in Norway and Sweden during 1978-2016. Scrutiny of medical records provided patient data and laboratory values.Low sodium occurred in 207 of 247 (84%), but only one-third had elevated potassium. Other common nonendocrine tests were largely normal. TSH was elevated in 79 of 153 patients, and hypoglycaemia was found in 10%. Thirty-three per cent were diagnosed subsequent to adrenal crisis, in whom electrolyte disturbances were significantly more pronounced (P < 0.001). Serum cortisol was consistently decreased (median 62 nmol L(-1) [1-668]) and significantly lower in individuals with adrenal crisis (38 nmol L(-1) [2-442]) than in those without (81 nmol L(-1) [1-668], P < 0.001).The most consistent biochemical finding of untreated AAD was low sodium independent of the degree of glucocorticoid deficiency. Half of the patients had elevated TSH levels. Only a minority presented with marked hyperkalaemia or other nonhormonal abnormalities. Thus, unexplained low sodium and/or elevated TSH should prompt consideration of an undiagnosed AAD, and on clinical suspicion bring about assay of cortisol and ACTH. Presence of 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies confirms autoimmune aetiology. Anticipating additional abnormalities in routine blood tests may delay diagnosis.
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