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  • Abercrombie, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Dark Matter benchmark models for early LHC Run-2 Searches : Report of the ATLAS/CMS Dark Matter Forum
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physics of the Dark Universe. - 0953-8585 .- 2212-6864. ; 27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This document is the final report of the ATLAS-CMS Dark Matter Forum, a forum organized by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations with the participation of experts on theories of Dark Matter, to select a minimal basis set of dark matter simplified models that should support the design of the early LHC Run-2 searches. A prioritized, compact set of benchmark models is proposed, accompanied by studies of the parameter space of these models and a repository of generator implementations. This report also addresses how to apply the Effective Field Theory formalism for collider searches and present the results of such interpretations.
  • Mantzouki, Evanthia, et al. (författare)
  • Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Toxins. - : MDPI. - 2072-6651 .- 2072-6651. ; 10:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale. Direct and indirect effects of temperature were the main drivers of the spatial distribution in the toxins produced by the cyanobacterial community, the toxin concentrations and toxin quota. Generalized linear models showed that a Toxin Diversity Index (TDI) increased with latitude, while it decreased with water stability. Increases in TDI were explained through a significant increase in toxin variants such as MC-YR, anatoxin and cylindrospermopsin, accompanied by a decreasing presence of MC-LR. While global warming continues, the direct and indirect effects of increased lake temperatures will drive changes in the distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in Europe, potentially promoting selection of a few highly toxic species or strains.
  • Azzouzi, Abdel Rahmène, et al. (författare)
  • Padeliporfin vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy versus active surveillance in men with low-risk prostate cancer (CLIN1001 PCM301) : An open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1470-2045. ; 18:2, s. 181-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy, a novel tissue-preserving treatment for low-risk prostate cancer, has shown favourable safety and efficacy results in single-arm phase 1 and 2 studies. We compared this treatment with the standard of care, active surveillance, in men with low-risk prostate cancer in a phase 3 trial. Methods: This randomised controlled trial was done in 47 European university centres and community hospitals. Men with low-risk, localised prostate cancer (Gleason pattern 3) who had received no previous treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (4 mg/kg padeliporfin intravenously over 10 min and optical fibres inserted into the prostate to cover the desired treatment zone and subsequent activation by laser light 753 nm with a fixed power of 150 mW/cm for 22 min 15 s) or active surveillance. Randomisation was done by a web-based allocation system stratified by centre with balanced blocks of two or four patients. Best practice for active surveillance at the time of study design was followed (ie, biopsy at 12-month intervals and prostate-specific antigen measurement and digital rectal examination at 3-month intervals). The co-primary endpoints were treatment failure (histological progression of cancer from low to moderate or high risk or death during 24 months' follow-up) and absence of definite cancer (absence of any histology result definitely positive for cancer at month 24). Analysis was by intention to treat. Treatment was open-label, but investigators assessing primary efficacy outcomes were masked to treatment allocation. This trial is registered with . ClinicalTrials.gov, number . NCT01310894. Findings: Between March 8, 2011, and April 30, 2013, we randomly assigned 206 patients to vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy and 207 patients to active surveillance. Median follow-up was 24 months (IQR 24-25). The proportion of participants who had disease progression at month 24 was 58 (28%) of 206 in the vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy group compared with 120 (58%) of 207 in the active surveillance group (adjusted hazard ratio 0·34, 95% CI 0·24-0·46; p<0·0001). 101 (49%) men in the vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy group had a negative prostate biopsy result at 24 months post treatment compared with 28 (14%) men in the active surveillance group (adjusted risk ratio 3·67, 95% CI 2·53-5·33; p<0·0001). Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy was well tolerated. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were prostatitis (three [2%] in the vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy group . vs one [<1%] in the active surveillance group), acute urinary retention (three [2%] . vs one [<1%]) and erectile dysfunction (two [1%] . vs three [1%]). The most common serious adverse event in the vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy group was retention of urine (15 patients; severe in three); this event resolved within 2 months in all patients. The most common serious adverse event in the active surveillance group was myocardial infarction (three patients). Interpretation: Padeliporfin vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy is a safe, effective treatment for low-risk, localised prostate cancer. This treatment might allow more men to consider a tissue-preserving approach and defer or avoid radical therapy. Funding: Steba Biotech.
  • Catto, James W. F., et al. (författare)
  • MicroRNA in Prostate, Bladder, and Kidney Cancer: A Systematic Review
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 59:5, s. 671-681
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that post- transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Their altered expression and function have been observed in most urologic cancers. MiRNAs represent potential disease biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets. Objective: To review and evaluate the evidence implicating miRNAs in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa), bladder cancer (BCa), and renal cancer. Evidence acquisition: A systematic review was performed using PubMed and Embase to search for reports using strings for microRNA, non- coding RNA, cancer, prostate, bladder, and renal cancer. Identified manuscripts were retrieved and references searched. Selected studies were required to concentrate on the role of miRNA in these urologic cancers. Evidence synthesis: We reviewed articles that focus on this topic. More than 40 miRNAs have been implicated in urologic cancer and many target common carcinogenic pathways. In particular, apoptosis avoidance, cell proliferation, epithelial- to- mesenchymal transition, angiogenic signalling, and the generation of androgen independence are targeted or facilitated by more than one miRNA. Little work has been done to evaluate the translational applications for this knowledge to date. Novel therapeutic strategies have been developed and are under investigation to selectively modulate miRNAs; such work would potentially enable personalised tumour therapy. Conclusions: MiRNAs appear to be important modulators of urologic cancer. Their expression is frequently altered in these tumours, and many are functionally implicated in their pathogenesis. They require evaluation to determine the translational role and therapeutic potential for this knowledge. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B. V. on behalf of European Association of Urology. All rights reserved.
  • Kovacs, Katalin T., et al. (författare)
  • Change in autoantibody and cytokine responses during the evolution of neuromyelitis optica in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus : A preliminary study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Multiple Sclerosis Journal. - : SAGE Publications. - 1352-4585. ; 22:9, s. 1192-1201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) association is a rare condition characterized by multiple autoantibodies. Objective: To examine if, during the evolution of NMO, anti-AQP4 responses are part of polyclonal B cell activation, and if T cell responses contribute. Methods: In 19 samples of six patients who developed NMO during SLE, we examined the correlation of AQP4-IgG1 and IgM with (i) anti-MOG IgG and IgM, (ii) anti-nuclear, anti-nucleosome and anti-dsDNA IgG antibodies, (iii) cytokines and chemokines in the serum and (iv) longitudinal relation to NMO relapses/remission. Results: AQP4-IgG1 was present 1-2-5 years before the first NMO relapse. During relapse, AQP4-IgG1, ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-nucleosome antibodies were elevated. Anti-MOG IgG/IgM and AQP4-IgM antibodies were not detected. AQP4-IgG1 antibodies correlated with concentration of anti-nucleosome, IFN-γ,interferon-gamma-induced CCL10/IP-10 and CCL17/TARC (p
  • Schroeder, Fritz H., et al. (författare)
  • Can dutasteride delay or prevent the progression of prostate cancer in patients with biochemical failure after radical therapy? Rationale and design of the Avodart after Radical Therapy for Prostate Cancer Study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BJU International. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1464-4096. ; 103:5, s. 590-596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To describe the Avodart after Radical Therapy for prostate cancer Study (ARTS), investigating the use of dutasteride (a dual 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor that suppresses intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone, reduces tumour volume and improves other markers of tumour regression in prostate cancer) to prevent or delay disease progression in patients with biochemical recurrence after therapy with curative intent. An increasing serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT) is indicative of recurrent prostate cancer and typically pre-dates clinically detectable metastatic disease by several years. ARTS is an ongoing European multicentre trial in which patients are stratified by previous therapy (RP with or without salvage RT vs primary RT) and randomized to double-blind treatment with dutasteride 0.5 mg or placebo once daily for 2 years. Eligible patients will have a PSA doubling time (DT) of 3-24 months. Biochemical recurrence is defined as three increases in PSA level from the nadir, with each increase >= 4 weeks apart and each PSA level >= 0.2 ng/mL, and a final PSA level of >= 0.4 ng/mL (after RP) or >= 2 ng/mL (after primary RT). Study endpoints include time to PSA doubling, time to disease progression, treatment response (PSA decrease or an increase of <= 15% from baseline), changes in PSA and PSADT, and changes in anxiety (Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer). ARTS will be the first study to evaluate the effects of dutasteride on PSADT, disease progression and treatment response in patients with biochemical failure after RP or RT, and should help to elucidate the potential role of dual 5 alpha-reductase inhibition in prostate cancer.
  • Tiraboschi, Juan M, et al. (författare)
  • No changes in HIV suppression and inflammatory markers in CSF in patients randomly switched to DTG + 3TC (Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network, PreEC/RIS 62).
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Journal of infectious diseases. - 1537-6613. ; 223:11, s. 1928-1933
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A major concern of HIV dual therapy is a potential lower efficacy in viral reservoirs, especially in the central nervous system (CNS). We evaluated HIV RNA, neuronal injury and inflammatory biomarkers and dolutegravir (DTG) exposure in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients switching to DTG+lamivudine (3TC). All participants maintained viral suppression in plasma and CSF at week 48. We observed no increase in CSF markers of inflammation or neuronal injury. Median (IQR) total and unbound DTG in CSF were 7.3(5.9-8.4) ng/mL and 1.7(1.2-1.9) ng/mL, respectively. DTG+3TC may maintain viral control without changes in inflammatory/injury markers within the CNS reservoir.
  • Vigliar, Elena, et al. (författare)
  • Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cytopathology practice: Results from an international survey of laboratories in 23 countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancer Cytopathology. - : WILEY. - 1934-662X .- 1934-6638. ; 128:12, s. 885-894
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background To the authors knowledge, the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on cytopathology practices worldwide has not been investigated formally. In the current study, data from 41 respondents from 23 countries were reported. Methods Data regarding the activity of each cytopathology laboratory during 4 weeks of COVID-19 lockdown were collected and compared with those obtained during the corresponding period in 2019. The overall number and percentage of exfoliative and fine-needle aspiration cytology samples from each anatomic site were recorded. Differences in the malignancy and suspicious rates between the 2 periods were analyzed using a meta-analytical approach. Results Overall, the sample volume was lower compared with 2019 (104,319 samples vs 190,225 samples), with an average volume reduction of 45.3% (range, 0.1%-98.0%). The percentage of samples from the cervicovaginal tract, thyroid, and anorectal region was significantly reduced (P < .05). Conversely, the percentage of samples from the urinary tract, serous cavities, breast, lymph nodes, respiratory tract, salivary glands, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, and biliary tract increased (P < .05). An overall increase of 5.56% (95% CI, 3.77%-7.35%) in the malignancy rate in nongynecological samples during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed. When the suspicious category was included, the overall increase was 6.95% (95% CI, 4.63%-9.27%). Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a drastic reduction in the total number of cytology specimens regardless of anatomic site or specimen type. The rate of malignancy increased, reflecting the prioritization of patients with cancer who were considered to be at high risk. Prospective monitoring of the effect of delays in access to health services during the lockdown period is warranted.
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