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Sökning: WFRF:(Almby Kristina E)

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1.
  • Almby, Kristina E., et al. (författare)
  • Anastomotic Strictures After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass : a Cohort Study from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Obesity Surgery. - New York City : Springer. - 0960-8923 .- 1708-0428. ; 29:1, s. 172-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundRoux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure worldwide. Anastomotic stricture is a known complication of RYGB. The aim was to explore the incidence and outcomes of strictures within the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg).MethodSOReg included prospective data from 36,362 patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the years 2007–2013. Outcomes were recorded at 30-day and at 1-year follow-up according to the standard SOReg routine. The medical charts of patients suffering from stricture after RYGB were requested and assessed.SettingNational bariatric surgery registryResultsAnastomotic stricture within 1 year of surgery was confirmed in 101 patients representing an incidence of 0.3%. Risk factors for stricture were patient age above 60 years (odds ratio (OR), 6.2 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7–14.3), circular stapled gastrojejunostomy (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.5), postoperative anastomotic leak (OR 8.9 95%, CI 4.7–17.0), and marginal ulcer (OR 30.0, 95% CI 19.2–47.0). Seventy-five percent of the strictures were diagnosed within 70 days of surgery. Two dilatations or less was sufficient to successfully treat 50% of patients. Ten pecent of patients developed perforation during dilatation, and the risk of perforating at each dilatation was 3.8%. Perforation required surgery in six cases but there was no mortality. Strictures in SOReg may be underreported, which could explain the low incidence in the study.ConclusionMost strictures present within 2 months and are successfully treated with two dilatations or less. Dilating a strictured gastrojejunostomy entails a risk of perforation (3.8%).
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2.
  • Lundqvist, Martin H., et al. (författare)
  • Altered hormonal and autonomic nerve responses to hypo- and hyperglycaemia are found in overweight and insulin-resistant individuals and may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 64:3, s. 641-655
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Results from animal models and some clinical work suggest a role for the central nervous system (CNS) in glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis by modulation of glucoregulatory hormones and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The aim of this study was to characterise the neuroendocrine response to various glucose concentrations in overweight and insulin-resistant individuals compared with lean individuals.Methods: Overweight/obese (HI, n = 15, BMI ≥27.0 kg/m2) and lean (LO, n = 15, BMI <27.0 kg/m2) individuals without diabetes underwent hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic–hypoglycaemic clamps and hyperglycaemic clamps on two separate occasions with measurements of hormones, Edinburgh Hypoglycaemic Symptom Scale (ESS) score and heart rate variability (HRV). Statistical methods included groupwise comparisons with Mann–Whitney U tests, multilinear regressions and linear mixed models between neuroendocrine responses and continuous metabolic variables.Results: During hypoglycaemic clamps, there was an elevated cortisol response in HI vs LO (median ΔAUC 12,383 vs 4793 nmol/l × min; p = 0.050) and a significantly elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response in HI vs LO (median ΔAUC 437.3 vs 162.0 nmol/l × min; p = 0.021). When adjusting for clamp glucose levels, obesity (p = 0.033) and insulin resistance (p = 0.009) were associated with elevated glucagon levels. By contrast, parasympathetic activity was less suppressed in overweight individuals at the last stage of hypoglycaemia compared with euglycaemia (high-frequency power of HRV, p = 0.024). M value was the strongest predictor for the ACTH and PHF responses, independent of BMI and other variables. There was a BMI-independent association between the cortisol response and ESS score response (p = 0.024). During hyperglycaemic clamps, overweight individuals displayed less suppression of glucagon levels (median ΔAUC −63.4% vs −73.0%; p = 0.010) and more suppression of sympathetic relative to parasympathetic activity (low-frequency/high-frequency power, p = 0.011).Conclusions/interpretation: This study supports the hypothesis that altered responses of insulin-antagonistic hormones and the ANS to glucose fluctuations occur in overweight and insulin-resistant individuals, and that these responses are probably partly mediated by the CNS. Their potential role in development of type 2 diabetes needs to be addressed in future research.
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3.
  • Almby, Kristina E, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Gastric Bypass Surgery on the Brain; Simultaneous Assessment of Glucose Uptake, Blood Flow, Neural Activity and Cognitive Function during Normo- and Hypoglycemia.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery in obese individuals typically improves glycemic control and prevents diabetes, it also frequently causes hypoglycemia. Previous work showed attenuated counter-regulatory responses following RYGB. The underlying mechanisms as well as the clinical consequences are unclear.In this study, 11 non-diabetic subjects with severe obesity were investigated pre- and post-RYGB during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps. Assessments were made of hormones, cognitive function, cerebral blood flow by arterial spin labeling, brain glucose metabolism by FDG PET and activation of brain networks by functional MRI. Post- vs pre-surgery, we found a general increase of cerebral blood flow but a decrease of total brain FDG uptake during normoglycemia. During hypoglycemia, there was a marked increase in total brain FDG uptake and this was similar for post- and pre-surgery, whereas hypothalamic FDG uptake was reduced. During hypoglycemia, attenuated responses of counterregulatory hormones and improvements in cognitive function were seen post-surgery. In early hypoglycemia, there was increased activation post- vs pre-surgery of neural networks in CNS regions implicated in glucose regulation such as the thalamus and hypothalamus. The results suggest adaptive responses of the brain that contribute to lowering of glycemia following RYGB, and the underlying mechanisms should be further elucidated.
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4.
  • Almby, Kristina E., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of GLP-1 on counter-regulatory responses during hypoglycemia after GBP surgery
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : Bioscientifica. - 0804-4643 .- 1479-683X. ; 181:2, s. 161-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the role of GLP-1 receptor activation on the counter-regulation and symptoms of hypoglycemia in subjects who have undergone gastric bypass surgery (GBP).Design: Experimental hyperinsulinemic–hypoglycemic clamp study.Methods: Twelve post-GBP subjects participated in a randomized cross-over study with two hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemic clamps (glucose nadir 2.7 mmol/L) performed on separate days with concomitant infusions of the GLP-1 analog exenatide or with saline, respectively. Continuous measurements of metabolites and counter-regulatory hormones as well as assessments of heart rate variability and symptoms of hypoglycemia were performed throughout the clamps.Results: No effect of GLP-1 receptor activation on counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, GH) or glucose infusion rate was seen, but we found indications of a downregulation of the sympathetic relative to the parasympathetic nerve activity, as reflected in heart rate variability. No significant differences in symptom of hypoglycemia were observed.Conclusions/interpretation: Short-term exposure to a GLP-1 receptor agonist does not seem to impact the counter-regulatory hormonal and metabolic responses in post-GBP subjects during hypoglycemic conditions, suggesting that the improvement in symptomatic hypoglycemia post-GBP seen following treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists may be mediated by mechanism not directly involved in counter-regulation.
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6.
  • Kamble, Prasad G., et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen interacts with glucocorticoids in the regulation of lipocalin 2 expression in human adipose tissue. Reciprocal roles of estrogen receptor alpha and beta in insulin resistance?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0303-7207 .- 1872-8057. ; 490, s. 28-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The adipokine lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is linked to insulin resistance. Its expression in human adipose tissue (AT) can be regulated in a sex-specific manner by a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, suggesting an underlying role of sex steroids. We show that 17-beta-estradiol (E2) dose-dependently increased LCN2 gene expression in subcutaneous AT from postmenopausal women. This was also seen in the presence of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha antagonist alone but not with ER beta antagonist, suggesting that E2 effects on LCN2 are mediated via ER beta pathway. Dexamethasone alone or E2 + dexamethasone had no significant effect on LCN2. However, E2+ dexamethasone increased LCN2 expression with ER alpha-blockade. Dexamethasone reduced ER alpha but increased ER beta expression. Dexamethasone can regulate LCN2 expression via inhibition of ER alpha and stimulation of ER beta and may contribute to the development of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in human AT. In conclusion, ER beta and ER alpha pathways have opposite effects on LCN2 expression and they interact with glucocorticoid action.
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7.
  • Lundqvist, Martin H., et al. (författare)
  • Is the Brain a Key Player in Glucose Regulation and Development of Type 2 Diabetes?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-042X .- 1664-042X. ; 10
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ever since Claude Bernards discovery in the mid 19th-century that a lesion in the floor of the third ventricle in dogs led to altered systemic glucose levels, a role of the CNS in whole-body glucose regulation has been acknowledged. However, this finding was later overshadowed by the isolation of pancreatic hormones in the 20th century. Since then, the understanding of glucose homeostasis and pathology has primarily evolved around peripheral mechanism. Due to scientific advances over these last few decades, however, increasing attention has been given to the possibility of the brain as a key player in glucose regulation and the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Studies of animals have enabled detailed neuroanatomical mapping of CNS structures involved in glucose regulation and key neuronal circuits and intracellular pathways have been identified. Furthermore, the development of neuroimaging techniques has provided methods to measure changes of activity in specific CNS regions upon diverse metabolic challenges in humans. In this narrative review, we discuss the available evidence on the topic. We conclude that there is much evidence in favor of active CNS involvement in glucose homeostasis but the relative importance of central vs. peripheral mechanisms remains to be elucidated. An increased understanding of this field may lead to new CNS-focusing pharmacologic strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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9.
  • Sarsenbayeva, Assel, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of second-generation antipsychotics on human subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in up to 50% of schizophrenia patients, which reduces their quality of life and their compliance with the treatment. It is unclear whether metabolic adverse effects of these agents are due to their direct effect on insulin-sensitive tissues or are secondary to increased adiposity. The study aimed to investigate the direct effects of the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole on human subcutaneous adipose tissue and isolated adipocyte metabolism.Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue needle biopsies were taken from 72 healthy subjects (49 F/23 M; age: 19-78 yr; BMI: 20.0-35.6 kg/m(2)). Isolated adipocytes or adipose tissue were respectively pre-incubated short- (30 min) and long-term (24 h, 72 h) with or without olanzapine (0.004 mu M - 20 mu M) and aripiprazole (0.002 mu M - 100 mu M). Pre-incubated adipose tissue was then snap-frozen for mRNA expression analysis of adipokines genes and genes involved in inflammation, adipogenesis, and mitochondrial function. Isolated adipocytes were used to measure basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and lipolysis.Results: Acute treatment with a therapeutic concentration of olanzapine decreases basal lipolysis in isolated adipocytes; this effect was not observed after long-term incubation with the drug. Supra-therapeutic concentration of aripiprazole reduced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after short- and long-term preincubation. Both drugs at supra-therapeutic concentrations downregulated the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL1B genes after 72 h incubation. Similarly, supra-therapeutic concentrations of both drugs and therapeutic concentration of olanzapine, reduced the expression of PPARGC1A, PDK4, and CPT1B genes involved in the regulation of mitochondria] functions. Neither of the antipsychotics affected the expression of the main adipokines LEP and ADIPOQ, genes involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, LPL and FASN, nor the master adipogenesis regulator, PPARG.Conclusion: Therapheutic concentrations of olanzapine and aripiprazole have a moderate direct effect on adipocyte lipid and glucose metabolism, respectively. At supra-therapeutic concentrations, both of the antipsychotics seem to act as anti-inflammatory agents and mildly suppressed genes involved in the regulation of mitochondrial functions, which could potentially contribute to metabolic adverse effects. Alternatively, second-generation antipsychotics could induce metabolic side effects via acting on other insulin-sensitive tissues and central nervous system.
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10.
  • Sarsenbayeva, Assel, et al. (författare)
  • Human macrophages stimulate expression of inflammatory mediators in adipocytes; effects of second-generation antipsychotics and glucocorticoids on cellular cross-talk
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Adipose tissue inflammation and distorted macrophage-adipocyte communication are positively associated with metabolic disturbances. Some pharmacological agents, such as second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and synthetic glucocorticoid (GC) dexamethasone, tend to induce adverse metabolic side effects and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Our work aimed to study whether SGAs and dexamethasone affect macrophage phenotype and macrophage-adipocyte communication on gene expression level. We selected the model involving THP-1-derived macrophages, polarized into M0, M1, and M2 phenotypes, and primary human mature subcutaneous adipocytes.Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue needle biopsies were obtained from 6 healthy subjects (4F/2M; age: 22-64 yr; BMI: 21.7-27.6 kg/m2) followed by isolation of mature adipocytes. THP-1-human monocytic cell line was used for the study. THP-1 monocytes were differentiated and polarized into M0 (naive), M1 (classically activated), and M2 (alternatively activated) macrophages. During and after polarization the macrophages were treated for 24 h without (control) or with therapeutic and supra-therapeutic concentrations of olanzapine (0.2 mu M and 2.0 mu M), aripiprazole (1.0 mu M and 10 mu M) and its active metabolite dehydroaripiprazole (0.4 mu M and 4.0 mu M). Isolated mature human adipocytes were co-incubated with THP-1-derived polarized macrophages pretreated with SGAs after their polarization. Adipocytes and macrophages were collected before and after co culture for mRNA expression analysis of genes involved in inflammation.Results: Co-incubation of mature human adipocytes with human macrophages, regardless of polarization, resulted in a marked induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adipocytes, including IL1B,IL6, TNFA, and IL10. Remarkably, it did not affect the expression of adipokines and genes involved in the regulation of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in adipocytes. Dexamethasone markedly reduced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and prevented macrophage-induced inflammatory response in adipocytes. In contrast, SGAs did not affect macrophage-adipocyte communication and had a minute anti-inflammatory effect in macrophages at supra-therapeutic concentrations. Interestingly, the adipocytes co-incubated with M1 macrophages pre-treated with dexamethasone and SGAs particularly the supra-therapeutic concentration of olanzapine, reduced expression of LPL, LIPE, AKT1, and SLC2A4, suggesting that the expression of metabolic genes in adipocytes was dependent on the presence of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages.Conclusion: Together, these data suggest that macrophages induce expression of pro-inflammatory genes in human subcutaneous adipocytes without affecting the expression of adipokines or genes involved in energy regulation. Furthermore, our findings demonstrated that SGAs and dexamethasone had a mild effect on macrophage-adipocyte communication in M1 macrophage phenotype.
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