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  • Andersson, E, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press (CUP). - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 42:10, s. 2193-2203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod. Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohens d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69-1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46-72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1-17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions. ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted.
  • Andersson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Testing the Mediating Effects of Obsessive Beliefs in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1063-3995 .- 1099-0879. ; 22:6, s. 722-732
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although cognitive interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been tested in randomized trials, there are few trials that have tested the specific mechanisms of cognitive interventions, i.e. how they achieve their effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mediating effects of a short cognitive intervention in the treatment of OCD and used data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial where 101 participants were allocated to either Internet-based CBT (ICBT) or to a control condition. Obsessive beliefs were measured at pre-treatment, at the time they had received the cognitive intervention, and also at post-treatment. Weekly OCD symptoms were measured throughout the 10 weeks of treatment. We hypothesized that (1) the ICBT group would have greater reductions in obsessive beliefs (controlling for change in OCD symptoms) after completing the cognitive intervention, and that (2) this reduction would, in turn, predict greater OCD symptom reduction throughout the rest of the treatment period. Contrary to our expectations, the longitudinal mediation analysis indicated that (1) being randomized to ICBT actually increased the degree of obsessive beliefs after receiving the cognitive intervention at weeks 1-3, and (2) increase in obsessive beliefs predicted better outcome later in treatment. However, when repeating the analysis using cross-sectional data at post-treatment, the results were in line with the initial hypotheses. Results were replicated when the control condition received ICBT. We conclude that, although obsessive beliefs were significantly reduced at post-treatment for the ICBT group, early increase rather than decrease in obsessive beliefs predicted favourable outcome. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Randomised controlled non-inferiority trial with 3-year follow-up of internet-delivered versus face-to-face group cognitive behavioural therapy for depression
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 151:3, s. 986-994
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective in the treatment of mild to moderate depression, but there have been no direct comparisons with the more established group-based CBT with a long-term follow-up. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod: Participants with mild to moderate depression were recruited from the general population and randomized to either guided ICBT (n =33) or to live group treatment (n=36). Measures were completed before and after the intervention to assess depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Follow-ups were conducted at one-year and three-year after the treatment had ended. Results: Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed-effects regression analysis. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults on the self-rated version of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale showed significant improvements in both groups across time indicating non-inferiority of guided ICBT, and there was even a tendency for the guided ICBT group to be superior to group-based CBT at three year follow-up. Within-group effect sizes for the ICBT condition at post treatment showed a Cohens d=1.46, with a similar large effect at 3-year follow-up, d=1.78. For the group CBT the corresponding within group effects were d =0.99 and d=1.34, respectively. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanLimitations: The study was small with two active treatments and there was no placebo or credible control condition. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Guided ICBT is at least as effective as group based CBT and long-term effects can be sustained up to 3 years after treatment.
  • El Alaoui, Samir, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Clinical Psychiatry
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. - : American Psychological Association (APA). - 0022-006X .- 1939-2117. ; 83:5, s. 902-914
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has received increased attention as an innovative approach to improve access to evidence-based psychological treatments. Although the efficacy of ICBT for social anxiety disorder has been established in several studies, there is limited knowledge of its effectiveness and application in clinical psychiatric care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ICBT in the treatment of social anxiety disorder and to determine the significance of patient adherence and the clinic's years of experience in delivering ICBT. Method: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted using latent growth curve modeling of patients (N = 654) treated with ICBT at an outpatient psychiatric clinic between 2009 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Rated. Results: Significant reductions in symptoms of social anxiety were observed after treatment (effect size d = 0.86, 99% CI [0.74, 0.98]). Improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up (d = 1.15, 99% CI [0.99, 1.32]). Patient adherence had a positive effect on the rate of improvement. A positive association between the clinic's years of experience with ICBT and treatment outcome was also observed. Conclusions: This study suggests that ICBT for social anxiety disorder is effective when delivered within the context of a unit specialized in Internet-based psychiatric care and may be considered as a treatment alternative for implementation within the mental health care system.
  • Hedman, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in routine psychiatric care
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 155, s. 49-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundEfficacy of guided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for depression has been demonstrated in several randomised controlled trials. Knowledge on the effectiveness of the treatment, i.e. how it works when delivered within routine care, is however scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ICBT for depression.MethodsWe conducted a cohort study investigating all patients (N=1203) who had received guided ICBT for depression between 2007 and 2013 in a routine care setting at an outpatient psychiatric clinic providing Internet-based treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self rated (MADRS-S).ResultsPatients made large improvements from pre-treatment assessments to post-treatment on the primary outcome (effect size d on the MADRS-S=1.27, 99% CI, 1.14–1.39). Participants were significantly improved in terms of suicidal ideation and sleep difficulties. Improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up.LimitationsAttrition was rather large at 6-month follow-up. However, additional data was collected through telephone interviews with dropouts and advanced statistical models indicated that missing data did not bias the findings.ConclusionsICBT for depression can be highly effective when delivered within the context of routine psychiatric care. This study suggests that the effect sizes are at least as high when the treatment is delivered in routine psychiatric care by qualified staff as when delivered in a controlled trial setting.
  • Käll, A., et al. (författare)
  • Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Loneliness : A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Behavior Therapy. - : Elsevier. - 0005-7894 .- 1878-1888. ; 51:1, s. 54-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Loneliness has been described as a common source of discomfort based on a subjective discrepancy between the actual and desired social situation. For some people this feeling may become a sustained state that is associated with a wide range of psychiatric and psychosocial problems. While there are few existing treatment protocols, interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have shown positive effects. The current study investigated the efficacy of an 8-week internet-based treatment containing CBT components aimed at reducing feelings of loneliness. Seventy-three participants were recruited from the general public and randomly allocated to treatment or a wait-list control condition. Participants were assessed with standardized self-report measures of loneliness, depression, social anxiety, worry, and quality of life at pretreatment and posttreatment. Robust linear regression analysis of all randomized participants showed significant treatment effects on the primary outcome measure of loneliness (between group Cohen’s d = 0.77), and on secondary outcomes measuring quality of life and social anxiety relative to control at postassessment. The results suggest the potential utility of internet-based CBT in alleviating loneliness but more research on the long-term effects and the mechanisms underlying the effects is needed.
  • Ljotsson, Brjann, et al. (författare)
  • Mechanisms of Change in an Exposure-Based Treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. - : American Psychological Association. - 0022-006X .- 1939-2117. ; 81:6, s. 1113-1126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to identify mediators of change in a previously published randomized controlled trial that compared Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral treatment based on exposure exercises (ICBT) with Internet-delivered stress management (ISM) for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). ICBT and ISM targeted distinct proposed mechanisms of illness maintenance and symptom exacerbation, gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety (GSA), and stress reactivity, respectively. The original study found that ICBT was more effective than ISM in improving IBS symptoms. Method: Weekly measurements of GSA and stress reactivity (putative mediators) and treatment outcome were obtained from 195 participants with IBS, who had been randomized to ICBT or ISM. Results: Parallel process growth mediational analyses revealed that the larger reduction of IBS symptoms from ICBT compared to ISM was mediated by changes in GSA, alpha beta = 0.42, 95% CIasymmetric [-0.71, -0.16]. In contrast, changes in stress reactivity did not mediate the difference in outcomes between treatments, alpha beta = 0.04, 95% CIasymmetric [-0.09, 0.20]. Analyses of the temporal sequence of week-to-week changes in process and outcome measures showed that only GSA displayed a pattern consistent with a causal model in which change in process preceded and contributed to symptom change. Furthermore, engagement in treatment specific activities was related to change in GSA but not to stress reactivity in the ICBT arm, whereas treatment specific activities were not related to change in any of the putative processes in the ISM arm. Conclusions: We conclude that ICBT works through directly targeting GSA, rather than by means of reducing stress reactivity.
  • Hedman, E., et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in routine psychiatric care
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - : Wiley. - 0001-690X .- 1600-0447. ; 128:6, s. 457-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveGuided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for panic disorder has been shown to be efficacious in several randomized controlled trials. However, the effectiveness of the treatment when delivered within routine psychiatric care has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ICBT for panic disorder within the context of routine psychiatric care. MethodWe conducted a cohort study investigating all patients (n=570) who had received guided ICBT for panic disorder between 2007 and 2012 in a routine care setting at an out-patient psychiatric clinic providing Internet-based treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self-report (PDSS-SR). ResultsParticipants made large improvements from screening and pretreatment assessments to posttreatment (Cohen's d range on the PDSS-SR=1.07-1.55). Improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up. ConclusionThis study suggests that ICBT for panic disorder is as effective when delivered in a routine care context as in the previously published randomized controlled trials.
  • Andersson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of Guided Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sexual Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1743-6095 .- 1743-6109. ; 8:10, s. 2800-2809
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction. Men with erectile dysfunction are often worried about their condition, have interpersonal difficulties, and have a reduced quality of life. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been shown effective for a number of health problems but evidence is limited concerning the treatment of erectile dysfunction. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAim. The study investigated the effects of ICBT for erectile dysfunction. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods. Seventy-eight men were included in the study and randomized to either ICBT or to a control group, which was an online discussion group. Treatment consisted of a 7-week Web-based program with e-mail-based therapist support. Each therapist spent an average of 55 minutes per participant. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMain Outcome Measure. The International Index of Erectile Functioning five-item version was administered via the telephone at pretreatment, post-treatment, and 6 months after receiving ICBT. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. At post-treatment, the treatment group had significantly greater improvements with regard to erectile performance compared with the control group. Between-group differences at post-treatment were small (d = 0.1), but increased at the 6-month follow-up (d = 0.88). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions. This study provides support for the use of ICBT as a possible treatment format for erectile dysfunction.
  • Andersson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of an internet-based booster program for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder : Results from a randomized controlled trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 2211-3649 .- 2211-3657. ; 4, s. 14-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for OCD when delivered face-to-face, in group-format and also via the internet. However, despite overall large effect sizes, a considerable amount of the patients relapse. One intervention that has the potential to reduce these relapse rates is booster programs, but if booster program is a cost-effective method of preventing relapse is still unknown. We used health economical data from a recent randomized controlled trial, where patients who had undergone an internet-based CBT were randomly allocated to receive an additional booster program. Assessment points were 4-, 7-, 12- and 24-month. Health economical data were primarily analyzed using a societal perspective. Results showed that the booster program was effective in preventing relapse, and the cost of one avoided relapse was estimated to $1066-1489. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the booster program had a 90% probability of being cost-effective given a willingness to pay of $1000-1050 the first year, but this figure grew considerably after two years ($2500-5500). We conclude that internet-based booster programs are probably a cost-effective alternative within one-year time frame and that more treatment may be needed to maintain adequate cost-effectiveness up to two years. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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