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Sökning: WFRF:(Andrae Anders 1973)

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  • Andrae, Anders, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Uncertainty estimation by Monte Carlo Simulation applied to Life Cycle Inventory of Cordless Phones and Microscale Metallization Processes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing. ; 27:4, s. 233-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis, that is, how the input data uncertainty affects the output data uncertainty in small but realistic product systems is modeled. The motivation for the study is to apply the Monte Carlo simulation for uncertainty estimation in life cycle inventory and environmental assessment of microelectronics applications. This paper addresses the question whether there is an environmental advantage of using DECT phones instead of GSM phones in offices. The paper also addresses the environmental compatibility of Electrochemical Pattern Replication (ECPR) compared to classical photolithography based microscale metallization (CL) for pattern transfer. Both environmental assessments in this paper consider electricity consumption and CO2 emissions. The projects undertaken are two comparative studies of DECT phone/GSM phone and ECPR/CL respectively. The research method used was probabilistic uncertainty modelling with a limited number of inventory parameters used in the MATLAB tool. For the DECT/GSM study the results reflects the longer DECT technical life which is an environmental advantage. For the Electrochemical Pattern Replication (ECPR)/classical photolithography based microscale metallization (CL) study the results reflects the fewer number of process steps and the lower electricity consumption needed by the ECPR to reach the functional unit. The difference in results is large enough to be able to draw conclusions, as the processes with the highest electricity consumption within the system boundaries have been determined. Based on earlier work a straightforward method to include uncertainty for input life cycle inventory data is used to quantify the influence of realistic errors for input data in two microelectronic applications. The conclusion is that the ECPR technology is more electricity efficient than CL in producing one layer of copper on a silicon wafer having a diameter of 20.32 cm. The conclusion is that the longer technical life of a cordless DECT phone is reflected in an electricity/CO2 comparison with a GSM phone, if use in an office is considered. Reasonable uncertainty intervals used for the input life cycle inventory data for the studied DECT/GSM and ECPR/CL system does affect the outcome of calculation of emission of CO2 but not to the degree that conclusions are not valid.Different uncertainty intervals and probability distributions could apply for different types of data and the interrelated input data dependence should be investigated. Today there exist very few life cycle inventory (LCI) data with the range of uncertainty for input and output elements. It must be emphasized that the upcoming LCI databases should have standard deviation characterized LCI data just as the Swiss ecoinvent LCI database.More inventory parameters and probability distributions characteristic for microsystems could be included and error analysis should be applied to future life inventory methodology, especially for future packaging concepts such as System-In-a-Package and System-On-a-Chip comparisons.
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  • Andrae, Anders, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Application of Simplified Methods for Partial Environmental Assessment of Microelectronics Soldering Materials and Processes in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. ; 10:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As a consequence of the environmental regulations becoming stricter for companies within the microelectronics business area, alternative materials and processes with lower environmental performance will have to come in use. These new materials and processes should be process validated, and environmentally assessed. The Swedish microelectronics manufacturers do not use environmental assessment tools to determine if one alternative is "greener" than the other, as they have neither time nor legislative pressure. Instead, they refer to ´lists´ regarding limitations in the use of forbidden chemicals, and compare the ´lists´ with material safety data sheets. IVF in Sweden had the task of co-ordinating a governmentally financed project of which one of the goals was to advise producers, of microelectronics, on how to compare different material/process alternatives when introducing Pb-free soldering manufacturing technology. The scope of this paper is the evaluation of simplified and partial environmental assessment methods for microelectronics soldering. The problem addressed was the identified scarce understanding and under-use of environmental assessment methodologies in the small and medium sized enterprises in the Swedish electronics industry. A subtask was to analyse if it would be possible to perform a useful evaluation in one working day.A literature study revealed that several methods exist for environmental assessment, but most of them were assessed to be too complicated for the purpose of the present study. Two methods were introduced in the project; a qualitative Checklist Method (CM), and the quantitative Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) that was used as a screening approach. The methods were tested at a microelectronics manufacturer to find out the applicability and the easiness of use. The checklist was applied to two wave soldering concepts and the TPI was applied to two Sn-Pb solder pastes and two Pb-free solder pastes. The CM generates information that can be used in the identification of qualitative environmental aspects, and the TPI provides fast but coarse results. It was possible for the company to perform this limited environmental assessment in one working day, as the amount of available input information is fairly limited. The participating microelectronics manufacturers in this study have confirmed this. The companies will use fast, understandable and rapidly introducible methods. The TPI was easy to use practically, but the input data available was regarded as too rough to distinguish among similar solder pastes. Anyway, by using the methods described in this paper, it would be possible to perform the assessment in one working day. It was perceived as worthwhile for the CM, and also to some degree for the TPI, despite data gaps for flux constituents. It is recommended that the flux constituents of solder pastes are risk evaluated to provide data for indicator tools like the TPI. The CM and the TPI should also be evaluated in industry sectors other than the microelectronics sector. This is needed to generally answer whether there are useful and systematic methods of environmental risk evaluation in product development. In a broader view, it should be researched what barriers are hindering small and medium sized enterprises to invest more in design for environment.
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  • Andrae, Anders, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Development of a generic data collection model for upstream processes in life cycle inventory of electronic products
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of First International Conference on Design And Manufacturing for Sustainable Development. ; , s. 241-253
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Considerations of cost, high speed, high reliability, high manufacturability and environmental compatibility have to be taken into account in future product development of electronic products. To simulate the environmental compatibility, for example a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be performed. An electronic product usually consists of hundreds to thousands of electronic and mechanical components. To perform an LCA is very time consuming if a Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) is done for every single component. This is not needed because the unit processes in the upstream product system in some cases are the same for the ingoing components. In this paper a generic model for LCI is developed and applied to one product system (a business telephone). In this model, the components are divided into main groups and then into sub-groups that result in process modules for unit processes that are similar for the ingoing components. There already exist some models that describe the LCI of electronic products in other ways. This model takes the LCI strategy for the manufacturing phase one step further by identifying which processes constitute part of the common denominator of the upstream product system and proposes which ones should be inventoried first. The developed model makes it possible to obtain a higher resolution and level of understanding compared to earlier models with respect to both components and processes.
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  • Andrae, Anders, 1973 (författare)
  • Development of a Generic Model for Life Cycle Inventory and Environmental Assessment of Upstream Processes for Electronic Products
  • 2002
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The goal with the present thesis is to develop tools, methods and models to assess the upstream processes in the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for current and new electronic products. The goal is to get a better understanding on how to collect data to be used in a life cycle inventory (LCI) and use life cycle approaches to environmentally assess the electronics. Firstly, a comprehensive LCA from cradle-to-grave of a private branch exchange (PBX) was performed and an LCI database in the LCA software EcoLab was built up. Secondly, a model and method for LCI data collection from cradle-to-gate of the upstream processes, which could be applied to any electronic product, was developed. Thirdly, a gallium arsenide (GaAs) Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Switch Product based on the a System-In-a-Package (SIP) concept using a Liquid Crystalline Polymer (LCP) substrate was manufactured and the developed model for LCI data collection was applied to assess the environmental load. There exist several environmental assessment approaches for electronics, but still no effective model for LCI data collection exists. The objective is to develop a model for LCI data collection of the upstream processes of electronic products, apply it and find the environmental load of a GaAs MMIC Switch Product based on so-called SIP concept utilising a LCP substrate. EcoLab and available literature data were used to analyse the environmental loads. The results show that manufacturing of hardware has a significant impact on the LCA results for a telecommunications exchange. For Paper I, as much as 50 % of the upstream manufacturing processes applied to the raw materials to transform them into components were left out. Integrated circuits and printed wiring boards dominate the hardware contribution to the environmental load of the whole telecommunications exchange. The observed significant environmental impact of inductors in the LCA in paper I may well be an effect of the LCI data used being poorly representative of the full range of inductive components. An LCI of a digital telephone would lead to more than 120 unit processes requiring to be inventoried, but some of the unit processes for silicon containing components are similar, which would simplify the inventory. The result of an environmental assessment of the manufacturing process for a GaAs switch showed that spin coating and deposition are environmental hot spots. From the present work it is shown that the data gathering requirement is vast, but not as large as it would be if every component had to be inventoried from cradle-to-gate. The data collection can be minimized if the proposed model for data collection is used. In the present thesis it is also shown that the data collection model could be used for a GaAs MMIC SIP switch module. The upstream processes are not negligible in LCA of electronics, especially not the processing of monocrystalline wafers.
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  • Andrae, Anders, 1973 (författare)
  • Environmental Life-cycle Assessment in Microelectronics Packaging
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • An increased understanding of the application of environmental Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies in the microelectronics packaging area should help in developing environmentally sound product systems. The aim of the present thesis is to increase the knowledge of using LCA tools, methods and models, in application to current and new microelectronic products. A subgoal is to establish a better understanding of how to collect data to be used in a Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) and environmentally assess the importance of the upstream processes. The objective has been to explore how variants of LCA could be used in microelectronics applications and the LCA software EcoLab and available data were utilised to analyse environmental loads. Different case studies were performed on (i) microelectronic products, (ii) substrate and soldering materials, and (iii) plating and soldering processes. The main emphasis has been on the upstream processes. Analysis of the results shows that the input data needed for environmental assessment of electronics applications comes from many different sources. An LCI data collection model applicable to most electronic products helps quantifying upstream processes. This is explained for a digital telephone. The global shift from Sn-Pb to Pb-free solder paste was modelled using attributional LCA and consequential LCA. It was found that the attributional and consequential methodologies yield complimentary knowledge about the environmental consequences of the shift. In this thesis, uncertainty estimation in LCI using Monte Carlo simulation was also investigated. The approach was applicable to small one parameter cradle-to-gate systems. There are strong indications that electrochemical pattern replication is more CO2 efficient than conventional photolithography, and that glass fiber enforced liquid crystalline polymers are more CO2 efficient than the corresponding brominated epoxy (FR4), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon®) and ceramic/glass tape. In addition to this, the effect of system expansion of manufacturing processes of the new packaging concept System-In-a-Package was addressed. This expansion of the upstream product system changes the relative environmental importance of manufacturing processes. Overall, environmental LCA are applicable to microelectronics packaging, but the assessments are hampered by the lack of ready available input LCI data.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 18
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