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Sökning: WFRF:(Arias Vasquez Alejandro)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 14
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  • Li, Lin, 1989-, et al. (författare)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and dietary habits in adulthood : A large population-based twin study in Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1552-4841 .- 1552-485X. ; 183:8, s. 475-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Associations between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and dietary habits have not been well established and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We explored these associations using a Swedish population-based twin study with 17,999 individuals aged 20-47 years. We estimated correlations between inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity with dietary habits and fitted twin models to determine the genetic and environmental contributions. Dietary habits were defined as (a) consumption of food groups, (b) consumption of food items rich in particular macronutrients, and (c) healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. At the phenotypic level, inattention was positively correlated with seafood, high-fat, high-sugar, high-protein food consumptions, and unhealthy dietary pattern, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01, 0.05) to 0.13 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.15). Inattention was negatively correlated with fruits, vegetables consumptions and healthy dietary pattern, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.06 (95%CI: -0.08, -0.04) to -0.07 (95%CI: -0.09, -0.05). Hyperactivity/impulsivity and dietary habits showed similar but weaker patterns compared to inattention. All associations remained stable across age, sex and socioeconomic status. Nonshared environmental effects contributed substantially to the correlations of inattention (56-60%) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (63-80%) with dietary habits. The highest and lowest genetic correlations were between inattention and high-sugar food (rA = .16, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.25), and between hyperactivity/impulsivity and unhealthy dietary pattern (rA = .05, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.14), respectively. We found phenotypic and etiological overlap between ADHD and dietary habits, although these associations were weak. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of common etiological pathways between ADHD symptoms and various dietary habits.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
  • Grasby, KL, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 367:6484, s. 1340-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
  • Schweren, Lizanne J. S., et al. (författare)
  • Diet, Physical Activity, and Disinhibition in Middle-Aged and Older Adults : A UK Biobank Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - : MDPI. - 2072-6643 .- 2072-6643. ; 13:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Disinhibition is a prominent feature of multiple psychiatric disorders, and has been associated with poor long-term somatic outcomes. Modifiable lifestyle factors including diet and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may be associated with disinhibition, but their contributions have not previously been quantified among middle-aged/older adults. Here, among N = 157,354 UK Biobank participants aged 40-69, we extracted a single disinhibition principal component and four dietary components (prudent diet, elimination of wheat/dairy/eggs, meat consumption, full-cream dairy consumption). In addition, latent profile analysis assigned participants to one of five empirical dietary groups: prudent-moderate, unhealthy, restricted, meat-avoiding, low-fat dairy. Disinhibition was regressed on the four dietary components, the dietary grouping variable, and self-reported MVPA. In men and women, disinhibition was negatively associated with prudent diet, and positively associated with wheat/dairy/eggs elimination. In men, disinhibition was also associated with consumption of meat and full-cream dairy products. Comparing groups, disinhibition was lower in the prudent-moderate diet (reference) group compared to all other groups. Absolute βs ranged from 0.02-0.13, indicating very weak effects. Disinhibition was not associated with MVPA. In conclusion, disinhibition is associated with multiple features of diet among middle-aged/older adults. Our findings foster specific hypotheses (e.g., early malnutrition, elevated immune-response) to be tested in alternative study designs.
  • Schweren, Lizanne J. S., et al. (författare)
  • Diet quality, stress and common mental health problems : A cohort study of 121,008 adults
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nutrition. - : Churchill Livingstone. - 0261-5614 .- 1532-1983. ; 40:3, s. 901-906
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Overall diet quality may partially mediate the detrimental effects of stress and neuroticism on common mental health problems: stressed and/or neurotic individuals may be more prone to unhealthy dietary habits, which in turn may contribute to depression and anxiety. Lifestyle interventions for depressed, anxious or at-risk individuals hinge on this idea, but evidence to support such pathway is missing. Here, we aim to prospectively evaluate the role of overall diet quality in common pathways to developing depression and anxiety.METHODS: At baseline, N = 121,008 individuals from the general population (age 18-93) completed an extensive food frequency questionnaire, based on which overall diet quality was estimated. Participants also reported on two established risk factors for mental health problems, i.e. past-year stress exposure (long-term difficulties, stressful life-events) and four neuroticism traits (anger-hostility, self-consciousness, impulsivity, vulnerability). Depression and anxiety were assessed at baseline and follow-up (n = 65,342, +3.6 years). Overall diet quality was modeled as a mediator in logistic regression models predicting the development of depression and anxiety from common risk factors.RESULTS: High stress and high neuroticism scores were - albeit weakly - associated with poorer diet quality. Poor diet quality, in turn, did not predict mental health problems. Overall diet quality did not mediate the relationship between stress/neuroticism and common mental health problems: effects of stress, neuroticism and stress-by-neuroticism interactions on mental health problems at follow-up consisted entirely of direct effects (98.6%-100%).CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality plays no mediating role in two established pathways to common mental health problems. As overall diet quality was reduced in stressed and neurotic individuals, these groups may benefit from dietary interventions. However, such interventions are unlikely to prevent the onset or recurrence of depression and anxiety.
  • van Hulzen, Kimm J E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Overlap Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: Evidence From Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - 1873-2402. ; 82:9, s. 634-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are frequently co-occurring and highly heritable mental health conditions. We hypothesized that BPD cases with an early age of onset (≤21 years old) would be particularly likely to show genetic covariation with ADHD.Genome-wide association study data were available for 4609 individuals with ADHD, 9650 individuals with BPD (5167 thereof with early-onset BPD), and 21,363 typically developing controls. We conducted a cross-disorder genome-wide association study meta-analysis to identify whether the observed comorbidity between ADHD and BPD could be due to shared genetic risks.We found a significant single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlation between ADHD and BPD in the full and age-restricted samples (rGfull = .64, p = 3.13 × 10(-14); rGrestricted = .71, p = 4.09 × 10(-16)). The meta-analysis between the full BPD sample identified two genome-wide significant (prs7089973 = 2.47 × 10(-8); prs11756438 = 4.36 × 10(-8)) regions located on chromosomes 6 (CEP85L) and 10 (TAF9BP2). Restricting the analyses to BPD cases with an early onset yielded one genome-wide significant association (prs58502974 = 2.11 × 10(-8)) on chromosome 5 in the ADCY2 gene. Additional nominally significant regions identified contained known expression quantitative trait loci with putative functional consequences for NT5DC1, NT5DC2, and CACNB3 expression, whereas functional predictions implicated ABLIM1 as an allele-specific expressed gene in neuronal tissue.The single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlation between ADHD and BPD is substantial, significant, and consistent with the existence of genetic overlap between ADHD and BPD, with potential differential genetic mechanisms involved in early and later BPD onset.
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