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Sökning: WFRF:(Ashton Nicholas J)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 76
  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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1.
  • Kloprogge, F., et al. (författare)
  • Artemether-lumefantrine dosing for malaria treatment in young children and pregnant women: A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic meta-analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos Medicine. - 1549-1676 .- 1549-1277. ; 15:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The fixed dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the most widely used treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Relatively lower cure rates and lumefantrine levels have been reported in young children and in pregnant women during their second and third trimester. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of lumefantrine and the pharmacokinetic properties of its metabolite, desbutyl-lumefantrine, in order to inform optimal dosing regimens in all patient populations. A search in PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials. gov, Google Scholar, conference proceedings, and the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) pharmacology database identified 31 relevant clinical studies published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2012, with 4,546 patients in whom lumefantrine concentrations were measured. Under the auspices of WWARN, relevant individual concentration-time data, clinical covariates, and outcome data from 4,122 patients were made available and pooled for the meta-analysis. The developed lumefantrine population pharmacokinetic model was used for dose optimisation through in silico simulations. Venous plasma lumefantrine concentrations 7 days after starting standard AL treatment were 24.2% and 13.4% lower in children weighing < 15 kg and 15-25 kg, respectively, and 20.2% lower in pregnant women compared with non-pregnant adults. Lumefantrine exposure decreased with increasing pre-treatment parasitaemia, and the dose limitation on absorption of lumefantrine was substantial. Simulations using the lumefantrine pharmacokinetic model suggest that, in young children and pregnant women beyond the first trimester, lengthening the dose regimen (twice daily for 5 days) and, to a lesser extent, intensifying the frequency of dosing (3 times daily for 3 days) would be more efficacious than using higher individual doses in the current standard treatment regimen (twice daily for 3 days). The model was developed using venous plasma data from patients receiving intact tablets with fat, and evaluations of alternative dosing regimens were consequently only representative for venous plasma after administration of intact tablets with fat. The absence of artemether-dihydroartemisinin data limited the prediction of parasite killing rates and recrudescent infections. Thus, the suggested optimised dosing schedule was based on the pharmacokinetic endpoint of lumefantrine plasma exposure at day 7. Our findings suggest that revised AL dosing regimens for young children and pregnant women would improve drug exposure but would require longer or more complex schedules. These dosing regimens should be evaluated in prospective clinical studies to determine whether they would improve cure rates, demonstrate adequate safety, and thereby prolong the useful therapeutic life of this valuable antimalarial treatment.
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2.
  • Westwood, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of Plasma Proteomic Biomarkers Relating to Brain Amyloid Burden in the EMIF-Alzheimer's Disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery Cohort.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - : IOS Press. - 1875-8908 .- 1387-2877. ; 74:1, s. 213-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously investigated, discovered, and replicated plasma protein biomarkers for use to triage potential trials participants for PET or cerebrospinal fluid measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This study sought to undertake validation of these candidate plasma biomarkers in a large, multi-center sample collection. Targeted plasma analyses of 34 proteins with prior evidence for prediction of in vivo pathology were conducted in up to 1,000 samples from cognitively healthy elderly individuals, people with mild cognitive impairment, and in patients with AD-type dementia, selected from the EMIF-AD catalogue. Proteins were measured using Luminex xMAP, ELISA, and Meso Scale Discovery assays. Seven proteins replicated in their ability to predict in vivo amyloid pathology. These proteins form a biomarker panel that, along with age, could significantly discriminate between individuals with high and low amyloid pathology with an area under the curve of 0.74. The performance of this biomarker panel remained consistent when tested in apolipoprotein E ɛ4 non-carrier individuals only. This blood-based panel is biologically relevant, measurable using practical immunocapture arrays, and could significantly reduce the cost incurred to clinical trials through screen failure.
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3.
  • Kim, Min, et al. (författare)
  • Primary fatty amides in plasma associated with brain amyloid burden, hippocampal volume, and memory in the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's Disease biomarker discovery cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - : Elsevier. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 15:6, s. 817-827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: A critical and as-yet unmet need in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the discovery of peripheral small molecule biomarkers. Given that brain pathology precedes clinical symptom onset, we set out to test whether metabolites in blood associated with pathology as indexed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers.METHODS: This study analyzed 593 plasma samples selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's Disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study, of individuals who were cognitively healthy (n = 242), had mild cognitive impairment (n = 236), or had AD-type dementia (n = 115). Logistic regressions were carried out between plasma metabolites (n = 883) and CSF markers, magnetic resonance imaging, cognition, and clinical diagnosis.RESULTS: Eight metabolites were associated with amyloid β and one with t-tau in CSF, these were primary fatty acid amides (PFAMs), lipokines, and amino acids. From these, PFAMs, glutamate, and aspartate also associated with hippocampal volume and memory.DISCUSSION: PFAMs have been found increased and associated with amyloid β burden in CSF and clinical measures.
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4.
  • Needham, Edward J, et al. (författare)
  • Complex Autoantibody Responses Occur following Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). - 1550-6606.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most of the variation in outcome following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unexplained by currently recognized prognostic factors. Neuroinflammation may account for some of this difference. We hypothesized that TBI generated variable autoantibody responses between individuals that would contribute to outcome. We developed a custom protein microarray to detect autoantibodies to both CNS and systemic Ags in serum from the acute-phase (the first 7 d), late (6-12 mo), and long-term (6-13 y) intervals after TBI in human patients. We identified two distinct patterns of immune response to TBI. The first was a broad response to the majority of Ags tested, predominantly IgM mediated in the acute phase, then IgG dominant at late and long-term time points. The second was responses to specific Ags, most frequently myelin-associated glycopeptide (MAG), which persisted for several months post-TBI but then subsequently resolved. Exploratory analyses suggested that patients with a greater acute IgM response experienced worse outcomes than predicted from current known risk factors, suggesting a direct or indirect role in worsening outcome. Furthermore, late persistence of anti-MAG IgM autoantibodies correlated with raised serum neurofilament light concentrations at these time points, suggesting an association with ongoing neurodegeneration over the first year postinjury. Our results show that autoantibody production occurs in some individuals following TBI, can persist for many years, and is associated with worse patient outcome. The complexity of responses means that conventional approaches based on measuring responses to single antigenic targets may be misleading.
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5.
  • Shi, Liu, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery and validation of plasma proteomic biomarkers relating to brain amyloid burden by SOMAscan assay.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - : Elsevier. - 1552-5279 .- 1552-5260. ; 15:11, s. 1478-1488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plasma proteins have been widely studied as candidate biomarkers to predict brain amyloid deposition to increase recruitment efficiency in secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease. Most such biomarker studies are targeted to specific proteins or are biased toward high abundant proteins.4001 plasma proteins were measured in two groups of participants (discovery group = 516, replication group = 365) selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study, all of whom had measures of amyloid.A panel of proteins (n = 44), along with age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4, predicted brain amyloid deposition with good performance in both the discovery group (area under the curve = 0.78) and the replication group (area under the curve = 0.68). Furthermore, a causal relationship between amyloid and tau was confirmed by Mendelian randomization.The results suggest that high-dimensional plasma protein testing could be a useful and reproducible approach for measuring brain amyloid deposition.
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6.
  • Shi, Liu, et al. (författare)
  • Replication study of plasma proteins relating to Alzheimer's pathology.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1552-5279 .- 1552-5260.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study sought to discover and replicate plasma proteomic biomarkers relating to Alzheimer's disease (AD) including both the "ATN" (amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration) diagnostic framework and clinical diagnosis.Plasma proteins from 972 subjects (372 controls, 409 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 191 AD) were measured using both SOMAscan and targeted assays, including 4001 and 25 proteins, respectively.Protein co-expression network analysis of SOMAscan data revealed the relation between proteins and "N" varied across different neurodegeneration markers, indicating that the ATN variants are not interchangeable. Using hub proteins, age, and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype discriminated AD from controls with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 and MCI convertors from non-convertors with an AUC of 0.74. Targeted assays replicated the relation of four proteins with the ATN framework and clinical diagnosis.Our study suggests that blood proteins can predict the presence of AD pathology as measured in the ATN framework as well as clinical diagnosis.
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7.
  • Muscarella, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • The global abundance of tree palms
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography. - : Wiley. - 1466-822X .- 1466-8238. ; 29:9, s. 1495-1514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimPalms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change.LocationTropical and subtropical moist forests.Time periodCurrent.Major taxa studiedPalms (Arecaceae).MethodsWe assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co‐occurring non‐palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure.ResultsOn average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long‐term climate stability. Life‐form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non‐tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above‐ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work.ConclusionsTree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
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8.
  • Shi, Liu, et al. (författare)
  • Dickkopf-1 Overexpression in vitro Nominates Candidate Blood Biomarkers Relating to Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - : IOS Press. - 1875-8908 .- 1387-2877. ; 77:3, s. 1353-1368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies suggest that Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, plays a role in amyloid-induced toxicity and hence Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effect of DKK1 expression on protein expression, and whether such proteins are altered in disease, is unknown.We aim to test whether DKK1 induced protein signature obtained in vitro were associated with markers of AD pathology as used in the amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration (ATN) framework as well as with clinical outcomes.We first overexpressed DKK1 in HEK293A cells and quantified 1,128 proteins in cell lysates using aptamer capture arrays (SomaScan) to obtain a protein signature induced by DKK1. We then used the same assay to measure the DKK1-signature proteins in human plasma in two large cohorts, EMIF (n = 785) and ANM (n = 677).We identified a 100-protein signature induced by DKK1 in vitro. Subsets of proteins, along with age and apolipoprotein E ɛ4 genotype distinguished amyloid pathology (A + T-N-, A+T+N-, A+T-N+, and A+T+N+) from no AD pathology (A-T-N-) with an area under the curve of 0.72, 0.81, 0.88, and 0.85, respectively. Furthermore, we found that some signature proteins (e.g., Complement C3 and albumin) were associated with cognitive score and AD diagnosis in both cohorts.Our results add further evidence for a role of DKK regulation of Wnt signaling in AD and suggest that DKK1 induced signature proteins obtained in vitro could reflect theATNframework as well as predict disease severity and progression in vivo.
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9.
  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • The validation status of blood biomarkers of amyloid and phospho-tau assessed with the 5-phase development framework for AD biomarkers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070. ; 48:87, s. 2140-2156
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The development of blood biomarkers that reflect Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology (phosphorylated tau and amyloid-beta) has offered potential as scalable tests for dementia differential diagnosis and early detection. In 2019, the Geneva AD Biomarker Roadmap Initiative included blood biomarkers in the systematic validation of AD biomarkers. Methods A panel of experts convened in November 2019 at a two-day workshop in Geneva. The level of maturity (fully achieved, partly achieved, preliminary evidence, not achieved, unsuccessful) of blood biomarkers was assessed based on the Biomarker Roadmap methodology and discussed fully during the workshop which also evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers. Results Plasma p-tau has shown analytical validity (phase 2 primary aim 1) and first evidence of clinical validity (phase 3 primary aim 1), whereas the maturity level for A beta remains to be partially achieved. Full and partial achievement has been assigned to p-tau and A beta, respectively, in their associations to ante-mortem measures (phase 2 secondary aim 2). However, only preliminary evidence exists for the influence of covariates, assay comparison and cut-off criteria. Conclusions Despite the relative infancy of blood biomarkers, in comparison to CSF biomarkers, much has already been achieved for phases 1 through 3 - with p-tau having greater success in detecting AD and predicting disease progression. However, sufficient data about the effect of covariates on the biomarker measurement is lacking. No phase 4 (real-world performance) or phase 5 (assessment of impact/cost) aim has been tested, thus not achieved.
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10.
  • Voisin, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • An epigenetic clock for human skeletal muscle
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. - : Wiley. - 2190-5991 .- 2190-6009. ; 11:4, s. 887-898
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Ageing is associated with DNA methylation changes in all human tissues, and epigenetic markers can estimate chronological age based on DNA methylation patterns across tissues. However, the construction of the original pan‐tissue epigenetic clock did not include skeletal muscle samples and hence exhibited a strong deviation between DNA methylation and chronological age in this tissue.Methods: To address this, we developed a more accurate, muscle‐specific epigenetic clock based on the genome‐wide DNA methylation data of 682 skeletal muscle samples from 12 independent datasets (18–89 years old, 22% women, 99% Caucasian), all generated with Illumina HumanMethylation (HM) arrays (HM27, HM450, or HMEPIC). We also took advantage of the large number of samples to conduct an epigenome‐wide association study of age‐associated DNA methylation patterns in skeletal muscle.Results: The newly developed clock uses 200 cytosine‐phosphate–guanine dinucleotides to estimate chronological age in skeletal muscle, 16 of which are in common with the 353 cytosine‐phosphate–guanine dinucleotides of the pan‐tissue clock. The muscle clock outperformed the pan‐tissue clock, with a median error of only 4.6 years across datasets (vs. 13.1 years for the pan‐tissue clock, P < 0.0001) and an average correlation of ρ = 0.62 between actual and predicted age across datasets (vs. ρ = 0.51 for the pan‐tissue clock). Lastly, we identified 180 differentially methylated regions with age in skeletal muscle at a false discovery rate < 0.005. However, gene set enrichment analysis did not reveal any enrichment for gene ontologies.Conclusions: We have developed a muscle‐specific epigenetic clock that predicts age with better accuracy than the pan‐tissue clock. We implemented the muscle clock in an r package called Muscle Epigenetic Age Test available on Bioconductor to estimate epigenetic age in skeletal muscle samples. This clock may prove valuable in assessing the impact of environmental factors, such as exercise and diet, on muscle‐specific biological ageing processes. 
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