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Sökning: WFRF:(Baaré William)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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1.
  • Binnewies, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of depression and regional brain structure across the adult lifespan : Pooled analyses of six population-based and two clinical cohort studies in the European Lifebrain consortium
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 0353-8842 .- 2213-1582. ; 36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Major depressive disorder has been associated with lower prefrontal thickness and hippocampal volume, but it is unknown whether this association also holds for depressive symptoms in the general population. We investigated associations of depressive symptoms and depression status with brain structures across population-based and patient-control cohorts, and explored whether these associations are similar over the lifespan and across sexes.Methods: We included 3,447 participants aged 18–89 years from six population-based and two clinical patient-control cohorts of the European Lifebrain consortium. Cross-sectional meta-analyses using individual person data were performed for associations of depressive symptoms and depression status with FreeSurfer-derived thickness of bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), and hippocampal and total grey matter volume (GMV), separately for population-based and clinical cohorts.Results: Across patient-control cohorts, depressive symptoms and presence of mild-to-severe depression were associated with lower mOFC thickness (rsymptoms = −0.15/ rstatus = −0.22), rACC thickness (rsymptoms = −0.20/ rstatus = −0.25), hippocampal volume (rsymptoms = −0.13/ rstatus = 0.13) and total GMV (rsymptoms = −0.21/ rstatus = −0.25). Effect sizes were slightly larger for presence of moderate-to-severe depression. Associations were similar across age groups and sex. Across population-based cohorts, no associations between depression and brain structures were observed.Conclusions: Fitting with previous meta-analyses, depressive symptoms and depression status were associated with lower mOFC, rACC thickness, and hippocampal and total grey matter volume in clinical patient-control cohorts, although effect sizes were small. The absence of consistent associations in population-based cohorts with mostly mild depressive symptoms, suggests that significantly lower thickness and volume of the studied brain structures are only detectable in clinical populations with more severe depressive symptoms.
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2.
  • Dyrby, Tim B, et al. (författare)
  • Segmentation of age-related white matter changes in a clinical multi-center study.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 1053-8119. ; 41:2, s. 335-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age-related white matter changes (WMC) are thought to be a marker of vascular pathology, and have been associated with motor and cognitive deficits. In the present study, an optimized artificial neural network was used as an automatic segmentation method to produce probabilistic maps of WMC in a clinical multi-center study. The neural network uses information from T1- and T2-weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) scans, neighboring voxels and spatial location. Generalizability of the neural network was optimized by including the Optimal Brain Damage (OBD) pruning method in the training stage. Six optimized neural networks were produced to investigate the impact of different input information on WMC segmentation. The automatic segmentation method was applied to MR scans of 362 non-demented elderly subjects from 11 centers in the European multi-center study Leukoaraiosis And Disability (LADIS). Semi-manually delineated WMC were used for validating the segmentation produced by the neural networks. The neural network segmentation demonstrated high consistency between subjects and centers, making it a promising technique for large studies. For WMC volumes less than 10 ml, an increasing discrepancy between semi-manual and neural network segmentation was observed using the similarity index (SI) measure. The use of all three image modalities significantly improved cross-center generalizability compared to neural networks using the FLAIR image only. Expert knowledge not available to the neural networks was a minor source of discrepancy, while variation in MR scan quality constituted the largest source of error.
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3.
  • Friedman, Barbara Bodorkos, et al. (författare)
  • Are People Ready for Personalized Brain Health? Perspectives of Research Participants in the Lifebrain Consortium
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Gerontologist. - : Oxford University Press. - 0016-9013 .- 1758-5341. ; 60:6, s. E374-E383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A healthy brain is central to physical and mental well-being. In this multi-site, qualitative study, we investigated views and attitudes of adult participants in brain research studies on the brain and personalized brain health as well as interest in maintaining a healthy brain.DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted individual interviews with 44 adult participants in brain research cohorts of the Lifebrain consortium in Spain, Norway, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded using a cross-country codebook. The interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.RESULTS: Most participants did not focus on their own brain health and expressed uncertainty regarding how to maintain it. Those actively focusing on brain health often picked one specific strategy like diet or memory training. The participants were interested in taking brain health tests to learn about their individual risk of developing brain diseases, and were willing to take measures to maintain their brain health if personalized follow-up was provided and the measures had proven impact. The participants were interested in more information on brain health. No differences in responses were identified between age groups, sex, or countries.DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Concise, practical, personalized, and evidence-based information about the brain may promote brain health. Based on our findings, we have launched an ongoing global brain health survey to acquire more extensive, quantitative, and representative data on public perception of personalized brain health.
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4.
  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Educational attainment does not influence brain aging
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 118:18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Education has been related to various advantageous lifetime outcomes. Here, using longitudinal structural MRI data (4,422 observations), we tested the influential hypothesis that higher education translates into slower rates of brain aging. Cross-sectionally, education was modestly associated with regional cortical volume. However, despite marked mean atrophy in the cortex and hippocampus, education did not influence rates of change. The results were replicated across two independent samples. Our findings challenge the view that higher education slows brain aging.
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5.
  • Solé-Padullés, Cristina, et al. (författare)
  • No Association Between Loneliness, Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Volume Change in Young and Healthy Older Adults : A Longitudinal European Multicenter Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1663-4365 .- 1663-4365. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Loneliness is most prevalent during adolescence and late life and has been associated with mental health disorders as well as with cognitive decline during aging. Associations between longitudinal measures of loneliness and verbal episodic memory and brain structure should thus be investigated.Methods: We sought to determine associations between loneliness and verbal episodic memory as well as loneliness and hippocampal volume trajectories across three longitudinal cohorts within the Lifebrain Consortium, including children, adolescents (N = 69, age range 10–15 at baseline examination) and older adults (N = 1468 over 60). We also explored putative loneliness correlates of cortical thinning across the entire cortical mantle.Results: Loneliness was associated with worsening of verbal episodic memory in one cohort of older adults. Specifically, reporting medium to high levels of loneliness over time was related to significantly increased memory loss at follow-up examinations. The significance of the loneliness-memory change association was lost when eight participants were excluded after having developed dementia in any of the subsequent follow-up assessments. No significant structural brain correlates of loneliness were found, neither hippocampal volume change nor cortical thinning.Conclusion: In the present longitudinal European multicenter study, the association between loneliness and episodic memory was mainly driven by individuals exhibiting progressive cognitive decline, which reinforces previous findings associating loneliness with cognitive impairment and dementia.
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6.
  • Vidal-Pineiro, Didac, et al. (författare)
  • Individual variations in 'brain age' relate to early-life factors more than to longitudinal brain change
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - : eLife Sciences Publications. - 2050-084X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brain age is a widely used index for quantifying individuals’ brain health as deviation from a normative brain aging trajectory. Higher-than-expected brain age is thought partially to reflect above-average rate of brain aging. Here, we explicitly tested this assumption in two indepen-dent large test datasets (UK Biobank [main] and Lifebrain [replication]; longitudinal observations ≈ 2750 and 4200) by assessing the relationship between cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates of brain age. Brain age models were estimated in two different training datasets (n ≈ 38,000 [main] and 1800 individuals [replication]) based on brain structural features. The results showed no association between cross-sectional brain age and the rate of brain change measured longitudinally. Rather, brain age in adulthood was associated with the congenital factors of birth weight and polygenic scores of brain age, assumed to reflect a constant, lifelong influence on brain structure from early life. The results call for nuanced interpretations of cross-sectional indices of the aging brain and question their validity as markers of ongoing within-person changes of the aging brain. Longitudinal imaging data should be preferred whenever the goal is to understand individual change trajectories of brain and cognition in aging.
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7.
  • Walhovd, Kristine B., et al. (författare)
  • Education and Income Show Heterogeneous Relationships to Lifespan Brain and Cognitive Differences Across European and US Cohorts
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 32:4, s. 839-854
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Higher socio-economic status (SES) has been proposed to have facilitating and protective effects on brain and cognition. We ask whether relationships between SES, brain volumes and cognitive ability differ across cohorts, by age and national origin. European and US cohorts covering the lifespan were studied (4-97 years, N = 500 000; 54 000 w/brain imaging). There was substantial heterogeneity across cohorts for all associations. Education was positively related to intracranial (ICV) and total gray matter (GM) volume. Income was related to ICV, but not GM. We did not observe reliable differences in associations as a function of age. SES was more strongly related to brain and cognition in US than European cohorts. Sample representativity varies, and this study cannot identify mechanisms underlying differences in associations across cohorts. Differences in neuroanatomical volumes partially explained SES-cognition relationships. SES was more strongly related to ICV than to GM, implying that SES-cognition relations in adulthood are less likely grounded in neuroprotective effects on GM volume in aging. The relatively stronger SES-ICV associations rather are compatible with SES-brain volume relationships being established early in life, as ICV stabilizes in childhood. The findings underscore that SES has no uniform association with, or impact on, brain and cognition.
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