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Sökning: WFRF:(Baigent Colin)

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1.
  • Aktaa, Suleman, et al. (författare)
  • European Society of Cardiology methodology for the development of quality indicators for the quantification of cardiovascular care and outcomes.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes. - 2058-5225 .- 2058-1742.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: It is increasingly recognised that tools are required for assessing and benchmarking quality of care in order to improve it. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) is developing a suite of quality indicators (QIs) to evaluate cardiovascular care and support the delivery of evidence-based care. This paper describes the methodology used for their development.METHODS AND RESULTS: We propose a four-step process for the development of the ESC QIs. For a specific clinical area with a gap in care delivery, the QI development process includes: 1) the identification of key domains of care by constructing a conceptual framework of care; 2) the construction of candidate QIs by conducting a systematic review of the literature; 3) the selection of a final set of QIs by obtaining expert opinions using the modified Delphi method; and 4) the undertaking of a feasibility assessment by evaluating different ways of defining the QI specifications for the proposed data collection source. For each of the four steps, key methodological areas need to be addressed to inform the implementation process and avoid misinterpretation of the measurement results.CONCLUSION: Detailing the methodology for the ESC QIs construction enables healthcare providers to develop valid and feasible metrics to measure and improve the quality of cardiovascular care. As such, high-quality evidence may be translated into clinical practice and the 'evidence-practice' gap closed.
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2.
  • Baigent, Colin, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection) : a randomised placebo-controlled trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 377:9784, s. 2181-2192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Lowering LDL cholesterol with statin regimens reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and the need for coronary revascularisation in people without kidney disease, but its effects in people with moderate-to-severe kidney disease are uncertain. The SHARP trial aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the combination of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in such patients. Methods This randomised double-blind trial included 9270 patients with chronic kidney disease (3023 on dialysis and 6247 not) with no known history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation. Patients were randomly assigned to simvastatin 20 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg daily versus matching placebo. The key prespecified outcome was first major atherosclerotic event (non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death, non-haemorrhagic stroke, or any arterial revascularisation procedure). All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00125593, and I SRCTN54137607. Findings 4650 patients were assigned to receive simvastatin plus ezetimibe and 4620 to placebo. Allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe yielded an average LDL cholesterol difference of 0.85 mmol/L (SE 0.02; with about two-thirds compliance) during a median follow-up of 4.9 years and produced a 17% proportional reduction in major atherosclerotic events (526 [11.3%] simvastatin plus ezetimibe vs 619 [13.4%] placebo; rate ratio [RR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.94; log-rank p=0.0021). Non-significantly fewer patients allocated to simvastatin plus ezetimibe had a non-fatal myocardial infarction or died from coronary heart disease (213 [4.6%] vs 230 [5.0%]; RR 0.92,95% CI 0.76-1.11; p=0.37) and there were significant reductions in non-haemorrhagic stroke (131 [2.8%] vs 174 [3.8%]; RR 0.75,95% CI 0.60-0.94; p=0.01) and arterial revascularisation procedures (284 [6.1%] vs 352 [7.6%]; RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.93; p=0.0036). After weighting for subgroup-specific reductions in LDL cholesterol, there was no good evidence that the proportional effects on major atherosclerotic events differed from the summary rate ratio in any subgroup examined, and, in particular, they were similar in patients on dialysis and those who were not. The excess risk of myopathy was only two per 10 000 patients per year of treatment with this combination (9 [0.2%] vs 5 [0.1%]). There was no evidence of excess risks of hepatitis (21 [0.5%] vs 18 [0.4%]), gallstones (106 [2.3%] vs 106 [2.3%]), or cancer (438 [9.4%] vs 439 [9.5%], p=0.89) and there was no significant excess of death from any non-vascular cause (668 [14.4%] vs 612 [13.2%], p=0.13). Interpretation Reduction of LDL cholesterol with simvastatin 20 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg daily safely reduced the incidence of major atherosclerotic events in a wide range of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.
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4.
  • De Caterina, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • New Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation and Acute Coronary Syndromes : ESC Working Group on Thrombosis - Task Force on Anticoagulants in Heart Disease Position Paper
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 59:16, s. 1413-1425
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Until recently, vitamin K antagonists were the only available oral anticoagulants, but with numerous limitations that prompted the introduction of new oral anticoagulants targeting the single coagulation enzymes thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (apixaban, rivaroxaban, and edoxaban) and given in fixed doses without coagulation monitoring. Here we review the pharmacology and the results of clinical trials with these new agents in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and secondary prevention after acute coronary syndromes, providing perspectives on their future incorporation into clinical practice. In phase III trials in atrial fibrillation, compared with warfarin, dabigatran etexilate 150 mg B.I.D. reduced the rates of stroke/systemic embolism without any difference in major bleeding; dabigatran etexilate 110 mg B.I.D. had similar efficacy with decreased bleeding; apixaban 5 mg B.I.D. reduced stroke, systemic embolism, and mortality as well as major bleeding; and rivaroxaban 20 mg Q.D. was noninferior to warfarin for stroke and systemic embolism without a difference in major bleeding. All these agents reduced intracranial hemorrhage. Edoxaban is currently being evaluated in a further large phase III trial. Apixaban and rivaroxaban were evaluated in phase III trials for prevention of recurrent ischemia in patients with acute coronary syndromes who were mostly receiving dual antiplatelet therapy, with conflicting results on efficacy but consistent results for increased major bleeding. Overall, the new oral anticoagulants are poised to replace vitamin K antagonists for many patients with atrial fibrillation and may have a role after acute coronary syndromes. Although convenient to administer and manage, they present challenges that need to be addressed.
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5.
  • De Caterina, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • Oral anticoagulants in coronary heart disease (Section IV) Position paper of the ESC Working Group on Thrombosis - Task Force on Anticoagulants in Heart Disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - 0340-6245. ; 115:4, s. 685-711
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Until recently, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) were the only available oral anticoagulants evaluated for long-term treatment of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite efficacy in this setting, VKAs are rarely used because they are cumbersome to administer. Instead, the more readily manageable antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of prevention in ACS patients. This situation has the potential to change with the introduction of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which are easier to administer than VKAs because they can be given in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring. The NOACs include dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin, and apixaban, rivaroxaban and edoxaban, which inhibit factor Xa. Apixaban and rivaroxaban were evaluated in phase III trials for prevention of recurrent ischaemia in ACS patients, most of whom were also receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Although at the doses tested rivaroxaban was effective and apixaban was not, both agents increased major bleeding. The role for the NOACs in ACS management, although promising, is therefore complicated, because it is uncertain how they compare with newer antiplatelet agents, such as prasugrel, ticagrelor or vorapaxar, and because their safety in combination with these other drugs is unknown. Ongoing studies are also now evaluating the use of NOACs in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients, where their role is established, with coexistent ACS or coronary stenting. Focusing on CHD, we review the results of clinical trials with the NOACs and provide a perspective on their future incorporation into clinical practice.
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6.
  • De Caterina, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • Parenteral anticoagulants in heart disease : Current status and perspectives (Section II) Position Paper of the ESC Working Group on Thrombosis - Task Force on Anticoagulants in Heart Disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - 0340-6245. ; 109:5, s. 769-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anticoagulants are a mainstay of cardiovascular therapy, and parenteral anticoagulants have widespread use in cardiology, especially in acute situations. Parenteral anticoagulants include unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparins, the synthetic pentasaccharides fondaparinux, idraparinux and idrabiotaparinux, and parenteral direct thrombin inhibitors. The several shortcomings of unfractionated heparin and of low-molecular-weight heparins have prompted the development of the other newer agents. Here we review the mechanisms of action, pharmacological properties and side effects of parenteral anticoagulants used in the management of coronary heart disease treated with or without percutaneous coronary interventions, cardioversion for atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valves and valve repair. Using an evidence-based approach, we describe the results of completed clinical trials, highlight ongoing research with currently available agents, and recommend therapeutic options for specific heart diseases.
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7.
  • De Caterina, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin K antagonists in heart disease : Current status and perspectives (Section III)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - 0340-6245. ; 110:6, s. 1087-1107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oral anticoagulants are a mainstay of cardiovascular therapy, and for over 60 years vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) were the only available agents for long-term use. VKAs interfere with the cyclic inter-conversion of vitamin K and its 2,3 epoxide, thus inhibiting gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues at the amino-termini of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the coagulation factors (F) II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X, as well as of the anticoagulant proteins C, S and Z. The overall effect of such interference is a dose-dependent anticoagulant effect, which has been therapeutically exploited in heart disease since the early 1950s. In this position paper, we review the mechanisms of action, pharmacological properties and side effects of VKAs, which are used in the management of cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease (where their use is limited), stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation, heart valves and/or chronic heart failure. Using an evidence-based approach, we describe the results of completed clinical trials, highlight areas of uncertainty, and recommend therapeutic options for specific disorders. Although VKAs are being increasingly replaced in most patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation by the new oral anticoagulants, which target either thrombin or FXa, the VKAs remain the agents of choice for patients with atrial fibrillation in the setting of rheumatic valvular disease and for those with mechanical heart valves.
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8.
  • Haynes, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Lowering LDL Cholesterol on Progression of Kidney Disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 25:8, s. 1825-1833
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in CKD, but the effects of such treatment on progression of kidney disease remain uncertain. Here, 6245 participants with CKD (not on dialysis) were randomly assigned to simvastatin (20 mg) plus ezetimibe (10 mg) daily or matching placebo. The main prespecified renal outcome was ESRD (defined as the initiation of maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation). During 4.8 years of follow-up, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in an average LDL cholesterol difference (SEM) of 0.96 (0.02) mmol/L compared with placebo. There was a nonsignificant 3% reduction in the incidence of ESRD (1057 [33.9%] cases with simvastatin plus ezetimibe versus 1084 [34.6%] cases with placebo; rate ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.89 to 1.05; P=0.41). Similarly, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe had no significant effect on the prespecified tertiary outcomes of ESRD or death (1477 [47.4%] events with treatment versus 1513 [48.3%] events with placebo; rate ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.04; P=0.34) or ESRD or doubling of baseline creatinine (1189 [38.2%] events with treatment versus 1257 [40.2%] events with placebo; rate ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.01; P=0.09). Exploratory analyses also showed no significant effect on the rate of change in eGFR. Lowering LDL cholesterol by 1 mmol/L did not slow kidney disease progression within 5 years in a wide range of patients with CKD.
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9.
  • Herrington, William, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of renal function on the effects of LDL cholesterol lowering with statin-based regimens : a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 28 randomised trials
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. - 2213-8587 .- 2213-8595. ; 4:10, s. 829-839
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Statin therapy is effective for the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease, but its effects in individuals with more advanced disease, particularly those undergoing dialysis, are uncertain.METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 28 trials (n=183 419), examining effects of statin-based therapy on major vascular events (major coronary event [non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death], stroke, or coronary revascularisation) and cause-specific mortality. Participants were subdivided into categories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline. Treatment effects were estimated with rate ratio (RR) per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol.FINDINGS: Overall, statin-based therapy reduced the risk of a first major vascular event by 21% (RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·77-0·81; p<0·0001) per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol. Smaller relative effects on major vascular events were observed as eGFR declined (p=0·008 for trend; RR 0·78, 99% CI 0·75-0·82 for eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2); 0·76, 0·70-0·81 for eGFR 45 to <60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2); 0·85, 0·75-0·96 for eGFR 30 to <45 mL/min per 1·73 m(2); 0·85, 0·71-1·02 for eGFR <30 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) and not on dialysis; and 0·94, 0·79-1·11 for patients on dialysis). Analogous trends by baseline renal function were seen for major coronary events (p=0·01 for trend) and vascular mortality (p=0·03 for trend), but there was no significant trend for coronary revascularisation (p=0·90). Reducing LDL cholesterol with statin-based therapy had no effect on non-vascular mortality, irrespective of eGFR.INTERPRETATION: Even after allowing for the smaller reductions in LDL cholesterol achieved by patients with more advanced chronic kidney disease, and for differences in outcome definitions between dialysis trials, the relative reductions in major vascular events observed with statin-based treatment became smaller as eGFR declined, with little evidence of benefit in patients on dialysis. In patients with chronic kidney disease, statin-based regimens should be chosen to maximise the absolute reduction in LDL cholesterol to achieve the largest treatment benefits.FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, European Community Biomed Programme, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian National Heart Foundation.
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10.
  • Herrington, William, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of lowering LDL cholesterol on vascular access patency : post hoc analysis of the Study of Heart and Renal Protection
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. - 1555-905X. ; 9:5, s. 914-919
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear.DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) randomized patients with CKD to 20 mg simvastatin plus 10 mg ezetimibe daily versus matching placebo. This study aimed to explore the effects of treatment on vascular access occlusive events, defined as any access revision procedure, access thrombosis, removal of an old dialysis access, or formation of new permanent dialysis access.RESULTS:Among 2353 SHARP participants who had functioning vascular access at randomization, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in a 13% proportional reduction in vascular access occlusive events (355 [29.7%] for simvastatin/ezetimibe versus 388 [33.5%] for placebo; risk ratio [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.00; P=0.05). There was no evidence that the effects of treatment differed for any of the separate components of this outcome. To test the hypothesis raised by SHARP, comparable analyses were performed using the AURORA (A Study to Evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in Subjects on Regular Hemodialysis: An Assessment of Survival and Cardiovascular Events) trial cohort. AURORA did not provide independent confirmation (vascular access occlusive events: 352 [28.9%] for rosuvastatin versus 337 [27.6%] for placebo; RR, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.23; P=0.44). After combining the two trials, the overall effect of reducing LDL-C with a statin-based regimen on vascular access occlusive events was not statistically significant (707 [29.3%] with any LDL-C-lowering therapy versus 725 [30.5%] with placebo; RR, 0.95, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.05; P=0.29).CONCLUSIONS:Exploratory analyses from SHARP suggest that lowering LDL-C with statin-based therapy may improve vascular access patency, but there was no evidence of benefit in AURORA. Taken together, the available evidence suggests that any benefits of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency are likely to be modest.
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