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Sökning: WFRF:(Balkau Beverley)

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1.
  • Palmer, Nicholette D, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - San Francisco : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 7:1, s. e29202-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
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2.
  • Dupuis, Josee, et al. (författare)
  • New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:2, s. 32-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
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3.
  • Voight, Benjamin F., et al. (författare)
  • Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:7, s. 155-579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals with combined P < 5 x 10(-8). These include a second independent signal at the KCNQ1 locus; the first report, to our knowledge, of an X-chromosomal association (near DUSP9); and a further instance of overlap between loci implicated in monogenic and multifactorial forms of diabetes (at HNF1A). The identified loci affect both beta-cell function and insulin action, and, overall, T2D association signals show evidence of enrichment for genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also show that a high proportion of T2D susceptibility loci harbor independent association signals influencing apparently unrelated complex traits.
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4.
  • Balkau, Beverley, et al. (författare)
  • Frequency of the WHO metabolic syndrome in European cohorts, and an alternative definition of an insulin resistance syndrome
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Diabetes & Metabolism. - : Elsevier Masson SAS. - 1878-1780. ; 28:5, s. 364-376
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: To describe the frequency, in some European populations, of the World Health Organisation (WHO) defined metabolic syndrome and to compare the frequency of this syndrome with an alternative definition for non-diabetic subjects, called the insulin resistance syndrome proposed by the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). METHODS: Investigators of eight European studies contributed, according to a written protocol, the frequencies of abnormalities of these two syndromes, by sex and age class, as well as the overall frequencies of the syndromes and the average number of abnormalities: 8200 men and 9363 women were included. RESULTS: The frequency of both syndromes increased with age and was almost always higher in men than women for a given age. In non-diabetic subjects the frequency of the WHO syndrome varied between 7% and 36% for men 40 to 55 years; for women of the same age, between 5% and 22%. The EGIR syndrome was less frequent than the WHO syndrome (1% to 22% in men, 1% to 14% in women 40-55 years), and in men this was mainly due to the differing definitions of central obesity, as the WHO definition included overall obesity, BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2). CONCLUSIONS: There is great variability in the frequency of the syndrome between different populations, due to the differing frequencies of the abnormalities and no doubt to the differing methodologies of measurement. Prospective studies and advances in the knowledge of physio-pathological mechanisms are required to determine the most appropriate and practical definition of the syndrome.
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5.
  • Barban, Nicola, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:12, s. 1462-1472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.
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6.
  • Benzinou, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Common nonsynonymous variants in PCSK1 confer risk of obesity.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 40:8, s. 943-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in PCSK1 cause monogenic obesity. To assess the contribution of PCSK1 to polygenic obesity risk, we genotyped tag SNPs in a total of 13,659 individuals of European ancestry from eight independent case-control or family-based cohorts. The nonsynonymous variants rs6232, encoding N221D, and rs6234-rs6235, encoding the Q665E-S690T pair, were consistently associated with obesity in adults and children (P = 7.27 x 10(-8) and P = 2.31 x 10(-12), respectively). Functional analysis showed a significant impairment of the N221D-mutant PC1/3 protein catalytic activity.
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7.
  • Chiriacò, Martina, et al. (författare)
  • Female sex and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) insertion/deletion polymorphism amplify the effects of adiposity on blood pressure
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0194-911X. ; 79:1, s. 36-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The pathophysiological link between adiposity and blood pressure is not completely understood, and evidence suggests an influence of sex and genetic determinants. We aimed to identify the relationship between adiposity and blood pressure, independent of a robust set of lifestyle and metabolic factors, and to examine the modulating role of sex and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms. In the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) study cohort, 1211 normotensive individuals, aged 30 to 60 years and followed-up after 3.3 years, were characterized for lifestyle and metabolic factors, body composition, and ACE genotype. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were independently associated with mean arterial pressure, with a stronger relationship in women than men (BMI: R=0.40 versus 0.30; WC: R=0.40 versus 0.30, both P<0.01) and in individuals with the ID and II ACE genotypes in both sexes (P<0.01). The associations of BMI and WC with mean arterial pressure were independent of age, sex, lifestyle, and metabolic variables (standardized regression coefficient=0.17 and 0.18 for BMI and WC, respectively) and showed a significant interaction with the ACE genotype only in women (P=0.03). A 5 cm larger WC at baseline increased the risk of developing hypertension at follow-up only in women (odds ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.15-2.10], P=0.004) and in II genotype carriers (odds ratio, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.09-3.20], P=0.023). The hypertensive effect of adiposity is more pronounced in women and in people carrying the II variant of the ACE genotype, a marker of salt sensitivity.
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8.
  • Choquet, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • The T-381C SNP in BNP gene may be modestly associated with type 2 diabetes: an updated meta-analysis in 49 279 subjects
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 18:13, s. 2495-2501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A recent study reported an association between the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) promoter T-381C polymorphism (rs198389) and protection against type 2 diabetes (T2D). As replication in several studies is mandatory to confirm genetic results, we analyzed the T-381C polymorphism in seven independent case-control cohorts and in 291 T2D-enriched pedigrees totalling 39 557 subjects of European origin. A meta-analysis of the seven case-control studies (n = 39 040) showed a nominal protective effect [odds ratio (OR) = 0.86 (0.79-0.94), P = 0.0006] of the CC genotype on T2D risk, consistent with the previous study. By combining all available data (n = 49 279), we further confirmed a modest contribution of the BNP T-381C polymorphism for protection against T2D [OR = 0.86 (0.80-0.92), P = 1.4 x 10(-5)]. Potential confounders such as gender, age, obesity status or family history were tested in 4335 T2D and 4179 normoglycemic subjects and they had no influence on T2D risk. This study provides further evidence of a modest contribution of the BNP T-381C polymorphism in protection against T2D and illustrates the difficulty of unambiguously proving modest-sized associations even with large sample sizes.
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9.
  • Clark, Stephen J, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) Gene SNPs and Transcript Expression Levels With Severe Obesity.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Obesity. - 1930-7381. ; 20:1, s. 178-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies have reported associations of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to both obesity and BMI. This study was designed to investigate association between SIRT1 SNPs, SIRT1 gene expression and obesity. Case-control analyses were performed using 1,533 obese subjects (896 adults, BMI >40 kg/m(2) and 637 children, BMI >97th percentile for age and sex) and 1,237 nonobese controls, all French Caucasians. Two SNPs (in high linkage disequilibrium (LD), r(2) = 0.96) were significantly associated with adult obesity, rs33957861 (P value = 0.003, odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, confidence interval (CI) = 0.61-0.92) and rs11599176 (P value: 0.006, OR = 0.74, CI = 0.61-0.90). Expression of SIRT1 mRNA was measured in BMI-discordant siblings from 154 Swedish families. Transcript expression was significantly correlated to BMI in the lean siblings (r(2) = 0.13, P value = 3.36 × 10(-7)) and lower SIRT1 expression was associated with obesity (P value = 1.56 × 10(-35)). There was also an association between four SNPs (rs11599176, rs12413112, rs33957861, and rs35689145) and BMI (P values: 4 × 10(-4), 6 × 10(-4), 4 × 10(-4), and 2 × 10(-3)) with the rare allele associated with a lower BMI. However, no SNP was associated with SIRT1 transcript expression level. In summary, both SNPs and SIRT1 gene expression are associated with severe obesity.
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10.
  • Dina, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 39:6, s. 724-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We identified a set of SNPs in the first intron of the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene on chromosome 16q12.2 that is consistently strongly associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children of European ancestry with an experiment-wise P value of 1.67 x 10(-26) in 2,900 affected individuals and 5,100 controls. The at-risk haplotype yields a proportion of attributable risk of 22% for common obesity. We conclude that FTO contributes to human obesity and hence may be a target for subsequent functional analyses.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 61
  • [1]234567Nästa
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