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Sökning: WFRF:(Bandopadhayay Pratiti)

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  • Bandopadhayay, Pratiti, et al. (författare)
  • BET Bromodomain Inhibition of MYC-Amplified Medulloblastoma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 20:4, s. 912-925
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose:MYC-amplified medulloblastomas are highly lethal tumors. Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) bromodomain inhibition has recently been shown to suppress MYC-associated transcriptional activity in other cancers. The compound JQ1 inhibits BET bromodomain-containing proteins, including BRD4. Here, we investigate BET bromodomain targeting for the treatment of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma.Experimental Design:We evaluated the effects of genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of BET bromodomains on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in established and newly generated patient- and genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM)-derived medulloblastoma cell lines and xenografts that harbored amplifications of MYC or MYCN. We also assessed the effect of JQ1 on MYC expression and global MYC-associated transcriptional activity. We assessed the in vivo efficacy of JQ1 in orthotopic xenografts established in immunocompromised mice.Results:Treatment of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma cells with JQ1 decreased cell viability associated with arrest at G1 and apoptosis. We observed downregulation of MYC expression and confirmed the inhibition of MYC-associated transcriptional targets. The exogenous expression of MYC from a retroviral promoter reduced the effect of JQ1 on cell viability, suggesting that attenuated levels of MYC contribute to the functional effects of JQ1. JQ1 significantly prolonged the survival of orthotopic xenograft models of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma (P < 0.001). Xenografts harvested from mice after five doses of JQ1 had reduced the expression of MYC mRNA and a reduced proliferative index.Conclusion:JQ1 suppresses MYC expression and MYC-associated transcriptional activity in medulloblastomas, resulting in an overall decrease in medulloblastoma cell viability. These preclinical findings highlight the promise of BET bromodomain inhibitors as novel agents for MYC-amplified medulloblastoma.
  • Borgenvik, Anna, 1987- (författare)
  • MYC-driven Medulloblastoma : New Targeted Therapies and Mechanisms of Recurrence
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. It arises in the posterior fossa but presents with distinct histological and molecular features. Hence, medulloblastoma is divided into four molecular subgroups, WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. The overall 5-year survival is ~70% across subgroups but varies with high- and low-risk disease. Standard treatment of medulloblastoma consists of maximal safe tumor resection, radiotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite the rather high success rate of treatment for many patients it also comes with severe long-term debilitating side effects. MYC proteins are master regulators of gene expression often deregulated in cancer. MYC family members MYC and MYCN share similar roles and are found overexpressed or amplified in most medulloblastoma subgroups and correlate with a poor prognosis. Medulloblastoma dissemination and recurrence patterns differ between subgroups but are always associated with a poor prognosis. Recurrent medulloblastoma is not yet curable and will lead to death. In this thesis, we present the first transgenic mouse model of medulloblastoma recurrence and highlight the role of the transcription factor SOX9 in MYC-driven relapse mechanisms. By studying this recurrence model and matched primary-recurrent patient samples we propose a mechanism in which treatment-refractory and quiescent SOX9-positive cells in Group 3 medulloblastoma are necessary for tumor relapse, and how the recurrent tumors can be specifically treated with MGMT inhibitors and doxorubicin.In addition, we address efficient treatment options of primary MYC-driven medulloblastoma where BET bromodomain inhibition (JQ1) in combination with CDK2 inhibition (milciclib) of human Group 3 medulloblastoma will lead to apoptosis and prolonged survival of xenografted mice. This is explained by a dual hit on MYC transcriptional output and MYC protein stability exerted by JQ1 and milciclib respectively. Finally, in a different novel transgenic model of MYC-driven medulloblastoma, we show how temporal Cdk2 knock-out has no effect on MYC protein stability but slows down proliferation and prolongs survival of allografted mice. The need for better treatments and increased understanding of recurrent medulloblastoma is huge. To that end, this thesis focuses on and addresses novel treatments, the role of the cell cycle protein CDK2 as well as relapse mechanisms depending on dormant SOX9-positive cells in highly aggressive MYC-driven medulloblastoma.
  • Rheinbay, Esther, et al. (författare)
  • Analyses of non-coding somatic drivers in 2,658 cancer whole genomes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 578:7793, s. 102-111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of drivers of cancer has traditionally focused on protein-coding genes(1-4). Here we present analyses of driver point mutations and structural variants in non-coding regions across 2,658 genomes from the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium(5) of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). For point mutations, we developed a statistically rigorous strategy for combining significance levels from multiple methods of driver discovery that overcomes the limitations of individual methods. For structural variants, we present two methods of driver discovery, and identify regions that are significantly affected by recurrent breakpoints and recurrent somatic juxtapositions. Our analyses confirm previously reported drivers(6,7), raise doubts about others and identify novel candidates, including point mutations in the 5' region of TP53, in the 3' untranslated regions of NFKBIZ and TOB1, focal deletions in BRD4 and rearrangements in the loci of AKR1C genes. We show that although point mutations and structural variants that drive cancer are less frequent in non-coding genes and regulatory sequences than in protein-coding genes, additional examples of these drivers will be found as more cancer genomes become available.
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