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Sökning: WFRF:(Bannister K. W.)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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  • Andreoni, I., et al. (författare)
  • Follow Up of GW170817 and Its Electromagnetic Counterpart by Australian-Led Observing Programmes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia. - : Cambridge University Press (CUP). - 1323-3580 .- 1448-6083. ; 34
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (similar to 2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
  • Kasliwal, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Illuminating gravitational waves : A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 358:6370, s. 1559-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet.
  • Mooley, K., et al. (författare)
  • A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW170817
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 554:7691, s. 207-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • GW170817 was the first gravitational-wave detection of a binary neutron-star merger. It was accompanied by radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum and localized to the galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of 40 megaparsecs. It has been proposed that the observed γ-ray, X-ray and radio emission is due to an ultra-relativistic jet being launched during the merger (and successfully breaking out of the surrounding material), directed away from our line of sight (off-axis). The presence of such a jet is predicted from models that posit neutron-star mergers as the drivers of short hard-γ-ray bursts. Here we report that the radio light curve of GW170817 has no direct signature of the afterglow of an off-axis jet. Although we cannot completely rule out the existence of a jet directed away from the line of sight, the observed γ-ray emission could not have originated from such a jet. Instead, the radio data require the existence of a mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow moving towards us. This outflow could be the high-velocity tail of the neutron-rich material that was ejected dynamically during the merger, or a cocoon of material that breaks out when a jet launched during the merger transfers its energy to the dynamical ejecta. Because the cocoon model explains the radio light curve of GW170817, as well as the γ-ray and X-ray emission (and possibly also the ultraviolet and optical emission), it is the model that is most consistent with the observational data. Cocoons may be a ubiquitous phenomenon produced in neutron-star mergers, giving rise to a hitherto unidentified population of radio, ultraviolet, X-ray and γ-ray transients in the local Universe.
  • Semb, G, et al. (författare)
  • Erratum
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of plastic surgery and hand surgery. - 2000-6764. ; 51:2, s. 158-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Dance, Sarah L., et al. (författare)
  • Improvements in Forecasting Intense Rainfall : Results from the FRANC (Forecasting Rainfall Exploiting New Data Assimilation Techniques and Novel Observations of Convection) Project
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmosphere. - : MDPI. - 2073-4433 .- 2073-4433. ; 10:3
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The FRANC project (Forecasting Rainfall exploiting new data Assimilation techniques and Novel observations of Convection) has researched improvements in numerical weather prediction of convective rainfall via the reduction of initial condition uncertainty. This article provides an overview of the project's achievements. We highlight new radar techniques: correcting for attenuation of the radar return; correction for beams that are over 90% blocked by trees or towers close to the radar; and direct assimilation of radar reflectivity and refractivity. We discuss the treatment of uncertainty in data assimilation: new methods for estimation of observation uncertainties with novel applications to Doppler radar winds, Atmospheric Motion Vectors, and satellite radiances; a new algorithm for implementation of spatially-correlated observation error statistics in operational data assimilation; and innovative treatment of moist processes in the background error covariance model. We present results indicating a link between the spatial predictability of convection and convective regimes, with potential to allow improved forecast interpretation. The research was carried out as a partnership between University researchers and the Met Office (UK). We discuss the benefits of this approach and the impact of our research, which has helped to improve operational forecasts for convective rainfall events.
  • Sapkota, K., et al. (författare)
  • Mechanism and properties of positive allosteric modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by 6-alkyl 2-naphthoic acid derivatives
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neuropharmacology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0028-3908. ; 125, s. 64-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The theory that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is responsible for the symptoms of schizophrenia is well supported by many pharmacological and genetic studies. Accordingly, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that augment NMDAR signaling may be useful for treating schizophrenia. Previously we have identified several NMDAR PAMs containing a carboxylic acid attached to naphthalene, phenanthrene, or coumarin ring systems. In this study, we describe several functional and mechanistic properties of UBP684, a 2-naphthoic acid derivative, which robustly potentiates agonist responses at each of the four GluN1a/GluN2 receptors and at neuronal NMDARs. UBP684 increases the maximal L-glutamate/glycine response while having minor subunit-specific effects on agonist potency. PAM binding is independent of agonist binding, and PAM activity is independent of membrane voltage, redox state, and the GIuN1 exon 5 N-terminal insert. UBP684 activity is, however, markedly pH-dependent, with greater potentiation occurring at lower pHs and inhibitory activity at pH 8.4. UBP684 increases channel open probability (P-o) and slows receptor deactivation time upon removal of L-glutamate, but not glycine. The structurally related PAM, UBP753, reproduced most of these findings, but did not prolong agonist removal deactivation time. Studies using cysteine mutants to lock the GluN1 and GluN2 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) in the agonist-bound states indicate that PAM potentiation requires GluN2 LBD conformational flexibility. Together, these findings suggest that UBP684 and UBP753 stabilize the GluN2 LBD in an active conformation and thereby increase P-o. Thus, UBP684 and UBP753 may serve as lead compounds for developing agents to enhance NMDAR activity in disorders associated with NMDAR hypofunction. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7

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