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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Barnett Gill) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Barnett Gill)

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1.
  • Graetz, N., et al. (författare)
  • Mapping disparities in education across low- and middle-income countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 577:7789, s. 235-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Educational attainment is an important social determinant of maternal, newborn, and child health1–3. As a tool for promoting gender equity, it has gained increasing traction in popular media, international aid strategies, and global agenda-setting4–6. The global health agenda is increasingly focused on evidence of precision public health, which illustrates the subnational distribution of disease and illness7,8; however, an agenda focused on future equity must integrate comparable evidence on the distribution of social determinants of health9–11. Here we expand on the available precision SDG evidence by estimating the subnational distribution of educational attainment, including the proportions of individuals who have completed key levels of schooling, across all low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2017. Previous analyses have focused on geographical disparities in average attainment across Africa or for specific countries, but—to our knowledge—no analysis has examined the subnational proportions of individuals who completed specific levels of education across all low- and middle-income countries12–14. By geolocating subnational data for more than 184 million person-years across 528 data sources, we precisely identify inequalities across geography as well as within populations. 
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  • Edwards, David, et al. (författare)
  • 99mTc-NC100668, an agent for imaging venous thromboembolism : The effect of anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy on the uptake and retention of radioactivity in blood clots in vivo
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nuclear medicine communications. - 0143-3636 .- 1473-5628. ; 28:1, s. 55-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uptake of Tc-NC100668 into blood clots and elucidate the potential for medications commonly used to treat thromboembolism to interfere with the uptake and retention of Tc-NC100668. METHODS: Tc-NC100668 in vivo uptake and retention in a range of blood clot of various ages (up to 4 h old) and in the presence of anticoagulants or thrombolytic therapies was measured in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. RESULTS: Tc-NC100668 was rapidly absorbed into and retained by blood clots and was not significantly affected by the presence of unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin or thrombin inhibitor. Tissue plasminogen activator reduced the uptake of Tc-NC100668 into blood clot by a factor of 3 when adjusted to allow for changes in the weight of the blood clot. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that the uptake and retention of Tc-NC100668 into blood clots in the rat model of deep vein thrombosis is rapid and maintained over at least a 4 h post-injection period. It has been shown that Tc-NC100668 is retained in blood clots even in the presence of therapeutic doses of those anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies typically used to treat pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis.
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  • Edwards, David, et al. (författare)
  • Tc-99m-NC100668, a new tracer for imaging venous thromboemboli : pre-clinical biodistribution and incorporation into plasma clots in vivo and in vitro
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 33:11, s. 1258-1265
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Tc-99m-NC100668 is a new radiotracer being developed to aid the diagnosis of thromboembolism. The structure of NC100668 is similar to a region of human alpha(2)-antiplasmin, which is a substrate for factor XIIIa (FXIIIa). The purpose of this study was to confirm the uptake of Tc-99m-NC100668 into forming plasma clot and to establish the biodistribution of Tc-99m-NC100668 in Wistar rats. Methods: The in vitro plasma clot uptake of Tc-99m-NC100668 and other compounds with known affinities to FXIIIa was measured using a plasma clot assay. The biodistribution and blood clot uptake of radioactivity of Tc-99m-NC100668 in normal Wistar rats and those bearing experimentally induced deep vein thrombi were investigated. Results: The in vitro uptake of Tc-99m-NC100668 was greater than that for [C-14] dansyl cadaverine, a known substrate of FXIIIa in the plasma clot assay. The biodistribution of Tc-99m-NC100668 in male and female Wistar rats up to 24 h p.i. showed that radioactivity was rapidly excreted, predominantly into the urine, with very little background tissue retention. In vivo the uptake and retention of Tc-99m-NC100668 into the blood clot was greater than could be accounted for by non-specific accumulation of the radiotracer within the blood clot. Conclusion: Tc-99m-NC100668 was retained by plasma clots in vitro and blood clots in vivo. No significant tissue retention which could interfere with the ability to image thrombi in vivo was observed. This evidence suggests that Tc-99m-NC100668 might be useful in the detection of thromboembolism.
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  • Edwards, David, et al. (författare)
  • The biodistribution of NC100668 and the effect of excess NC100668 on the biodistribution and kidney retention of Tc-99m-NC100668 in the rat
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Medicine and Biology. - 0969-8051 .- 1872-9614. ; 34:3, s. 315-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: (99m)Tc-NC100668 is being developed to aid the diagnosis of thromboemboli. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the presence of excess NC100668 interferes with the biodistribution and blood clot uptake of (99m)Tc-NC100668. The secondary aim was to investigate the causes underlying the kidney retention of (99m)Tc-NC100668. METHODS: The uptake of a (14)C-labelled analogue of NC100668, as well as (99m)Tc-NC100668, into plasma (in vitro) and blood (in vivo) clots was determined. The biodistribution of (99m)Tc-NC100668 at a range of NC100668 doses was studied in normal Wistar rats and those bearing experimentally induced deep venous thrombosis. The biodistribution of a negative control peptide and (99m)Tc-NC100668 plus L-lysine was studied in healthy male Wistar rats. RESULTS: The biodistribution as well as plasma clot uptake of [Asn-U-(14)C]NC100668 and (99m)Tc-NC100668 was similar. Apart from some reduction in kidney retention, the biodistribution and uptake of radioactivity into the blood clot were not significantly affected by the presence of up to 1000 times the clinical dose of NC100668. Kidney retention of radioactivity could be more effectively reduced by coadministration of 889 microg/kg NC100668 than 450 mg/kg L-lysine. A negative control peptide with no affinity for FXIIIa demonstrated very little kidney retention. CONCLUSIONS: The biodistribution and blood clot uptake of (99m)Tc-NC100668 and [Asn-U-(14)C]NC100668 are similar. With the exception of the kidneys, (99m)Tc-NC100668 biodistribution and blood clot uptake are unaffected by the presence of unlabelled NC100668. The kidney retention of radioactivity is probably due to transglutaminase activity and, to a lesser extent, nonspecific charge-mediated endocytosis.
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