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Sökning: WFRF:(Barzilai N)

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1.
  • Fuchsberger, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 536:7614, s. 41-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups. To increase statistical power, we expanded the sample size via genotyping and imputation in a further 111,548 subjects. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes after sequencing were overwhelmingly common and most fell within regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies. Comprehensive enumeration of sequence variation is necessary to identify functional alleles that provide important clues to disease pathophysiology, but large-scale sequencing does not support the idea that lower-frequency variants have a major role in predisposition to type 2 diabetes.
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2.
  • Barban, Nicola, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:12, s. 1462-1472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.
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3.
  • Flannick, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Data Descriptor : Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2052-4463. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (> 80% of low-frequency coding variants in similar to ~82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and similar to ~90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in similar to ~44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D.
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4.
  • Flannick, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2052-4463. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (> 80% of low-frequency coding variants in similar to 82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and similar to 90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in similar to 44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D.
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5.
  • Manning, Alisa, et al. (författare)
  • A Low-Frequency Inactivating AKT2 Variant Enriched in the Finnish Population Is Associated With Fasting Insulin Levels and Type 2 Diabetes Risk
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 66:7, s. 2019-2032
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify novel coding association signals and facilitate characterization of mechanisms influencing glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, we analyzed 109,215 variants derived from exome array genotyping together with an additional 390,225 variants from exome sequence in up to 39,339 normoglycemic individuals from five ancestry groups. We identified a novel association between the coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) in AKT2 and fasting plasma insulin (FI), a gene in which rare fully penetrant mutations are causal for monogenic glycemic disorders. The low-frequency allele is associated with a 12% increase in FI levels. This variant is present at 1.1% frequency in Finns but virtually absent in individuals from other ancestries. Carriers of the FI-increasing allele had increased 2-h insulin values, decreased insulin sensitivity, and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.05). In cellular studies, the AKT2-Thr50 protein exhibited a partial loss of function. We extend the allelic spectrum for coding variants in AKT2 associated with disorders of glucose homeostasis and demonstrate bidirectional effects of variants within the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT2.
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7.
  • Agmon-Levin, Nancy, et al. (författare)
  • Antitreponemal Antibodies Leading to Autoantibody Production and Protection from Atherosclerosis in Kitavans from Papua New Guinea
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Contemporary Challenges in Autoimmunity. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0077-8923. ; 1173, s. 675-682
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of anti-infectious agent antibodies and autoantibodies in a unique non-Westernized population from Kitava, Papua New Guinea (PNG), compared to Western populations. We matched 120 serum samples from Kitavans with 437 samples from four healthy control groups. Sera were tested for the presence of anti-infectious agent antibodies (treponema, toxoplsmosis, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella) and autoantiobodies [anti-double-stranded (ds)DNA, anti-chromatin, anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP), anti-SSB, anti-SSA, anti-Scl-70, anti-Smith, anti-centromer, anti-SmRNP, anti-Jo-1, and anti-ribosomal-P] using the Bio-Rad BioPlex 2200. Antitreponemal antibodies were detected in 87% of PNG sera versus 0-6% of controls (P < 0.0001). Anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected in 31% of PNG samples, which was significantly higher than in three of the control groups (<10%). The outstanding high rate of antitreponemal antibodies detected in Kitavans possibly represents prior yaws disease. A low prevalence of cardiovascular disease was previously documented in Kitavans and has been attributed, in addition to their diet, to the high prevalence of natural cardioprotective autoantibodies (the IgM-antiphosphorylcholine antibodies) in this population. Treponemal infection has been shown to induce the appearance of antiphosphorylcholine antibodies. These protective autoantibodies may cross-react with the pathogenic anti-dsDNA antibodies. Thus, it is suggested that infection with treponema is associated with the presence of protective as well as pathogenic autoantibodies.
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8.
  • Escartin, C., et al. (författare)
  • Reactive astrocyte nomenclature, definitions, and future directions
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256. ; 24, s. 312-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reactive astrocytes are astrocytes undergoing morphological, molecular, and functional remodeling in response to injury, disease, or infection of the CNS. Although this remodeling was first described over a century ago, uncertainties and controversies remain regarding the contribution of reactive astrocytes to CNS diseases, repair, and aging. It is also unclear whether fixed categories of reactive astrocytes exist and, if so, how to identify them. We point out the shortcomings of binary divisions of reactive astrocytes into good-vs-bad, neurotoxic-vs-neuroprotective or A1-vs-A2. We advocate, instead, that research on reactive astrocytes include assessment of multiple molecular and functional parameters-preferably in vivo-plus multivariate statistics and determination of impact on pathological hallmarks in relevant models. These guidelines may spur the discovery of astrocyte-based biomarkers as well as astrocyte-targeting therapies that abrogate detrimental actions of reactive astrocytes, potentiate their neuro- and glioprotective actions, and restore or augment their homeostatic, modulatory, and defensive functions. Good-bad binary classifications fail to describe reactive astrocytes in CNS disorders. Here, 81 researchers reach consensus on widespread misconceptions and provide definitions and recommendations for future research on reactive astrocytes.
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9.
  • Shapira, Yinon, et al. (författare)
  • Geographical Differences in Autoantibodies and Anti-infectious Agents Antibodies Among Healthy Adults
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology. - : Humana Press. - 1080-0549 .- 1559-0267. ; 42:2, s. 154-163
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Much is known about the geoepidemiology of defined autoimmune diseases (AD); however, there is currently limited data regarding the prevalence of autoantibodies among healthy populations of different geographical areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate a large profile of autoantibodies in healthy adults from distinct global regions as well as the prevalence of anti-infectious agents antibodies in those regions. Sera samples from 557 healthy donors were obtained at six centers located in different countries (i.e., Italy, Netherlands, Israel, Mexico, Columbia, Papua New Guinea (Kitavans)). Sera were tested for the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies associated with thrombophilia, vasculitis, and gastrointestinal (GI) disease. Sera samples were also screened for antibodies against infectious agents (i.e., EBV, CMV, HBV, Helicobacter pylori, Treponema pallidum, and Toxoplasma gondii). Tests were performed using the BioPlex 2200 or ELISA kits (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA). We found a significant gradient of ANA positivity among the groups: 45% of Columbians, 38% of Kitavans, 26% of Mexicans, 12% of Italians, 12% of Dutch, and 11% of Israelis were ANA positive. Geographical differences were also observed regarding the prevalence of specific autoantibodies, namely ANA: anti-dsDNA, chromatin, SmRNP, Ro/SSA, La/SSB, Scl70; GI associated: antigliadin; and thrombophilia-associated: anti-beta 2GP1 and prothrombin. Additionally, significant differences were observed regarding serological markers of all infectious agents screened. The observed variance between healthy ethno-geographical distinct populations in prevalence of autoantibodies may represent different genetic or environmental (e.g., prior exposure to infection) influences. Thus may illuminate possible causes of geoepidemiological differences in AD.
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