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  • Ambring, Anneli, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a Mediterranean-inspired diet on blood lipids, vascular function and oxidative stress in healthy subjects.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Clinical science (London, England : 1979). - 0143-5221. ; 106:5, s. 519-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mediterranean-inspired diets have been shown to decrease cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolaemia, who frequently exhibit endothelial dysfunction. The aims of the present study are to improve endothelial function by dietary intervention in healthy subjects with lipid levels representative of a Western population. Twenty-two healthy subjects (mean total cholesterol, 5.6 mmol/l) were given a Mediterranean-inspired diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and sterol esters, but low in saturated fat, or an ordinary Swedish diet, for 4 weeks in a randomized cross-over study. The composition of the diets were: in the Swedish diet, 2090 kcal (where 1 kcal=4.184 kJ; 48% of energy from carbohydrate, 15% from protein and 36% from fat) and 19 g of fibre; in the Mediterranean-inspired diet, 1869 kcal (48% of energy from carbohydrate, 16% from protein, 34% from fat) and 40 g of fibre. After each dietary period, fasting blood lipids, insulin and glucose levels, as well as apo B (apolipoprotein B) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) particle size, were analysed. Endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilation was measured invasively by venous occlusion plethysmography, and arterial distensibility was assessed by echocardiography tracking. Fibrinolytic capacity across the forearm, as well as oxidative stress measured through urinary F(2)-isoprostane, were evaluated. Total, LDL- and apo B-cholesterol and triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentrations were decreased by 17%, 22%, 16% and 17% respectively, after the Mediterranean-inspired diet compared with the Swedish diet ( P <0.05 for all). However, no differences in plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose and LDL particle size, endothelial function, arterial distensibility, fibrinolytic capacity or oxidative stress were detected. Treatment for 4 weeks with a Mediterranean-inspired diet decreased blood lipids in healthy individuals with a low-risk profile for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect was not mirrored in vascular function or oxidative stress evaluation.
  • Basu, S, et al. (författare)
  • Cytokine-mediated inflammation is independently associated with insulin sensitivity measured by the euglycemic insulin clamp in a community-based cohort of elderly men
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. - : E-Century Publishing. - 1940-5901 .- 1940-5901. ; 4:2, s. 164-168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both clinical and experimental studies suggest a close relation between an inflammatory state and insulin resistance. We investigated the association between cytokine-mediated inflammation (high sensitivity C reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin [IL] 6) and insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate, assessed by the euglycemic insulin clamp) in a community-based cohort, with subgroup analyses of normal weight individuals without diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (NCEP). hsCRP and IL- 6 were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (multivariable-adjusted regression coefficient for 1-SD increase of hsCRP -0.12 (-0.21-(-0.03), p=0.01) and of IL-6 - 0.11 (-0.21-(-0.02), p=0.01) in models adjusting for age and components of the metabolic syndrome (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference). The multivariable-adjusted association between hsCRP, IL-6 and insulin sensitivity were of a similar magnitude in normal weight individuals without diabetes and without the metabolic syndrome. Our data show that cytokine -mediated subclinical inflammation is independently associated with decreased insulin sensitivity also in apparently metabolically healthy normal weight individuals, indicating that the interplay between inflammatory processes and insulin resistance is present already in the early stages of the development of glucometabolic disease. (IJCEM1012002).
  • Basu, Samar, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory F2-isoprostane, prostaglandin F2α, pentraxin 3 levels and breast cancer risk : The Swedish Mammography Cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. - 0952-3278 .- 1532-2823. ; 113, s. 28-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is a common cancer among women. Identifying cellular participation of F2-isoprostane, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in cancer we evaluated whether their prediagnostic systemic levels that originate from different inflammatory pathways were associated with breast cancer risk.METHODS: Seventy-eight breast cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 797 controls from the Swedish Mammography Cohort were analysed for urinary F2-isoprostane, PGF2α and plasma PTX3 levels.RESULTS: None of the biomarkers investigated were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. However, there was the suggestion of an inverse association with PTX3 with multivariable adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.56 (95% CI=0.29-1.06) and 0.67 (95% CI=0.35-1.28) for the second and third tertiles, respectively (ptrend=0.20). No associations were observed between F2-isoprostane (OR=0.87; 95% CI=0.48-1.57; ptrend=0.67) and PGF2α metabolite (OR=1.03; 95% CI=0.56-1.88; ptrend=0.91) comparing the top to bottom tertiles.CONCLUSIONS: The systemic levels of F2-isoprostane, PGF2α and PTX3 witnessed in women who later developed breast cancer may not provide prognostic information regarding tumor development in spite of their known involvement in situ cellular context. These observations may indicate that other mechanisms exist in controlling cellular formation of F2-isoprostane, PGF2α and PTX3 and their systemic availability in breast cancer patients.
  • Bjermo, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 95:5, s. 1003-1012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Replacing SFAs with vegetable PUFAs has cardiometabolic benefits, but the effects on liver fat are unknown. Increased dietary n-6 PUFAs have, however, also been proposed to promote inflammation-a yet unproven theory. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of PUFAs on liver fat, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders. DESIGN: We randomly assigned 67 abdominally obese subjects (15% had type 2 diabetes) to a 10-wk isocaloric diet high in vegetable n-6 PUFA (PUFA diet) or SFA mainly from butter (SFA diet), without altering the macronutrient intake. Liver fat was assessed by MRI and magnetic resonance proton (1H) spectroscopy (MRS). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9, a hepatic LDL-receptor regulator), inflammation, and adipose tissue expression of inflammatory and lipogenic genes were determined. RESULTS: A total of 61 subjects completed the study. Body weight modestly increased but was not different between groups. Liver fat was lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet [between-group difference in relative change from baseline; 16% (MRI; P < 0.001), 34% (MRS; P = 0.02)]. PCSK9 (P = 0.001), TNF receptor-2 (P < 0.01), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P = 0.02) concentrations were lower during the PUFA diet, whereas insulin (P = 0.06) tended to be higher during the SFA diet. In compliant subjects (defined as change in serum linoleic acid), insulin, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue gene expression was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SFA intake, n-6 PUFAs reduce liver fat and modestly improve metabolic status, without weight loss. A high n-6 PUFA intake does not cause any signs of inflammation or oxidative stress. Downregulation of PCSK9 could be a novel mechanism behind the cholesterol-lowering effects of PUFAs.
  • Degerman Gunnarsson, M, et al. (författare)
  • Pittsburgh compound-B and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in CSF, plasma and urine: An exploratory study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. - 1421-9824 .- 1420-8008. ; 29:3, s. 204-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB) is an in vivo ligand for measuring beta-amyloid (Abeta) load. Associations between PET PIB and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Abeta1-42 and apolipoprotein E epsilon4 (APOE epsilon4) have been observed in several studies, but the relations between PIB uptake and other biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are less investigated. METHOD: PET PIB, PET 18Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and different AD biomarkers were measured twice in CSF, plasma and urine 12 months apart in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of mild to moderate AD. RESULTS: PIB retention was constant over 1 year, inversely related to low CSF Abeta1-42 (p = 0.01) and correlated positively to the numbers of the APOE epsilon4 allele (0, 1 or 2) (p = 0.02). There was a relation between mean PIB retention and CSF ApoE protein (r = -0.59, p = 0.07), and plasma cystatin C (r = -0.56, p = 0.09). CONCLUSION: PIB retention is strongly related to CSF Abeta1-42, and to the numbers of the APOE epsilon4 allele.
  • Ekström, Eva-Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of prenatal micronutrient and early food supplementation on metabolic status of the offspring at 4.5 years of age. The MINIMat randomized trial in rural Bangladesh.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 45:5, s. 1656-1667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Fetal nutritional insults may alter the later metabolic phenotype. We hypothesized that early timing of prenatal food supplementation and multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) would favourably influence childhood metabolic phenotype.METHODS: Pregnant women recruited 1 January to 31 December 2002 in Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomized into supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS containing a daily allowance of 15 micronutrients, and randomized to food supplementation (608 kcal) either with early invitation (9 weeks' gestation) or usual invitation (at 20 weeks). Their children (n = 1667) were followed up at 4.5 years with assessment of biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.RESULTS: Children in the group with early timing of food supplementation had lower cholesterol (difference -0.079 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.156; -0.003), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (difference -0.068 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.126; -0.011) and ApoB levels (difference -0.017 g/l, 95% CL -0.033; -0.001). MMS supplementation resulted in lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference -0.028 mmol/l, 95% CL -0.053; -0.002), lower glucose (difference -0.099 mmol/l, 95% CL -0.179; -0.019) and lower insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (difference on log scale -0.141 µg/l, 95% CL -0.254; -0.028) than 60 mg iron and 400 μg folic acid. There were no effects on markers of inflammation or oxidative stress.CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that in a population where malnutrition is prevalent, nutrition interventions during pregnancy may modify the metabolic phenotype in the young child that could have consequences for later chronic disease risks.
  • Fischer, C.P, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin E isoform-specific inhibition of the exercise-induced heat shock protein 72 expression in humans
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology. - 8750-7587 .- 1522-1601. ; 100:5, s. 1679-1687
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as seen in response to exercise, challenge the cellular integrity. Important protective adaptive changes include induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C (ascorbic acid) and E (tocopherol) would attenuate the exercise-induced increase of HSP72 in the skeletal muscle and in the circulation. Using randomization, we allocated 21 young men into three groups receiving one of the following oral supplementations: RRR-α-tocopherol 400 IU/ day + ascorbic acid (AA) 500 mg/day (CEα), RRR-α-tocopherol 290 IU/day + RRR-γ-tocopherol 130 IU/day + AA 500 mg/day (CEαγ), or placebo (Control). After 28 days of supplementation, the subjects performed 3 h of knee extensor exercise at 50% of the maximal power output. HSP72 mRNA and protein content was determined in muscle biopsies obtained from vastus lateralis at rest (0 h), postexercise (3 h), and after a 3-h recovery (6 h). In addition, blood was sampled for measurements of HSP72, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, AA, and 8-isoprostaglandin-F2α (8-PGF2α). Postsupplementation, the groups differed with respect to plasma vitamin levels. The marker of lipid peroxidation, 8-iso-PGF2α, increased from 0 h to 3 h in all groups, however, markedly less (P < 0.05) in CEα. In Control, skeletal muscle HSP72 mRNA content increased 2.5-fold (P < 0.05) and serum HSP72 protein increased 4-fold (P < 0.05) in response to exercise, whereas a significant increase of skeletal muscle HSP72 protein content was not observed (P = 0.07). In CEα, skeletal muscle HSP72 mRNA, HSP72 protein, and serum HSP72 were not different from Control in response to exercise. In contrast, the effect of exercise on skeletal muscle HSP72 mRNA and protein, as well as circulating HSP72, was completely blunted in CEαγ. The results indicate that γ-tocopherol comprises a potent inhibitor of the exercise-induced increase of HSP72 in skeletal muscle as well as in the circulation.
  • Freund-Levi, Yvonne, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with Alzheimer's disease : the OmegAD study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 42:3, s. 823-831
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are two key mechanisms suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) found in fish and fish oil have several biological properties that may be beneficial in AD. However, they may also auto-oxidize and induce in vivo lipid peroxidation.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers following oral supplementation of dietary ω-3 FA.METHODS: Forty patients with moderate AD were randomized to receive 1.7 g DHA (22:6) and 0.6 g EPA (20:5) or placebo for 6 months. Urinary samples were collected before and after supplementation. The levels of the major F2-isoprostane, 8-iso-PGF2α, a consistent in vivo biomarker of oxidative stress, and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, a major metabolite of PGF2α and biomarker of inflammatory response, were measured.RESULTS: F2-isoprostane in urine increased in the placebo group after 6 months, but there was no clear difference in treatment effect between supplemented and non-supplemented patients on the urinary levels of F2-isoprostanes and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α. At baseline, the levels of 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α showed negative correlative relationships to ω-3 FAs, and a positive correlation to linoleic acid. 8-iso-PGF2α correlated negatively to the ω-6 FA arachidonic acid.CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that supplementation of ω-3 FAs to patients with AD for 6 months does not have a clear effect on free radical-mediated formation of F2-isoprostane or cyclooxygenase-mediated formation of prostaglandin F2α. The correlative relationships to FAs indicate a potential role of FAs in immunoregulation.
  • Harris, Holly, et al. (författare)
  • Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2 (sVEGFR-2) and 3 (sVEGFR-3) and breast cancer risk in the Swedish Mammography Cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics. - 1948-1756 .- 1948-1756. ; 7:1, s. 81-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signalling protein that has been established as a contributor to tumor angiogenesis, and expression of VEGF and its soluble receptors (sVEGFR2 and sVEGFR3) have been demonstrated in breast cancer cells. However, no prospective studies have examined the association between prediagnostic sVEGFR levels and breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the Swedish Mammography Cohort examining the association between sVEGFR2 and 3 levels and breast cancer risk. The analysis included 69 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 719 controls. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjustment for breast cancer risk factors, sVEGFR2 levels were associated with breast cancer risk (OR=1.28; 95% CI=1.06-1.56 per 1000 ng/L increase in concentration) while sVEGFR3 levels were not related to such risk (OR=1.00; 95% CI=0.93-1.07). Our results suggest that sVEGFR2 levels may be positively associated with breast cancer risk, however future studies with larger case groups are necessary to confirm this association.
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