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Sökning: WFRF:(Ben Yehuda Ben)

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1.
  • Erlinge, David, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of vulnerable plaques and patients by intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound (PROSPECT II) : a prospective natural history study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 397:10278, s. 985-995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and intravascular ultrasound are promising imaging modalities to identify non-obstructive plaques likely to cause coronary-related events. We aimed to assess whether combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound can identify high-risk plaques and patients that are at risk for future major adverse cardiac events (MACEs).Methods: PROSPECT II is an investigator-sponsored, multicentre, prospective natural history study done at 14 university hospitals and two community hospitals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. We recruited patients of any age with recent (within past 4 weeks) myocardial infarction. After treatment of all flow-limiting coronary lesions, three-vessel imaging was done with a combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound catheter. Untreated lesions (also known as non-culprit lesions) were identified by intravascular ultrasound and their lipid content was assessed by NIRS. The primary outcome was the covariate-adjusted rate of MACEs (the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or progressive angina) arising from untreated non-culprit lesions during follow-up. The relations between plaques with high lipid content, large plaque burden, and small lumen areas and patient-level and lesion-level events were determined. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02171065.Findings: Between June 10, 2014, and Dec 20, 2017, 3629 non-culprit lesions were characterised in 898 patients (153 [17%] women, 745 [83%] men; median age 63 [IQR 55-70] years). Median follow-up was 3.7 (IQR 3.0-4.4) years. Adverse events within 4 years occurred in 112 (13.2%, 95% CI 11.0-15.6) of 898 patients, with 66 (8.0%, 95% CI 6.2-10.0) arising from 78 untreated non-culprit lesions (mean baseline angiographic diameter stenosis 46.9% [SD 15.9]). Highly lipidic lesions (851 [24%] of 3500 lesions, present in 520 [59%] of 884 patients) were an independent predictor of patient-level non-culprit lesion-related MACEs (adjusted odds ratio 2.27, 95% CI 1.25-4.13) and nonculprit lesion-specific MACEs (7.83, 4.12-14.89). Large plaque burden (787 [22%] of 3629 lesions, present in 530 [59%] of 898 patients) was also an independent predictor of non-culprit lesion-related MACEs. Lesions with both large plaque burden by intravascular ultrasound and large lipid-rich cores by NIRS had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 7.0% (95% CI 4.0-10.0). Patients in whom one or more such lesions were identified had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 13.2% (95% CI 9.4-17.6).Interpretation: Combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound detects angiographically non-obstructive lesions with a high lipid content and large plaque burden that are at increased risk for future adverse cardiac outcomes.
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2.
  • Stone, Gregg W., et al. (författare)
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Vulnerable Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 76:20, s. 2289-2301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Acute coronary syndromes most commonly arise from thrombosis of lipid-rich coronary atheromas that have large plaque burden despite angiographically appearing mild. Objectives: This study sought to examine the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of non–flow-limiting vulnerable plaques. Methods: Three-vessel imaging was performed with a combination intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) catheter after successful PCI of all flow-limiting coronary lesions in 898 patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI). Patients with an angiographically nonobstructive stenosis not intended for PCI but with IVUS plaque burden of ≥65% were randomized to treatment of the lesion with a bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) versus GDMT alone. The primary powered effectiveness endpoint was the IVUS-derived minimum lumen area (MLA) at protocol-driven 25-month follow-up. The primary (nonpowered) safety endpoint was randomized target lesion failure (cardiac death, target vessel–related MI, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization) at 24 months. The secondary (nonpowered) clinical effectiveness endpoint was randomized lesion–related major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, MI, unstable angina, or progressive angina) at latest follow-up. Results: A total of 182 patients were randomized (93 BVS, 89 GDMT alone) at 15 centers. The median angiographic diameter stenosis of the randomized lesions was 41.6%; by near-infrared spectroscopy–IVUS, the median plaque burden was 73.7%, the median MLA was 2.9 mm2, and the median maximum lipid plaque content was 33.4%. Angiographic follow-up at 25 months was completed in 167 patients (91.8%), and the median clinical follow-up was 4.1 years. The follow-up MLA in BVS-treated lesions was 6.9 ± 2.6 mm2 compared with 3.0 ± 1.0 mm2 in GDMT alone–treated lesions (least square means difference: 3.9 mm2; 95% confidence interval: 3.3 to 4.5; p < 0.0001). Target lesion failure at 24 months occurred in similar rates of BVS-treated and GDMT alone–treated patients (4.3% vs. 4.5%; p = 0.96). Randomized lesion–related major adverse cardiac events occurred in 4.3% of BVS-treated patients versus 10.7% of GDMT alone–treated patients (odds ratio: 0.38; 95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 1.28; p = 0.12). Conclusions: PCI of angiographically mild lesions with large plaque burden was safe, substantially enlarged the follow-up MLA, and was associated with favorable long-term clinical outcomes, warranting the performance of an adequately powered randomized trial. (PROSPECT ABSORB [Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree II Combined with a Randomized, Controlled, Intervention Trial]; NCT02171065)
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3.
  • Ahmadi, Amir, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic Determinants of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease : Anatomy, Physiology, or Morphology?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Circulation Research. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7330. ; 119:2, s. 317-329
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Risk stratification in patients with stable ischemic heart disease is essential to guide treatment decisions. In this regard, whether coronary anatomy, physiology, or plaque morphology is the best determinant of prognosis (and driver an effective therapeutic risk reduction) remains one of the greatest ongoing debates in cardiology. In the present report, we review the evidence for each of these characteristics and explore potential algorithms that may enable a practical diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for the management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease.
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4.
  • Alexander, Karen P., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Ranolazine on Angina and Quality of Life After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Incomplete Revascularization Results From the Ranolazine for Incomplete Vessel Revascularization (RIVER-PCI) Trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 133:1, s. 39-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Angina often persists or returns in populations following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We hypothesized that ranolazine would be effective in reducing angina and improving quality of life (QOL) in incomplete revascularization (ICR) post-PCI patients. Methods and Results In RIVER-PCI, 2604 patients with a history of chronic angina who had ICR post-PCI were randomized 1:1 to oral ranolazine versus placebo; QOL analyses included 2389 randomized subjects. Angina and QOL questionnaires were collected at baseline and months 1, 6, and 12. Ranolazine patients were more likely than placebo to discontinue study drug by month 6 (20.4% versus 14.1%, P<0.001) and 12 (27.2% versus 21.3%, P<0.001). Following qualifying index PCI, the primary QOL outcome (Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] angina frequency score) improved markedly, but similarly, in the ranolazine and placebo groups, respectively, from baseline (67.324.5 versus 69.724.0, P=0.01) to month 1 (86.6 +/- 18.1 versus 85.8 +/- 18.5, P=0.27) and month 12 (88.4 +/- 17.8 versus 88.5 +/- 17.8, P=0.94). SAQ angina frequency repeated measures did not differ in adjusted analysis between groups post baseline (mean difference 1.0; 95% CI -0.2, 2.2; P=0.11). Improvement in SAQ angina frequency was observed with ranolazine at month 6 among diabetics (mean difference 3.3; 95% CI 0.6, 6.1; P=0.02) and those with more angina (baseline SAQ angina frequency 60; mean difference 3.4; 95% CI 0.6, 6.2; P=0.02), but was not maintained at month 12. Conclusions Despite ICR following PCI, there was no incremental benefit in angina or QOL measures by adding ranolazine in this angiographically-identified population. These measures markedly improved within 1 month of PCI and persisted up to 1 year in both treatment arms. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01442038.
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6.
  • Balasubramaniam, S., et al. (författare)
  • A review of experimental opportunities for molecular communication
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nano Communication Networks. - 1878-7789. ; 4:2, s. 43-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The growth of nanotechnology has led to miniature devices that are able to perform limited functionalities in hard to access areas. Example nanodevice applications in the healthcare domain include early detection of harmful diseases. The current field of molecular communication is aiming to increase the functionalities of nanodevices, by enabling communication to be performed. Since its first introduction, communication researchers have been proposing various solutions that could possibly realize molecular communications (e.g., molecular diffusion and bacteria nanonetworks). These solutions have largely been limited to theoretical simulation modeling. However, to fully realize a future for real deployments and developments of molecular communication, a strong synergy will be required with molecular biologists. The aim of this paper is to create this link, and at the same time provide guidance for current molecular communication researchers of possible real developments of molecular communication based on the current state-of-the-art experimental work. In particular, we present a review on bacteria communication and membrane nanotubes, as well as neuronal networks. We also discuss possible applications in the future focusing in particular on Body Area NanoNetworks (BAN2). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
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9.
  • Daitch, Vered, et al. (författare)
  • Excluded versus included patients in a randomized controlled trial of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria : relevance to external validity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases. - : BMC. - 1471-2334 .- 1471-2334. ; 21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Population external validity is the extent to which an experimental study results can be generalized from a specific sample to a defined population. In order to apply the results of a study, we should be able to assess its population external validity. We performed an investigator-initiated randomized controlled trial (RCT) (AIDA study), which compared colistin-meropenem combination therapy to colistin monotherapy in the treatment of patients infected with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In order to examine the study's population external validity and to substantiate the use of AIDA study results in clinical practice, we performed a concomitant observational trial.Methods: The study was conducted between October 1st, 2013 and January 31st, 2017 (during the RCTs recruitment period) in Greece, Israel and Italy. Patients included in the observational arm of the study have fulfilled clinical and microbiological inclusion criteria but were excluded from the RCT due to receipt of colistin for > 96 h, refusal to participate, or prior inclusion in the RCT. Non-randomized cases were compared to randomized patients. The primary outcome was clinical failure at 14 days of infection onset.Results: Analysis included 701 patients. Patients were infected mainly with Acinetobacter baumannii [78.2% (548/701)]. The most common reason for exclusion was refusal to participate [62% (183/295)]. Non-randomized and randomized patients were similar in most of the demographic and background parameters, though randomized patients showed minor differences towards a more severe infection. Combination therapy was less common in non-randomized patients [31.9% (53/166) vs. 51.2% (208/406), p = 0.000]. Randomized patients received longer treatment of colistin [13 days (IQR 10-16) vs. 8.5 days (IQR 0-15), p = 0.000]. Univariate analysis showed that non-randomized patients were more inclined to clinical failure on day 14 from infection onset [82% (242/295) vs. 75.5% (307/406), p = 0.042]. After adjusting for other variables, non-inclusion was not an independent risk factor for clinical failure at day 14.Conclusion: The similarity between the observational arm and RCT patients has strengthened our confidence in the population external validity of the AIDA trial. Adding an observational arm to intervention studies can help increase the population external validity and improve implementation of study results in clinical practice.
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10.
  • Dickstein, Yaakov, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment Outcomes of Colistin- and Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infections : An Exploratory Subgroup Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 69:5, s. 769-776
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background We evaluated the association between mortality and colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii infections and the interaction with antibiotic therapy. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of patients with carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections treated with colistin or colistin-meropenem combination. We evaluated patients with infection caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) identified as colistin susceptible (CoS) at the time of treatment and compared patients in which the isolate was confirmed as CoS with those whose isolates were retrospectively identified as colistin resistant (CoR) when tested by broth microdilution (BMD). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Results Data were available for 266 patients (214 CoS and 52 CoR isolates). Patients with CoR isolates had higher baseline functional capacity and lower rates of mechanical ventilation than patients with CoS isolates. All-cause 28-day mortality was 42.3% (22/52) among patients with CoR strains and 52.8% (113/214) among patients with CoS isolates (P = .174). After adjusting for variables associated with mortality, the mortality rate was lower among patients with CoR isolates (odds ratio [OR], 0.285 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .118-.686]). This difference was associated with treatment arm: Mortality rates among patients with CoR isolates were higher in those randomized to colistin-meropenem combination therapy compared to colistin monotherapy (OR, 3.065 [95% CI, 1.021-9.202]). Conclusions Colistin resistance determined by BMD was associated with lower mortality among patients with severe CRAB infections. Among patients with CoR isolates, colistin monotherapy was associated with a better outcome compared to colistin-meropenem combination therapy.
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