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  • Bendtsen, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a Text Messaging Smoking Cessation Intervention Among Online Help Seekers and Primary Health Care Visitors in Sweden: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Using a Bayesian Group Sequential Design
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR Research Protocols. - : JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 1929-0748 .- 1929-0748. ; 9:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A steady decline of the smoking prevalence in Sweden has been recorded over the past decade; however, people still start and continue to smoke. There is a need for effective smoking cessation interventions that can scale to a national level and that are designed to reach individuals requiring smoking cessation support in the general population. Objective: Previous randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions among high school and university students in Sweden have found consistent evidence that text messaging interventions are effective in helping students quit smoking. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of text messaging interventions in a more general population. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of a text messaging intervention on individuals seeking help to quit online and individuals visiting primary health care units. Methods: A 2-arm, parallel-group (1:1), randomized controlled trial will be employed to address the study objectives. The trial will follow a Bayesian group sequential design. Recruitment will be conducted using online advertisement (Google, Bing, and Facebook) and through health care professionals at primary health care units. All participants will receive treatment as usual; however, participants who are allocated to the intervention arm will also be given access to a 12-week text message smoking cessation intervention. Primary outcomes are 8-week prolonged abstinence and 4-week point prevalence, measured 3 months and 6 months postrandomization. Mediator variables (self-efficacy, importance, and know-how) will be measured to estimate causal mediation models. Results: Recruitment commenced in September 2020 and will not exceed 24 months. This means that a complete dataset will be available at the latest towards the end of 2022. We expect to publish the findings from this trial by June 2023. Conclusions: This trial will further our understanding of the effects of text messaging interventions among a more general population than has previously been studied. We also aim to learn about differential effects between those who seek support online and those who are given facilitated support at primary health care units. Trial recruitment is limited to the Swedish population; however, a strength of this study is the pragmatic way in which participants are recruited. Through online advertisements, individuals are recruited in reaction to their own interest in seeking help to quit. At primary health care units, individuals who were not necessarily looking for smoking cessation support are given information about the trial. This closely mimics the way the intervention would be disseminated in a real-world setting and may therefore strengthen the argument of generalizability of findings.
  • Bendtsen, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Feasibility and user perception of a fully automated push-based multiple-session alcohol intervention for university students : randomized controlled trial.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth. - : JMIR Publications. - 2291-5222. ; 2:2, s. e30-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In recent years, many electronic health behavior interventions have been developed in order to reach individuals with unhealthy behaviors, such as risky drinking. This is especially relevant for university students, many of whom are risky drinkers.OBJECTIVE: This study explored the acceptability and feasibility in a nontreatment-seeking group of university students (including both risk and nonrisk drinkers), of a fully automated, push-based, multiple-session, alcohol intervention, comparing two modes of delivery by randomizing participants to receive the intervention either by SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS) or by email.METHODS: A total of 5499 students at Luleå University in northern Sweden were invited to participate in a single-session alcohol assessment and feedback intervention; 28.04% (1542/5499) students completed this part of the study. In total, 29.44% (454/1542) of those participating in the single-session intervention accepted to participate further in the extended multiple-session intervention lasting for 4 weeks. The students were randomized to receive the intervention messages via SMS or email. A follow-up questionnaire was sent immediately after the intervention and 52.9% (240/454) responded.RESULTS: No difference was seen regarding satisfaction with the length and frequency of the intervention, regardless of the mode of delivery. Approximately 15% in both the SMS (19/136) and email groups (15/104) would have preferred the other mode of delivery. On the other hand, more students in the SMS group (46/229, 20.1%) stopped participating in the intervention during the 4-week period compared with the email group (10/193, 5.2%). Most students in both groups expressed satisfaction with the content of the messages and would recommend the intervention to a fellow student in need of reducing drinking. A striking difference was seen regarding when a message was read; 88.2% (120/136) of the SMS group read the messages within 1 hour in contrast to 45.2% (47/104) in the email group. In addition, 83.1% (113/136) in the SMS group stated that they read all or almost all the messages, compared with only 63.5% (66/104) in the email group.CONCLUSIONS: Based on the feedback from the students, an extended, multiple-session, push-based intervention seems to be a feasible option for students interested in additional support after a single-session alcohol intervention. SMS as a mode of delivery seems to have some advantages over email regarding when a message is read and the proportion of messages read. However, more students in the SMS group stopped the intervention than in the email group. Based on these promising findings, further studies comparing the effectiveness of single-session interventions with extended multiple-session interventions delivered separately or in combination are warranted.
  • Bendtsen, Marcus, 1982- (författare)
  • Feasibility of a Fully Automated Multiple Session Alcohol Intervention to University Students, Using Different Modes of Electronic Delivery : The TOPHAT 1 Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Software Engineering and Applications. - : Scientific Research Publishing. - 1945-3116 .- 1945-3124. ; :6, s. 14-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In recent years more and more electronic health behaviour interventions have been developed in order to reach individuals with an unhealthy behaviour such as risky drinking. This is especially relevant in university students who are among those who most frequently are risky drinkers. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility, in an unselected group of university students, of a fully automated multiple session alcohol intervention offering different modes of delivery such as email, SMS and Android.Material and Methods: A total of 11,283 students at Linköping University in Sweden were invited to perform a single session alcohol intervention and among those accepting this (4916 students) a total of 24.7% accepted to further participate in the extended multiple intervention lasting 3 - 6 weeks. The students could choose mode of delivery, total length of the intervention (between 3 - 6 weeks) and number of messages per week (3, 5, or 7 per week). A follow-up questionnaire was applied after the intervention to which 82.7% responded.Results: most students wanted to receive the messages by email with the shortest intervention length (3 weeks) and as few messages as possible per week (3 messages). However, no major difference was seen regarding satisfaction with the length and frequency of the intervention despite chosen length and frequency. Most students also expressed satisfaction with the content of the messages and would recommend the intervention to a fellow student in need of reducing drinking.Discussion and Conclusion: Based upon feedback from the students, a multiple push-based intervention appears to be feasible to offer additional help for those who have interest after a single session alcohol intervention. In a forthcoming study we will further explore the optimal mode of delivery and length of intervention and number of messages per week.
  • Bendtsen, Marcus, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • mHealth intervention for multiple lifestyle behaviour change among high school students in Sweden (LIFE4YOUth) : Protocol for a randomised controlled trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nursing. - : BMC. - 0737-1209 .- 1525-1446 .- 1471-2458. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundNational surveys in Sweden demonstrate that the majority of young people do not engage in health promoting behaviours at levels recommended by the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The objective of this study is to estimate the effectiveness of a novel mHealth intervention named LIFE4YOUth, which targets multiple lifestyle behaviours (alcohol, diet, physical activity, and smoking) among high school students in Sweden.MethodsA 2-arm parallel groups single blind randomised controlled trial (1:1) will be employed to estimate the effectiveness of the novel mHealth intervention. Students will be recruited at high schools throughout Sweden, and will be included if they fulfil one of six criteria relating to unhealthy behaviours with respect to alcohol, diet, physical activity and smoking. Eligible participants will be randomised to either receive the novel intervention immediately, or to be placed on a waiting list for 4 months. The intervention consists of a combination of recurring screening, text messages, and an interactive platform which is adaptable to individual preferences. Outcome measures with respect to alcohol, diet, physical activity and smoking will be assessed through questionnaires at 2 and 4 months post randomisation.DiscussionThe findings of this trial could be generalised to a diverse high-school student population as our recruitment encompass a large proportion of schools throughout Sweden with various educational profiles. Furthermore, if effective, the mHealth intervention has good potential to be able to be scaled up and disseminated at high schools nationally.Trial registrationRegistered prospectively on 2020-05-20 in ISRCTN (ISRCTN34468623).
  • Bendtsen, Marcus, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Mobile Phone-Based Smoking-Cessation Intervention for Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery : Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JMIR Research Protocols. - Toronto, Canada : J M I R Publications, Inc.. - 1929-0748 .- 1929-0748. ; 8:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several large studies have shown that the risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, and wound-healing complications (including death) within 30 days of surgery is greater for smokers than for nonsmokers. However, there is evidence that even short-term perioperative smoking cessation may reduce postoperative morbidity. Over the past few years, it has become more evident that short message service (SMS)–based interventions can help individuals quit smoking.Objective: The overall aim of this project is to fill the knowledge gap on whether an SMS-based smoking-cessation intervention can be effective in helping patients stop smoking perioperatively. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of an SMS-based intervention on smoking behavior of patients undergoing elective surgery.Methods: A two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial will be conducted at 20 surgical departments in southeast Sweden. Smokers undergoing elective surgery who own a mobile phone will be included. Power calculations indicate that it will be necessary to randomize 434 participants. One group will be given access to a novel 12-week SMS program, which includes daily SMS messages with behavior change–enforcing text content and hyperlinks to interactive modules, while the other group will not be given access to the intervention. Both groups will have access to the surgical departments’ current routine for smoking cessation prior to surgery. Primary outcome measures, prolonged abstinence, and point prevalence of smoking cessation will be measured through questionnaires at 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. Logistic regression models adjusted using baseline characteristics will be explored to identify potential effects of the intervention.Results: Recruitment started in late October 2018 and is expected to last for a maximum of 30 months. The first results are expected to be available approximately 3 months after the final date of recruitment.Conclusions: Owing to the structural problems and scarcity of time and resources, patients at most Swedish surgical departments are simply instructed to quit smoking, and perhaps, referred to a primary health care clinic. An SMS-based smoking-cessation aid can be effective in helping individuals quit smoking and is a very simple and time-efficient tool for surgical departments to use.
  • Bendtsen, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Six-Month Outcomes from the NEXit Junior Trial of a Text Messaging Smoking Cessation Intervention for High School Students : Randomized Controlled Trial With Bayesian Analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth. - : JMIR Publications Inc. - 2291-5222. ; 9:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The prevalence of daily or occasional smoking among high school students in Sweden was approximately 20% in 2019, which is problematic since lifestyle behaviors are established in adolescence and track into adulthood. The Nicotine Exit (NEXit) Junior trial was conducted in response to a lack of evidence for the effects of text message smoking cessation interventions among high school students in Sweden. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the 3-and 6-month effects of a text messaging intervention among high school students in Sweden on smoking cessation outcomes. Methods: A 2-arm, single-blind randomized controlled trial was employed to estimate the effects of the intervention on smoking cessation in comparison to treatment as usual. Participants were recruited from high schools in Sweden using advertising and promotion by school staff from January 10, 2018, to January 10, 2019. Weekly or daily smokers who were willing to make a quit attempt were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged abstinence and point prevalence of smoking cessation were measured at 3 and 6 months after randomization. Results: Complete case analysis was possible on 57.9% (310/535) of the participants at 6 months, with no observed statistically significant effect on 5-month prolonged abstinence (odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% CI 0.73-2.20; P=.39) or 4-week smoking cessation (OR 1.42; 95% CI 0.83-2.46; P=.20). Sensitivity analyses using imputation yielded similar findings. Unplanned Bayesian analyses showed that the effects of the intervention were in the anticipated direction. The findings were limited by the risk of bias induced by high attrition (42.1%). The trial recruited high school students in a pragmatic setting and included both weekly and daily smokers; thus, generalization to the target population is more direct compared with findings obtained under more strict study procedures. Conclusions: Higher than expected attrition rates to follow-up 6 months after randomization led to null hypothesis tests being underpowered; however, unplanned Bayesian analyses found that the effects of the intervention were in the anticipated direction. Future trials of smoking cessation interventions targeting high school students should aim to prepare strategies for increasing retention to mid-and long-term follow-up. Trial Registration: IRCTN Registry ISRCTN15396225; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN15396225 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-018-3028-2
  • Bendtsen, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Text messaging interventions for reducing alcohol consumption among risky drinkers: systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - : WILEY. - 0965-2140 .- 1360-0443. ; 116:5, s. 1021-1033
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims The global growth of mobile phone use has led to new opportunities for health interventions, including through text messaging. We aimed to estimate the effects of text messaging interventions on alcohol consumption among risky drinkers. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of reports on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English. Searches were conducted on 23 May 2019 in PubMed; PubMed Central; CENTRAL; CDSR; DARE; NHS-EED; Scopus; PsycINFO; PsycARTICLES; CINAHL; and Web of Science. Measurements included number of episodes of heavy drinking (HED) per month and weekly alcohol consumption (WAC) in grams. Trials among risky drinkers who were not receiving co-interventions were included in the review (n = 3481, mean age 29 years, 41% female). Data were extracted from reports and authors were contacted for additional data. Results Ten trials were included and all analyses were based on random-effects models. Primary analyses, including seven trials (n = 2528) for HED and five trials (n = 2236) for WAC, found that the interventions may reduce self-reported HED [-0.33 episodes per month; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.79, 0.12] and WAC (-18.62 g per week; 95% CI = -39.61, 2.38), although both estimates included the null. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) quality of evidence was judged to be low for both HED and WAC, primarily due to risk of attrition and performance bias, heterogeneity and influence of pilot trials on estimates. Conclusions Text messaging alcohol interventions may reduce alcohol consumption compared with no or basic health information; however, there are doubts about the overall quality of the evidence.
  • Bendtsen, Marcus, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • The Mobile Health Multiple Lifestyle Behavior Interventions Across the Lifespan (MoBILE) Research Program : Protocol for Development, Evaluation, and Implementation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR Research Protocols. - Toronto, Canada : JMIR Publications Inc. - 1929-0748 .- 1929-0748. ; 9:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Clustering of multiple lifestyle risk behaviors has been associated with a greater risk of noncommunicable diseases and mortality than one lifestyle risk behavior or no lifestyle risk behaviors. The National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden reported in 2018 that it is important to provide additional support to individuals with multiple lifestyle risk behaviors, as risks from these behaviors are multiplicative rather than additive. However, the same report emphasized that there is a lack of knowledge regarding interventions that support changes to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors.Objective: The MoBILE (Mobile health Multiple lifestyle Behavior Interventions across the LifEspan) research program has brought together two Swedish research groups supported by international collaborators. Through this collaboration, we aim to design and evaluate a number of novel and tailored mobile health (mHealth) multiple lifestyle behavior interventions across the life span of different health care populations. In addition, the MoBILE research program will extend ongoing research to include mHealth interventions for migrant pregnant women and children.Methods: Each project within the MoBILE program will focus on a specific group: pregnant women, preschool children, high school and university students, and adults in primary and clinical care. All the projects will follow the same 4 phases: requirements, development, evaluation, and implementation. During the requirements phase, implementers and end users will aid the design of content and functionality of the interventions. In the development phase, findings from the first phase will be synthesized with expert domain knowledge and theoretical constructs to create interventions tailored to the target groups. The third phase, evaluation, will comprise randomized controlled trials conducted to estimate the effects of the interventions on multiple lifestyle risk behaviors (eg, alcohol, nutrition, physical activity, and smoking). The final phase will investigate how the interventions, if found effective, can be disseminated into different health care contexts.Results: The research program commenced in 2019, and the first results will be available in 2020. Projects involving pregnant women, preschool children, and high school and university students will be completed in the first 3 years, with the remaining projects being planned for the program’s final 3 years.Conclusions:The development of evidence-based digital tools is complex, as they should be guided by theoretical frameworks, and requires large interdisciplinary teams with competence in technology, behavioral science, and lifestyle-specific areas. Individual researchers or smaller research groups developing their own tools is not the way forward, as it means reinventing the wheel over and over again. The MoBILE research program therefore aims to join forces and learn from the past 10 years of mHealth research to maximize scientific outcomes, as well as the use of financial resources to expand the growing body of evidence for mHealth lifestyle behavior interventions. 
  • Bendtsen, Preben, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of a proactive mail-based alcohol Internet intervention for university students: dismantling the assessment and feedback components in a randomized controlled trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - : JMIR Publications Inc.. - 1438-8871 .- 1438-8871. ; 14:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: University students in Sweden routinely receive proactive mail-based alcohol Internet interventions sent from student health services. This intervention provides personalized normative feedback on alcohol consumption with suggestions on how to decrease drinking. Earlier feasibility trials by our group and others have examined effectiveness in simple parallel-groups designs.Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of electronic screening and brief intervention, using a randomized controlled trial design that takes account of baseline assessment reactivity (and other possible effects of the research process) due to the similarity between the intervention and assessment content. The design of the study allowed for exploration of the magnitude of the assessment effects per se.Methods: This trial used a dismantling design and randomly assigned 5227 students to 3 groups: (1) routine practice assessment and feedback, (2) assessment-only without feedback, and (3) neither assessment nor feedback. At baseline all participants were blinded to study participation, with no contact being made with group 3. We approached students 2 months later to participate in a cross-sectional alcohol survey. All interventions were fully automated and did not have any human involvement. All data used in the analysis were based on self-assessment using questionnaires. The participants were unaware that they were participating in a trial and thus were also blinded to which group they were randomly assigned.Results: Overall, 44.69% (n = 2336) of those targeted for study completed follow-up. Attrition was similar in groups 1 (697/1742, 40.01%) and 2 (737/1742, 42.31% retained) and lower in group 3 (902/1743, 51.75% retained). Intention-to-treat analyses among all participants regardless of their baseline drinking status revealed no differences between groups in all alcohol parameters at the 2-month follow-up. Per-protocol analyses of groups 1 and 2 among those who accepted the email intervention (36.2% of the students who were offered the intervention in group 1 and 37.3% of the students in group2 ) and who were risky drinkers at baseline (60.7% follow-up rate in group 1 and 63.5% in group 2) suggested possible small beneficial effects on weekly consumption attributable to feedback.Conclusions: This approach to outcome evaluation is highly conservative, and small benefits may follow the actual uptake of feedback intervention in students who are risky drinkers, the precise target group.Trial Registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 24735383; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN24735383 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Awq7gjXG)
  • Bendtsen, Preben, et al. (författare)
  • Online Alcohol Assessment and Feedback for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Findings From the AMADEUS-2 Randomized Controlled Trial of Routine Practice in Swedish Universities
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - : Journal of Medical Internet Research / JMIR Publications. - 1438-8871 .- 1438-8871. ; 17:7, s. e170-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous research on the effectiveness of online alcohol interventions for college students has shown mixed results. Small benefits have been found in some studies and because online interventions are inexpensive and possible to implement on a large scale, there is a need for further study. Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of national provision of a brief online alcohol intervention for students in Sweden. Methods: Risky drinkers at 9 colleges and universities in Sweden were invited by mail and identified using a single screening question. These students (N=1605) gave consent and were randomized into a 2-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of immediate or delayed access to a fully automated online assessment and intervention with personalized feedback. Results: After 2 months, there was no strong evidence of effectiveness with no statistically significant differences in the planned analyses, although there were some indication of possible benefit in sensitivity analyses suggesting an intervention effect of a 10% reduction (95% CI -30% to 10%) in total weekly alcohol consumption. Also, differences in effect sizes between universities were seen with participants from a major university (n=365) reducing their weekly alcohol consumption by 14% (95% CI -23% to -4%). However, lower recruitment than planned and differential attrition in the intervention and control group (49% vs 68%) complicated interpretation of the outcome data. Conclusions: Any effects of current national provision are likely to be small and further research and development work is
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