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1.
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2.
  • Leonard, Dag, et al. (författare)
  • Novel gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 77:7, s. 1063-1069
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at autoimmunity risk loci were associated with CVD in SLE and RA.Methods Patients with SLE (n=1045) were genotyped using the 200K Immunochip SNP array (Illumina). The allele frequency was compared between patients with and without different manifestations of CVD. Results were replicated in a second SLE cohort (n=1043) and in an RA cohort (n=824). We analysed publicly available genetic data from general population, performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays and measured cytokine levels and occurrence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs).Results We identified two new putative risk loci associated with increased risk for CVD in two SLE populations, which remained after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. An IL19 risk allele, rs17581834(T) was associated with stroke/myocardial infarction (MI) in SLE (OR 2.3 (1.5 to 3.4), P=8.5x10(-5)) and RA (OR 2.8 (1.4 to 5.6), P=3.8x10(-3)), meta-analysis (OR 2.5 (2.0 to 2.9), P=3.5x10(-7)), but not in population controls. The IL19 risk allele affected protein binding, and SLE patients with the risk allele had increased levels of plasma-IL10 (P=0.004) and aPL (P=0.01). An SRP54-AS1 risk allele, rs799454(G) was associated with stroke/transient ischaemic attack in SLE (OR 1.7 (1.3 to 2.2), P=2.5x10(-5)) but not in RA. The SRP54-AS1 risk allele is an expression quantitative trait locus for four genes.Conclusions The IL19 risk allele was associated with stroke/MI in SLE and RA, but not in the general population, indicating that shared immune pathways may be involved in the CVD pathogenesis in inflammatory rheumatic diseases.
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3.
  • Leonard, Dag, et al. (författare)
  • Coronary Heart Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Is Associated With Interferon Regulatory Factor-8 Gene Variants
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - : American Heart Association. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 6:3, s. 255-263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background- Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have increased morbidity and mortality in coronary heart disease (CHD). We asked whether there was a genetic influence on CHD in systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods and Results- The association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and CHD in 2 populations of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was assessed. Patients were genotyped on a custom 12k Illumina Array. The allele frequencies were compared between patients with (n=66) and without (n=509) CHD. We found 61 SNPs with an association (P<0.01) to CHD, with the strongest association for 3 SNPs located in the interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8) gene. Comparison of the allele frequencies of these 61 SNPs in patients with (n=27) and without (n=212) CHD in the second study population revealed that 2 SNPs, rs925994 and rs10514610 in IRF8 (linkage disequilibrium, r(2)=0.84), were associated with CHD in both study populations. Meta-analysis of the SNP rs925994 gave an odds ratio of 3.6 (2.1-6.3), P value 1.9x10(-6). The identified IRF8 allele remained as a risk factor for CHD after adjustment for traditional CHD risk factors. The IRF8 risk allele was associated with the presence of carotid plaques (P<0.001) and increased intima-media thickness (P=0.01). By electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we show weaker binding of protein to the risk allele of the highly linked SNP rs11117415, and by flow cytometry, a reduced frequency of circulating B cells was detected in patients with the IRF8 risk allele. Conclusions- There is a considerable genetic component for CHD in systemic lupus erythematosus, with IRF8 as a strong susceptibility locus.
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4.
  • Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson, et al. (författare)
  • Novel risk genes for systemic lupus erythematosus predicted by random forest classification
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci for SLE, but a large proportion of the genetic contribution to SLE still remains unexplained. To detect novel risk genes, and to predict an individual's SLE risk we designed a random forest classifier using SNP genotype data generated on the "Immunochip" from 1,160 patients with SLE and 2,711 controls. Using gene importance scores defined by the random forest classifier, we identified 15 potential novel risk genes for SLE. Of them 12 are associated with other autoimmune diseases than SLE, whereas three genes (ZNF804A, CDK1, and MANF) have not previously been associated with autoimmunity. Random forest classification also allowed prediction of patients at risk for lupus nephritis with an area under the curve of 0.94. By allele-specific gene expression analysis we detected cis-regulatory SNPs that affect the expression levels of six of the top 40 genes designed by the random forest analysis, indicating a regulatory role for the identified risk variants. The 40 top genes from the prediction were overrepresented for differential expression in B and T cells according to RNA-sequencing of samples from five healthy donors, with more frequent over-expression in B cells compared to T cells.
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5.
  • Bolin, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Association of STAT4 Polymorphism with Severe Renal Insufficiency in Lupus Nephritis.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lupus nephritis is a cause of significant morbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its genetic background has not been completely clarified. The aim of this investigation was to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with lupus nephritis, its severe form proliferative nephritis and renal outcome, in two Swedish cohorts. Cohort I (n = 567 SLE cases, n = 512 controls) was previously genotyped for 5676 SNPs and cohort II (n = 145 SLE cases, n = 619 controls) was genotyped for SNPs in STAT4, IRF5, TNIP1 and BLK. Case-control and case-only association analyses for patients with lupus nephritis, proliferative nephritis and severe renal insufficiency were performed. In the case-control analysis of cohort I, four highly linked SNPs in STAT4 were associated with lupus nephritis with genome wide significance with p = 3.7×10(-9), OR 2.20 for the best SNP rs11889341. Strong signals of association between IRF5 and an HLA-DR3 SNP marker were also detected in the lupus nephritis case versus healthy control analysis (p <0.0001). An additional six genes showed an association with lupus nephritis with p <0.001 (PMS2, TNIP1, CARD11, ITGAM, BLK and IRAK1). In the case-only meta-analysis of the two cohorts, the STAT4 SNP rs7582694 was associated with severe renal insufficiency with p = 1.6×10(-3) and OR 2.22. We conclude that genetic variations in STAT4 predispose to lupus nephritis and a worse outcome with severe renal insufficiency.
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6.
  • Gateva, Vesela, et al. (författare)
  • A large-scale replication study identifies TNIP1, PRDM1, JAZF1, UHRF1BP1 and IL10 as risk loci for systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 41:11, s. 1228-1233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have recently identified at least 15 susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To confirm additional risk loci, we selected SNPs from 2,466 regions that showed nominal evidence of association to SLE (P < 0.05) in a genome-wide study and genotyped them in an independent sample of 1,963 cases and 4,329 controls. This replication effort identified five new SLE susceptibility loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TNIP1 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27), PRDM1 (OR = 1.20), JAZF1 (OR = 1.20), UHRF1BP1 (OR = 1.17) and IL10 (OR = 1.19). We identified 21 additional candidate loci with P< or = 1 x 10(-5). A candidate screen of alleles previously associated with other autoimmune diseases suggested five loci (P < 1 x 10(-3)) that may contribute to SLE: IFIH1, CFB, CLEC16A, IL12B and SH2B3. These results expand the number of confirmed and candidate SLE susceptibility loci and implicate several key immunologic pathways in SLE pathogenesis.
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7.
  • Holmer, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • Nonfatal stroke, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus in hypopituitary patients on hormone replacement including growth hormone
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 92:9, s. 3560-3567
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: The impact of long-term GH replacement on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in hypopituitary patients is unknown. Objective: The incidence of nonfatal stroke and cardiac events, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2D) and cardioprotective medication were compared between cohorts of GH-deficient (GHD) patients and population controls. Design and Participants: The incidence of nonfatal stroke and cardiac events was estimated retrospectively from questionnaires in 750 GHD patients and 2314 matched population controls. A prevalence of T2D and cardioprotective medication was recorded at the distribution of questionnaires. Time since first pituitary deficiency to start of GH therapy was 4 and 2 yr, and time on GH therapy was 6 yr for GHD women and men, respectively. Results: Lifelong incidence of nonfatal stroke was tripled in GHD women and doubled in GHD men, but a decline was seen in both genders during periods after first pituitary hormone deficiency and GHD, during which most patients had GH therapy. The lifelong incidence of nonfatal cardiac events declined in GHD men during first pituitary hormone deficiency and GHD periods. GHD women had a higher prevalence of T2D and lipid-lowering medication, whereas GHD men had a higher prevalence of antihypertensive medication. Conclusions: The declined risks of nonfatal stroke in both genders and of nonfatal cardiac events in GHD men during periods on GH replacement may be caused by prescription of cardioprotective drugs and 6-yr GH replacement. GHD women had an increased prevalence of T2D, partly attributed to higher body mass index and lower physical activity.
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8.
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9.
  • Lundstrom, Emeli, et al. (författare)
  • HLA-DRB1*04/*13 alleles are associated with vascular disease and antiphospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-2060 .- 0003-4967. ; 72:6, s. 1018-1025
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and objectives Vascular disease is common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are at high risk to develop arterial and venous thrombosis. Since HLA class II genotypes have been linked to the presence of pro-thrombotic aPL, we investigated the relationship between HLA-DRB1 alleles, aPL and vascular events in SLE patients. Methods 665 SLE patients of Caucasian origin and 1403 controls were included. Previous manifestations of ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) and venous thromboembolism (together referred to as any vascular events (AVE)) were tabulated. aPL were measured with ELISA. Two-digit HLA-DRB1 typing was performed by sequence-specific primer-PCR. Results HLA-DRB1*04 was more frequent among SLE patients with ICVD compared to unaffected patients. This association remained after adjustment for known traditional cardiovascular risk factors. HLA-DRB1*13 was associated with AVE. All measured specificities of aPL-cardiolipin IgG and IgM, beta(2)-glycoprotein-1 IgG, prothrombin (PT) IgG and a positive lupus anticoagulant test were associated with HLA-DRB1*04-while HLA-DRB1*13 was associated with IgG antibodies (beta(2)-glycoprotein-1, cardiolipin and PT). In patients with the combined risk alleles, HLA-DRB1*04/*13, there was a significant additive interaction for the outcomes AVE and ICVD. Conclusions The HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DRB1*13 alleles are associated with vascular events and an aPL positive immune-phenotype in SLE. Results demonstrate that a subset of SLE patients is genetically disposed to vascular vulnerability.
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10.
  • Sandling, Johanna K., et al. (författare)
  • A candidate gene study of the type I interferon pathway implicates IKBKE and IL8 as risk loci for SLE
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5438 .- 1018-4813. ; 19:4, s. 479-484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease in which the type I interferon pathway has a crucial role. We have previously shown that three genes in this pathway, IRF5, TYK2 and STAT4, are strongly associated with risk for SLE. Here, we investigated 78 genes involved in the type I interferon pathway to identify additional SLE susceptibility loci. First, we genotyped 896 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these 78 genes and 14 other candidate genes in 482 Swedish SLE patients and 536 controls. Genes with P < 0.01 in the initial screen were then followed up in 344 additional Swedish patients and 1299 controls. SNPs in the IKBKE, TANK, STAT1, IL8 and TRAF6 genes gave nominal signals of association with SLE in this extended Swedish cohort. To replicate these findings we extracted data from a genomewide association study on SLE performed in a US cohort. Combined analysis of the Swedish and US data, comprising a total of 2136 cases and 9694 controls, implicates IKBKE and IL8 as SLE susceptibility loci (P-meta=0.00010 and P-meta=0.00040, respectively). STAT1 was also associated with SLE in this cohort (P-meta=3.3 x 10(-5)), but this association signal appears to be dependent of that previously reported for the neighbouring STAT4 gene. Our study suggests additional genes from the type I interferon system in SLE, and highlights genes in this pathway for further functional analysis. European Journal of Human Genetics (2011) 19, 479-484; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.197; published online 22 December 2010
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