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Sökning: WFRF:(Bensing S)

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1.
  • Mitchell, A. L., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Autoimmune Addison's Disease with Alleles of STAT4 and GATA3 in European Cohorts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 9:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Gene variants known to contribute to Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) susceptibility include those at the MHC, MICA, CIITA, CTLA4, PTPN22, CYP27B1, NLRP-1 and CD274 loci. The majority of the genetic component to disease susceptibility has yet to be accounted for. Aim: To investigate the role of 19 candidate genes in AAD susceptibility in six European case-control cohorts. Methods: A sequential association study design was employed with genotyping using Sequenom iPlex technology. In phase one, 85 SNPs in 19 genes were genotyped in UK and Norwegian AAD cohorts (691 AAD, 715 controls). In phase two, 21 SNPs in 11 genes were genotyped in German, Swedish, Italian and Polish cohorts (1264 AAD, 1221 controls). In phase three, to explore association of GATA3 polymorphisms with AAD and to determine if this association extended to other autoimmune conditions, 15 SNPs in GATA3 were studied in UK and Norwegian AAD cohorts, 1195 type 1 diabetes patients from Norway, 650 rheumatoid arthritis patients from New Zealand and in 283 UK Graves' disease patients. Meta-analysis was used to compare genotype frequencies between the participating centres, allowing for heterogeneity. Results: We report significant association with alleles of two STAT4 markers in AAD cohorts (rs4274624: P = 0.00016; rs10931481: P = 0.0007). In addition, nominal association of AAD with alleles at GATA3 was found in 3 patient cohorts and supported by meta-analysis. Association of AAD with CYP27B1 alleles was also confirmed, which replicates previous published data. Finally, nominal association was found at SNPs in both the NF-kappa B1 and IL23A genes in the UK and Italian cohorts respectively. Conclusions: Variants in the STAT4 gene, previously associated with other autoimmune conditions, confer susceptibility to AAD. Additionally, we report association of GATA3 variants with AAD: this adds to the recent report of association of GATA3 variants with rheumatoid arthritis.
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2.
  • Bothou, C., et al. (författare)
  • Current Management and Outcome of Pregnancies in Women With Adrenal Insufficiency: Experience from a Multicenter Survey
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Appropriate management of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in pregnancy can be challenging due to the rarity of the disease and lack of evidence-based recommendations to guide glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid dosage adjustment. OBJECTIVE: Multicenter survey on current clinical approaches in managing AI during pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective anonymized data collection from 19 international centers from 2013 to 2019. SETTING AND PATIENTS: 128 pregnancies in 113 women with different causes of AI: Addison disease (44%), secondary AI (25%), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (25%), and acquired AI due to bilateral adrenalectomy (6%). RESULTS: Hydrocortisone (HC) was the most commonly used glucocorticoid in 83% (97/117) of pregnancies. Glucocorticoid dosage was increased at any time during pregnancy in 73/128 (57%) of cases. In these cases, the difference in the daily dose of HC equivalent between baseline and the third trimester was 8.6 ± 5.4 (range 1-30) mg. Fludrocortisone dosage was increased in fewer cases (7/54 during the first trimester, 9/64 during the second trimester, and 9/62 cases during the third trimester). Overall, an adrenal crisis was reported in 9/128 (7%) pregnancies. Cesarean section was the most frequent mode of delivery at 58% (69/118). Fetal complications were reported in 3/120 (3%) and minor maternal complications in 15/120 (13%) pregnancies without fatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms good maternal and fetal outcome in women with AI managed in specialized endocrine centers. An emphasis on careful endocrine follow-up and repeated patient education is likely to have reduced the risk of adrenal crisis and resulted in positive outcomes. © Endocrine Society 2020. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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3.
  • Eriksson, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • GWAS for autoimmune Addison's disease identifies multiple risk loci and highlights AIRE in disease susceptibility
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Science+Business Media B.V.. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. Low prevalence and complex inheritance have long hindered successful genetic studies. We here report the first genome-wide association study on AAD, which identifies nine independent risk loci (P < 5 × 10-8). In addition to loci implicated in lymphocyte function and development shared with other autoimmune diseases such as HLA, BACH2, PTPN22 and CTLA4, we associate two protein-coding alterations in Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) with AAD. The strongest, p.R471C (rs74203920, OR = 3.4 (2.7-4.3), P = 9.0 × 10-25) introduces an additional cysteine residue in the zinc-finger motif of the second PHD domain of the AIRE protein. This unbiased elucidation of the genetic contribution to development of AAD points to the importance of central immunological tolerance, and explains 35-41% of heritability (h2).
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4.
  • Eriksson, D, et al. (författare)
  • Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 286:6, s. 595-608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Autoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology.METHODS: To understand the genetic background of Addison's disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected set of 1853 genes and their potential regulatory elements, for the purpose of sequencing 479 patients with Addison's disease and 1394 controls.RESULTS: We identified BACH2 (rs62408233-A, OR = 2.01 (1.71-2.37), P = 1.66 × 10(-15) , MAF 0.46/0.29 in cases/controls) as a novel gene associated with Addison's disease development. We also confirmed the previously known associations with the HLA complex.CONCLUSION: Whilst BACH2 has been previously reported to associate with organ-specific autoimmune diseases co-inherited with Addison's disease, we have identified BACH2 as a major risk locus in Addison's disease, independent of concomitant autoimmune diseases. Our results may enable future research towards preventive disease treatment.
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5.
  • Saevik, Å B, et al. (författare)
  • Clues for early detection of autoimmune Addison's disease - myths and realities.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - : WILEY. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 283:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early detection of autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is important as delay in diagnosis may result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis and death. The classical clinical picture of untreated AAD is well-described, but methodical investigations are scarce.Perform a retrospective audit of patient records with the aim of identifying biochemical markers for early diagnosis of AAD.A multicentre retrospective study including 272 patients diagnosed with AAD at hospitals in Norway and Sweden during 1978-2016. Scrutiny of medical records provided patient data and laboratory values.Low sodium occurred in 207 of 247 (84%), but only one-third had elevated potassium. Other common nonendocrine tests were largely normal. TSH was elevated in 79 of 153 patients, and hypoglycaemia was found in 10%. Thirty-three per cent were diagnosed subsequent to adrenal crisis, in whom electrolyte disturbances were significantly more pronounced (P < 0.001). Serum cortisol was consistently decreased (median 62 nmol L(-1) [1-668]) and significantly lower in individuals with adrenal crisis (38 nmol L(-1) [2-442]) than in those without (81 nmol L(-1) [1-668], P < 0.001).The most consistent biochemical finding of untreated AAD was low sodium independent of the degree of glucocorticoid deficiency. Half of the patients had elevated TSH levels. Only a minority presented with marked hyperkalaemia or other nonhormonal abnormalities. Thus, unexplained low sodium and/or elevated TSH should prompt consideration of an undiagnosed AAD, and on clinical suspicion bring about assay of cortisol and ACTH. Presence of 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies confirms autoimmune aetiology. Anticipating additional abnormalities in routine blood tests may delay diagnosis.
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6.
  • Landegren, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Proteome-wide survey of the autoimmune target repertoire in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a monogenic disorder that features multiple autoimmune disease manifestations. It is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, which promote thymic display of thousands of peripheral tissue antigens in a process critical for establishing central immune tolerance. We here used proteome arrays to perform a comprehensive study of autoimmune targets in APS1. Interrogation of established autoantigens revealed highly reliable detection of autoantibodies, and by exploring the full panel of more than 9000 proteins we further identified MAGEB2 and PDILT as novel major autoantigens in APS1. Our proteome-wide assessment revealed a marked enrichment for tissue-specific immune targets, mirroring AIRE's selectiveness for this category of genes. Our findings also suggest that only a very limited portion of the proteome becomes targeted by the immune system in APS1, which contrasts the broad defect of thymic presentation associated with AIRE-deficiency and raises novel questions what other factors are needed for break of tolerance.
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7.
  • Papakokkinou, Eleni, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Nelson's syndrome after bilateral adrenalectomy in patients with cushing's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - : Springer. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Bilateral adrenalectomy (BA) still plays an important role in the management of Cushing's disease (CD). Nelson's syndrome (NS) is a severe complication of BA, but conflicting data on its prevalence and predicting factors have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NS, and identify factors associated with its development. Data sources Systematic literature search in four databases. Study Selection Observational studies reporting the prevalence of NS after BA in adult patients with CD. Data extraction Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by three independent investigators. Data synthesis Thirty-six studies, with a total of 1316 CD patients treated with BA, were included for the primary outcome. Pooled prevalence of NS was 26% (95% CI 22-31%), with moderate to high heterogeneity (I-2 67%, P < 0.01). The time from BA to NS varied from 2 months to 39 years. The prevalence of NS in the most recently published studies, where magnet resonance imaging was used, was 38% (95% CI 27-50%). The prevalence of treatment for NS was 21% (95% CI 18-26%). Relative risk for NS was not significantly affected by prior pituitary radiotherapy [0.9 (95% CI 0.5-1.6)] or pituitary surgery [0.6 (95% CI 0.4-1.0)]. Conclusions Every fourth patient with CD treated with BA develops NS, and every fifth patient requires pituitary-specific treatment. The risk of NS may persist for up to four decades after BA. Life-long follow-up is essential for early detection and adequate treatment of NS.
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8.
  • Bjornsdottir, Sigridur, et al. (författare)
  • Circadian hormone profiles and insulin sensitivity in patients with Addison's disease : a comparison of continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion with conventional glucocorticoid replacement therapy
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - 0300-0664 .- 1365-2265. ; 83:1, s. 28-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ContextConventional glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with Addison's disease (AD) is unphysiological with possible adverse effects on mortality, morbidity and quality of life. The diurnal cortisol profile can likely be restored by continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI). ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare circadian hormone rhythms and insulin sensitivity in conventional thrice-daily regimen of glucocorticoid replacement therapy with CSHI treatment in patients with AD. Design and settingAn open, randomized, two-period, 12-week crossover multicentre trial in Norway and Sweden. PatientsTen Norwegian patients were admitted for 24-h sampling of hormone profiles. Fifteen Swedish patients underwent euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. InterventionThrice-daily regimen of oral hydrocortisone (OHC) and CSHI treatment. Main outcome measureWe measured the circadian rhythm of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1, (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), glucose, insulin and triglycerides during OHC and CSHI treatment. Euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp was used to assess insulin sensitivity. ResultsContinuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion provided a more physiological circadian cortisol curve including a late-night cortisol surge. ACTH levels showed a near normal circadian variation for CSHI. CSHI prevented a continuous decrease in glucose during the night. No difference in insulin sensitivity was observed between the two treatment arms. ConclusionContinuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion replacement re-established a circadian cortisol rhythm and normalized the ACTH levels. Patients with CSHI replacement had a more stable night-time glucose level compared with OHC without compromising insulin sensitivity. Thus, restoring night-time cortisol levels might be advantageous for patients with AD.
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9.
  • Bjorvatn Saevik, Åse, et al. (författare)
  • Potential Transcriptional Biomarkers to Guide Glucocorticoid Replacement in Autoimmune Addison's Disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Endocrine Society. - 2472-1972. ; 5:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundNo reliable biomarkers exist to guide glucocorticoid (GC) replacement treatment in autoimmune Addison’s disease (AAD), leading to overtreatment with alarming and persistent side effects or undertreatment, which could be fatal.ObjectiveTo explore changes in gene expression following different GC replacement doses as a means of identifying candidate transcriptional biomarkers to guide GC replacement in AAD.MethodsStep 1: Global microarray expression analysis on RNA from whole blood before and after intravenous infusion of 100 mg hydrocortisone (HC) in 10 patients with AAD. In 3 of the most highly upregulated genes, we performed real-time PCR (rt-PCR) to compare gene expression levels before and 3, 4, and 6 hours after the HC infusion. Step 2: Rt-PCR to compare expression levels of 93 GC-regulated genes in normal versus very low morning cortisol levels in 27 patients with AAD.ResultsStep 1: Two hours after infusion of 100 mg HC, there was a marked increase in FKBP5, MMP9, and DSIPI expression levels. MMP9 and DSIPI expression levels correlated with serum cortisol. Step 2: Expression levels of CEBPB, DDIT4, FKBP5, DSIPI, and VDR were increased and levels of ADARB1, ARIDB5, and POU2F1 decreased in normal versus very low morning cortisol. Normal serum cortisol levels positively correlated with DSIPI, DDIT4, and FKBP5 expression.ConclusionsWe introduce gene expression as a novel approach to guide GC replacement in AAD. We suggest that gene expression of DSIPI, DDIT4, and FKBP5 are particularly promising candidate biomarkers of GC replacement, followed by MMP9, CEBPB, VDR, ADARB1, ARID5B, and POU2F1.
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