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1.
  • Berglund, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • A Method for Visualization of Surface Texture Anisotropy in Different Scales of Observation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scanning. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0161-0457 .- 1932-8745. ; 33:5, s. 325-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anisotropy of functional surfaces can in many practical cases significantly influence the surface function. Tribological contacts in sheet forming and engine applications are good examples. This article introduces and exemplifies a method for visualization of anisotropy. In a single graph, surface texture properties related to the anisotropy as a function of scale are plotted. The anisotropy graph can be used to explain anisotropy properties of a studied surface such as texture direction and texture strength at different scales of observation. Examples of milled steel surfaces and a textured steel sheet surface are presented to support the proposed methodology. Different aspects of the studied surfaces could clearly be seen at different scales. Future steps to improve filtering techniques and an introduction of length-scale analysis are discussed.
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2.
  • Bergström, Göran, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 278:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started.
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3.
  • Burgess, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Statistics in Medicine. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0277-6715 .- 1097-0258. ; 29:12, s. 1298-1311
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context of multiple genetic markers measured in multiple studies, based on the analysis of individual participant data. First, for a single genetic marker in one study, we show that the usual ratio of coefficients approach can be reformulated as a regression with heterogeneous error in the explanatory variable. This can be implemented using a Bayesian approach, which is next extended to include multiple genetic markers. We then propose a hierarchical model for undertaking a meta-analysis of multiple studies, in which it is not necessary that the same genetic markers are measured in each study. This provides an overall estimate of the causal relationship between the phenotype and the outcome, and an assessment of its heterogeneity across studies. As an example, we estimate the causal relationship of blood concentrations of C-reactive protein on fibrinogen levels using data from 11 studies. These methods provide a flexible framework for efficient estimation of causal relationships derived from multiple studies. Issues discussed include weak instrument bias, analysis of binary outcome data such as disease risk, missing genetic data, and the use of haplotypes.
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4.
  • Flys, Olena, et al. (författare)
  • Using confocal fusion for measurement of metal AM surface texture
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. - Bristol : IOP Publishing Ltd. - 2051-672X. ; 8:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex nature of as printed metal AM surfaces pose other challenges for making measurements compared to surfaces made with many conventional processing methods. The high complexity is caused by high aspect ratios, a mix of high and low reflexivity, steep angles etc. It is not clear which method is the most suitable for measuring these surfaces. The objective of this study was to compare four different measurement modes available in one instrument to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the respective techniques regarding measurements of metal AM surfaces. The evaluated measurement modes are Confocal Microscopy, Coherence Scanning Interferometry, Focus Variation and Confocal Fusion. The effect of advantages and drawbacks of studied techniques was tested on typical surfaces produced by L-PBF process. Surfaces printed at 0° and 90° inclinations were compared regarding the measurement results achieved from the different methods. The Power Spectral Density analysis and visual comparison were used for the examination of studied measurements methods. Besides the comparison of areal measurements acquired by different modes available in the instrument also extracted profile measurements were compared with profile images acquired using an Optical Microscope. This study reveals that confocal fusion is a promising technique for AM surface characterisation, due to the highest amount of valid data points in the typical measurement. The new approach developed in the study showed that PSD analysis can be used for evaluation of fill in algorithms incorporated in different software. Results of the profile comparisons help to illustrate features that can be depicted by surface measurements, applying different measurement principles, as well as enables comparison of raw profile data between different types of measurements. Further investigation of measurements on AM surfaces in the frequency domain will bring more understanding about the limitations of measurement techniques. 
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7.
  • Bamia, C, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary patterns among older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1475-2662 .- 0007-1145. ; 94:1, s. 100-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates. Two PC were identified: PC1 reflects a 'vegetable-based' diet with an emphasis on foods of plant origin, rice, pasta and other grain rather than on margarine, potatoes and non-alcoholic beverages. PC2 indicates a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diet with a preference for sweets, added fat and dairy products but not meat, alcohol, bread and eggs. PC1 was associated with a younger age, a higher level of education, physical activity, a higher BMI, a lower waist:hip ratio and never and past smoking. PC2 was associated with older age, less education, never having smoked, a lower BMI and waist:hip ratio and lower levels of physical activity. Elderly individuals in southern Europe scored positively on PC1 and about zero on PC2, whereas the elderly in northern Europe scored negatively on PC1 and variably on PC2. The results of cluster analysis were compatible with the indicated dietary patterns. 'Vegetable-based' and a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diets are prevalent among the elderly across Europe, and there is a north-south gradient regarding their dietary choices. Our study contributes to the identification of groups of elderly who are likely to have different prospects for long-term disease occurrence and survival.
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8.
  • Baskaran, Preetisri, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling the influence of ectomycorrhizal decomposition on plant nutrition and soil carbon sequestration in boreal forest ecosystems
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 0028-646X .- 1469-8137. ; 213:3, s. 1452-1465
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tree growth in boreal forests is limited by nitrogen (N) availability. Most boreal forest trees form symbiotic associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, which improve the uptake of inorganic N and also have the capacity to decompose soil organic matter (SOM) and to mobilize organic N (ECM decomposition'). To study the effects of ECM decomposition' on ecosystem carbon (C) and N balances, we performed a sensitivity analysis on a model of C and N flows between plants, SOM, saprotrophs, ECM fungi, and inorganic N stores. The analysis indicates that C and N balances were sensitive to model parameters regulating ECM biomass and decomposition. Under low N availability, the optimal C allocation to ECM fungi, above which the symbiosis switches from mutualism to parasitism, increases with increasing relative involvement of ECM fungi in SOM decomposition. Under low N conditions, increased ECM organic N mining promotes tree growth but decreases soil C storage, leading to a negative correlation between C stores above- and below-ground. The interplay between plant production and soil C storage is sensitive to the partitioning of decomposition between ECM fungi and saprotrophs. Better understanding of interactions between functional guilds of soil fungi may significantly improve predictions of ecosystem responses to environmental change.
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9.
  • Berglund, J., et al. (författare)
  • A method development for correlation of surface finish appearance of die surfaces and roughness measurement data
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Tribology letters. - Berlin : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 1023-8883 .- 1573-2711. ; 36:2, s. 157-164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In die and mould manufacturing, the method used for quality control of finished surfaces is usually visual and tactile inspection of the finish, which is not easily quantifiable. In the present study, an evaluation of the connection between surface finish appearance and measured surface roughness was carried out using scale-sensitive fractal analysis to find functional correlations and to determine suitable cut-off limits for functional data filtration. A selection of ball-nose end-mills in combination with two different tool steels (hardness 39 and 47 HRC) were used to manufacture surfaces that were inspected and measured. It was found that the method developed in the present study for evaluating functional correlations and designing filters worked well. It was also found that there is a correlation between the surface roughness parameter Sq and the surface finish appearance and that this correlation is stronger in certain wavelengths on the surface.
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10.
  • Berglund, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Milled die steel surface roughness correlation with steel sheet friction
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: CIRP annals. - Bern : Technische Rundschau. - 0007-8506 .- 1726-0604. ; 59:1, s. 577-580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This work investigates correlations between the surface topography of milled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture characterization parameters were tested. None of the height, spacing, material volume, void or segmentation parameters showed good correlations. Developed area, rms surface gradient, relative area and complexity showed strong correlations (R2 > 0.7). For area-scale fractal complexity the correlation increases markedly at scales below 200 μm2, with a maximum R2 of 0.9 at 50 μm2.
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