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1.
  • Angioni, C., et al. (författare)
  • Dependence of the turbulent particle flux on hydrogen isotopes induced by collisionality
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physics of Plasmas. - : American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 1070-664X .- 1089-7674. ; 25:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The impact of the change of the mass of hydrogen isotopes on the turbulent particle flux is studied. The trapped electron component of the turbulent particle convection induced by collisionality, which is outward in ion temperature gradient turbulence, increases with decreasing thermal velocity of the isotope. Thereby, the lighter is the isotope, the stronger is the turbulent pinch, and the larger is the predicted density gradient at the null of the particle flux. The passing particle component of the flux increases with decreasing mass of the isotope and can also affect the predicted density gradient. This effect is however subdominant for usual core plasma parameters. The analytical results are confirmed by means of both quasi-linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, and an estimate of the difference in local density gradient produced by this effect as a function of collisionality has been obtained for typical plasma parameters at mid-radius. Analysis of currently available experimental data from the JET and the ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks does not show any clear and general evidence of inconsistency with this theoretically predicted effect outside the errorbars and also allows the identification of cases providing weak evidence of qualitative consistency.
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2.
  • Bobkov, V, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of ICRF on the scrape-off layer and on plasma wall interactions : From present experiments to fusion reactor
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Materials and Energy. - : Elsevier. - 2352-1791. ; 18, s. 131-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent achievements in studies of the effects of ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) power on the SOL (Scrape-Off Layer) and PWI (Plasma Wall Interactions) in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), Alcator C-Mod, and JET-ILW are reviewed. Capabilities to diagnose and model the effect of DC biasing and associated impurity production at active antennas and on magnetic field connections to antennas are described. The experiments show that ICRF near-fields can lead not only to E x B convection, but also to modifications of the SOL density, which for Alcator C-Mod are limited to a narrow region near antenna. On the other hand, the SOL density distribution along with impurity sources can be tailored using local gas injection in AUG and JET-ILW with a positive effect on reduction of impurity sources. The technique of RF image current cancellation at antenna limiters was successfully applied in AUG using the 3-strap AUG antenna and extended to the 4-strap Alcator C-Mod field-aligned antenna. Multiple observations confirmed the reduction of the impact of ICRF on the SOL and on total impurity production when the ratio of the power of the central straps to the total antenna power is in the range 0.6 < P-cen / P-total < 0.8. Near-field calculations indicate that this fairly robust technique can be applied to the ITER ICRF antenna, enabling the mode of operation with reduced PWI. On the contrary, for the A2 antenna in JET-ILW the technique is hindered by RF sheaths excited at the antenna septum. Thus, in order to reduce the effect of ICRF power on PWI in a future fusion reactor, the antenna design has to be optimized along with design of plasmafacing components.
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3.
  • Bonanomi, N., et al. (författare)
  • Role of fast ion pressure in the isotope effect in JET L-mode plasmas
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - EUROfus Consortium, JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England. [Bonanomi, N.; Fable, E.] Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany. [Casiraghi, I] Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy. [Casiraghi, I; Mantica, P.] CNR Plasma Phys Inst P Caldirola, Milan, Italy. [Challis, C.; Giroud, C.; Lomas, P.; Menmuir, S.; Taylor, D.] Culham Ctr Fus Energy, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England. [Delabie, E.] Oak Ridge Natl Lab, POB 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA. [Gallart, D.] Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Barcelona, Spain. [Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.] LPP ERM KMS, TEC Partner, Brussels, Belgium. [Staebler, G. M.] Gen Atom, POB 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 USA. [Abduallev, S.; Abhangi, M.; Abreu, P.; Afanasev, V; Afzal, M.; Aggarwal, K. M.; Ahlgren, T.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Aiba, N.; Airila, M.; Alarcon, T.; Albanese, R.; Alegre, D.; Aleiferis, S.; Alessi, E.; Aleynikov, P.; Alkseev, A.; Allinson, M.; Alper, B.; Alves, E.; Ambrosino, G.; Ambrosino, R.; Amosov, V; Sunden, E. Andersson; Andrews, R.; Angelone, M.; Anghel, M.; Angioni, C.; Appel, L.; Appelbee, C.; Arena, P.; Ariola, M.; Arshad, S.; Artaud, J.; Arter, W.; Ash, A.; Ashikawa, N.; Aslanyan, V; Asunta, O.; Asztalos, O.; Auriemma, F.; Austin, Y.; Avotina, L.; Axton, M.; Ayres, C.; Baciero, A.; Baiao, D.; Balboa, I; Balden, M.; Balshaw, N.; Bandaru, V. K.; Banks, J.; Baranov, Y. F.; Barcellona, C.; Barnard, T.; Barnes, M.; Barnsley, R.; Wiechec, A. Baron; Orte, L. Barrera; Baruzzo, M.; Basiuk, V; Bassan, M.; Bastow, R.; Batista, A.; Batistoni, P.; Baumane, L.; Bauvir, B.; Baylor, L.; Beaumont, P. S.; Beckers, M.; Beckett, B.; Bekris, N.; Beldishevski, M.; Bell, K.; Belli, F.; Belonohy, E.; Benayas, J.; Bergsaker, H.; Bernardo, J.; Bernert, M.; Berry, M.; Bertalot, L.; Besiliu, C.; Betar, H.; Beurskens, M.; Bielecki, J.; Biewer, T.; Bilato, R.; Biletskyi, O.; Bilkova, P.; Binda, F.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bizarro, J. P. S.; Bjorkas, C.; Blackburn, J.; Blackman, T. R.; Blanchard, P.; Blatchford, P.; Bobkov, V; Boboc, A.; Bogar, O.; Bohm, P.; Bohm, T.; Bolshakova, I; Bolzonella, T.; Bonanomi, N.; Boncagni, L.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonnin, X.; Boom, J.; Borba, D.; Borodin, D.; Borodkina, I; Boulbe, C.; Bourdelle, C.; Bowden, M.; Bowman, C.; Boyce, T.; Boyer, H.; Bradnam, S. C.; Braic, V; Bravanec, R.; Breizman, B.; Brennan, D.; Breton, S.; Brett, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Bright, M.; Brix, M.; Broeckx, W.; Brombin, M.; Broslawski, A.; Brown, B.; Brunetti, D.; Bruno, E.; Buch, J.; Buchanan, J.; Buckingham, R.; Buckley, M.; Bucolo, M.; Budny, R.; Bufferand, H.; Buller, S.; Bunting, P.; Buratti, P.; Burckhart, A.; Burroughes, G.; Buscarino, A.; Busse, A.; Butcher, D.; Butler, B.; Bykov, I; Cahyna, P.; Calabro, G.; Calacci, L.; Callaghan, D.; Callaghan, J.; Calvo, I; Camenen, Y.; Camp, P.; Campling, D. C.; Cannas, B.; Capat, A.; Carcangiu, S.; Card, P.; Cardinali, A.; Carman, P.; Carnevale, D.; Carr, M.; Carralero, D.; Carraro, L.; Carvalho, B. B.; Carvalho, I; Carvalho, P.; Carvalho, D. D.; Casson, F. J.; Castaldo, C.; Catarino, N.; Causa, F.; Cavazzana, R.; Cave-Ayland, K.; Cavedon, M.; Cecconello, M.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cecil, E.; Challis, C. D.; Chandra, D.; Chang, C. S.; Chankin, A.; Chapman, I. T.; Chapman, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Chernyshova, M.; Chiariello, A.; Chitarin, G.; Chmielewski, P.; Chone, L.; Ciraolo, G.; Ciric, D.; Citrin, J.; Clairet, F.; Clark, M.; Clark, E.; Clarkson, R.; Clay, R.; Clements, C.; Coad, J. P.; Coates, P.; Cobalt, A.; Coccorese, V; Cocilovo, V; Coelho, R.; Coenen, J. W.; Coffey, I; Colas, L.; Colling, B.; Collins, S.; Conka, D.; Conroy, S.; Conway, N.; Coombs, D.; Cooper, S. R.; Corradino, C.; Corre, Y.; Corrigan, G.; Coster, D.; Craciunescu, T.; Cramp, S.; Crapper, C.; Crisanti, F.; Croci, G.; Croft, D.; Crombe, K.; Cruz, N.; Cseh, G.; Cufar, A.; Cullen, A.; Curson, P.; Curuia, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Czarski, T.; Cziegler, I; Dabirikhah, H.; Dal Molin, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Dalley, S.; Dankowski, J.; Darrow, D.; David, P.; Davies, A.; Davis, W.; Dawson, K.; Day, I; Day, C.; De Bock, M.; de Castro, A.; De Dominici, G.; de la Cal, E.; de la Luna, E.; De Masi, G.; De Temmerman, G.; De Tommasi, G.; de Vries, P.; Deane, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Del Sarto, D.; Delabie, E.; Demerdzhiev, V; Dempsey, A.; den Harder, N.; Dendy, R. O.; Denis, J.; Denner, P.; Devaux, S.; Devynck, P.; Di Maio, F.; Di Siena, A.; Di Troia, C.; Dickinson, D.; Dinca, P.; Dittmar, T.; Dobrashian, J.; Doerk, H.; Doerner, R. P.; Domptail, F.; Donne, T.; Dorling, S. E.; Douai, D.; Dowson, S.; Drenik, A.; Dreval, M.; Drewelow, P.; Drews, P.; Duckworth, Ph; Dumont, R.; Dumortier, P.; Dunai, D.; Dunne, M.; Duran, I; Durodie, F.; Dutta, P.; Duval, B. P.; Dux, R.; Dylst, K.; Edappala, P., V; Edwards, A. M.; Edwards, J. S.; Eich, Th; Eidietis, N.; Eksaeva, A.; Ellis, R.; Ellwood, G.; Elsmore, C.; Emery, S.; Enachescu, M.; Ericsson, G.; Eriksson, J.; Eriksson, F.; Eriksson, L. G.; Ertmer, S.; Esquembri, S.; Esquisabel, A. L.; Esser, H. G.; Ewart, G.; Fable, E.; Fagan, D.; Faitsch, M.; Falie, D.; Fanni, A.; Farahani, A.; Fasoli, A.; Faugeras, B.; Fazinic, S.; Felici, F.; Felton, R. C.; Feng, S.; Fernades, A.; Fernandes, H.; Ferreira, J.; Ferreira, D. R.; Ferro, G.; Fessey, J. A.; Ficker, O.; Field, A.; Fietz, S.; Figini, L.; Figueiredo, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Fil, N.; Finburg, P.; Fischer, U.; Fittill, L.; Fitzgerald, M.; Flammini, D.; Flanagan, J.; Flinders, K.; Foley, S.; Fonnesu, N.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Formisano, A.; Forsythe, L.; Fortuna, L.; Fransson, E.; Frasca, M.; Frassinetti, L.; Freisinger, M.; Fresa, R.; Fridstrom, R.; Frigione, D.; Fuchs, V; Fusco, V; Futatani, S.; Gal, K.; Galassi, D.; Galazka, K.; Galeani, S.; Gallart, D.; Galvao, R.; Gao, Y.; Garcia, J.; Garcia-Carrasco, A.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gardener, M.; Garzotti, L.; Gaspar, J.; Gaudio, P.; Gear, D.; Gebhart, T.; Gee, S.; Geiger, B.; Gelfusa, M.; George, R.; Gerasimov, S.; Gervasini, G.; Gethins, M.; Ghani, Z.; Ghate, M.; Gherendi, M.; Ghezzi, F.; Giacalone, J. C.; Giacomelli, L.; Giacometti, G.; Gibson, K.; Giegerich, T.; Gil, L.; Gilbert, M. R.; Gin, D.; Giovannozzi, E.; Giroud, C.; Gloeggler, S.; Goff, J.; Gohil, P.; Goloborod'ko, V; Gomes, R.; Goncalves, B.; Goniche, M.; Goodyear, A.; Gorini, G.; Goerler, T.; Goulding, R.; Goussarov, A.; Graham, B.; Graves, J. P.; Greuner, H.; Grierson, B.; Griffiths, J.; Griph, S.; Grist, D.; Groth, M.; Grove, R.; Gruca, M.; Guard, D.; Guerard, C.; Guillemaut, C.; Guirlet, R.; Gulati, S.; Gurl, C.; Gutierrez-Milla, A.; Utoh, H. H.; Hackett, L.; Hacquin, S.; Hager, R.; Hakola, A.; Halitovs, M.; Hall, S.; Hallworth-Cook, S.; Ham, C.; Hamed, M.; Hamilton, N.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Hammond, K.; Hancu, G.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Hasenbeck, F.; Hatano, Y.; Hatch, D. R.; Haupt, T.; Hawes, J.; Hawkes, N. C.; Hawkins, J.; Hawkins, P.; Hazel, S.; Heesterman, P.; Heinola, K.; Hellesen, C.; Hellsten, T.; Helou, W.; Hemming, O.; Hender, T. C.; Henderson, S. S.; Henderson, M.; Henriques, R.; Hepple, D.; Herfindal, J.; Hermon, G.; Hidalgo, C.; Higginson, W.; Highcock, E. G.; Hillesheim, J.; Hillis, D.; Hizanidis, K.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ho, A.; Hobirk, J.; Hogben, C. H. A.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Hollingsworth, A.; Hollis, S.; Hoelzl, M.; Honore, J-J; Hook, M.; Hopley, D.; Horacek, J.; Hornung, G.; Horton, A.; Horton, L. D.; Horvath, L.; Hotchin, S. P.; Howell, R.; Hubbard, A.; Huber, A.; Huber, V; Huddleston, T. M.; Hughes, M.; Hughes, J.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Huynh, P.; Hynes, A.; Igaune, I.; Iglesias, D.; Imazawa, N.; Imrisek, M.; Incelli, M.; Innocente, P.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Ivings, E.; Jachmich, S.; Jackson, A.; Jackson, T.; Jacquet, P.; Jansons, J.; Jaulmes, F.; Jednorog, S.; Jenkins, I; Jepu, I; Johnson, T.; Johnson, R.; Johnston, J.; Joita, L.; Joly, J.; Jonasson, E.; Jones, T.; Jones, C.; Jones, L.; Jones, G.; Jones, N.; Juvonen, M.; Hoshino, K. K.; Kallenbach, A.; Kalsey, M.; Kaltiaisenaho, T.; Kamiya, K.; Kaniewski, J.; Kantor, A.; Kappatou, A.; Karhunen, J.; Karkinsky, D.; Kaufman, M.; Kaveney, G.; Kazakov, Y.; Kazantzidis, V; Keeling, D. L.; Keenan, F. P.; Kempenaars, M.; Kent, O.; Kent, J.; Keogh, K.; Khilkevich, E.; Kim, H-T; Kim, H. T.; King, R.; King, D.; Kinna, D. J.; Kiptily, V; Kirk, A.; Kirov, K.; Kirschner, A.; Kizane, G.; Klas, M.; Klepper, C.; Klix, A.; Knight, M.; Knight, P.; Knipe, S.; Knott, S.; Kobuchi, T.; Kochl, F.; Kocsis, G.; Kodeli, I; Koechl, F.; Kogut, D.; Koivuranta, S.; Kolesnichenko, Y.; Kollo, Z.; Kominis, Y.; Koeppen, M.; Korolczuk, S.; Kos, B.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Koubiti, M.; Kovaldins, R.; Kovanda, O.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Krasilnikov, A.; Krasilnikov, V; Krawczyk, N.; Kresina, M.; Krieger, K.; Krivska, A.; Kruezi, U.; Ksiazek, I; Kukushkin, A.; Kundu, A.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kwak, S.; Kwon, O. J.; Laguardia, L.; Lahtinen, A.; Laing, A.; Lalousis, P.; Lam, N.; Lamb, C.; Lambertz, H. T.; Lang, P. T.; Lanthaler, S.; Neto, E. Lascas; Laszynska, E.; Lawless, R.; Lawson, K. D.; Lazaros, A.; Lazzaro, E.; Leach, R.; Learoyd, G.; Leerink, S.; Lefebvre, X.; Leggate, H. J.; Lehmann, J.; Lehnen, M.; Leichauer, P.; Leichtle, D.; Leipold, F.; Lengar, I; Lennholm, M.; Lepiavko, B.; Leppanen, J.; Lerche, E.; Lescinskis, A.; Lescinskis, B.; Lesnoj, S.; Leyland, M.; Leysen, W.; Li, Y.; Li, L.; Liang, Y.; Likonen, J.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch; Lipschultz, B.; Litaudon, X.; Liu, G.; Lloyd, B.; Lo Schiavo, V. P.; Loarer, T.; Loarte, A.; Lomanowski, B.; Lomas, P. J.; Lonnroth, J.; Lopez, J. M.; Lorenzini, R.; Losada, U.; Loughlin, M.; Lowry, C.; Luce, T.; Lucock, R.; Lukin, A.; Luna, C.; Lungaroni, M.; Lungu, C. P.; Lungu, M.; Lunniss, A.; Lunt, T.; Lupelli, I; Lutsenko, V; Lyssoivan, A.; Macheta, P.; Macusova, E.; Magesh, B.; Maggi, C.; Maggiora, R.; Mahesan, S.; Maier, H.; Mailloux, J.; Maingi, R.; Makwana, R.; Malaquias, A.; Malinowski, K.; Malizia, A.; Manas, P.; Manduchi, G.; Manso, M. E.; Mantica, P.; Mantsinen, M.; Manzanares, A.; Maquet, Ph; Marandet, Y.; Marcenko, N.; Marchetto, C.; Marchuk, O.; Marconato, N.; Mariani, A.; Marin, M.; Marinelli, M.; Marinucci, M.; Markovic, T.; Marocco, D.; Marot, L.; Marsh, J.; Martin, A.; Martin de Aguilera, A.; Martin-Solis, J. R.; Martone, R.; Martynova, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Maslov, M.; Matejcik, S.; Mattei, M.; Matthews, G. F.; Matveev, D.; Matveeva, E.; Mauriya, A.; Maviglia, F.; May-Smith, T.; Mayer, M.; Mayoral, M. L.; Mazon, D.; Mazzotta, C.; McAdams, R.; McCarthy, P. J.; McClements, K. G.; McCormack, O.; McCullen, P. A.; McDonald, D.; McHardy, M.; McKean, R.; McKehon, J.; McNamee, L.; Meadowcroft, C.; Meakins, A.; Medley, S.; Meigh, S.; Meigs, A. G.; Meisl, G.; Meiter, S.; Meitner, S.; Meneses, L.; Menmuir, S.; Mergia, K.; Merle, A.; Merriman, P.; Mertens, Ph; Meshchaninov, S.; Messiaen, A.; Meyer, H.; Michling, R.; Milanesio, D.; Militello, F.; Militello-Asp, E.; Milocco, A.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mink, F.; Minucci, S.; Miron, I; Mistry, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Mlynar, J.; Moiseenko, V; Monaghan, P.; Monakhov, I; Moon, S.; Mooney, R.; Moradi, S.; Morales, J.; Moran, J.; Mordijck, S.; Moreira, L.; Moro, F.; Morris, J.; Moser, L.; Mosher, S.; Moulton, D.; Mrowetz, T.; Muir, A.; Muraglia, M.; Murari, A.; Muraro, A.; Murphy, S.; Muscat, P.; Muthusonai, N.; Myers, C.; Asakura, N. N.; N'Konga, B.; Nabais, F.; Naish, R.; Naish, J.; Nakano, T.; Napoli, F.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V; Nave, M. F. F.; Nedzelskiy, I; Nemtsev, G.; Nesenevich, V; Nespoli, F.; Neto, A.; Neu, R.; Neverov, V. S.; Newman, M.; Ng, S.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, A. H.; Nina, D.; Nishijima, D.; Noble, C.; Nobs, C. R.; Nocente, M.; Nodwell, D.; Nordlund, K.; Nordman, H.; Normanton, R.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Nowak, S.; Nunes, I; O'Gorman, T.; O'Mullane, M.; Oberkofler, M.; Oberparleiter, M.; Odupitan, T.; Ogawa, M. T.; Okabayashi, M.; Oliver, H.; Olney, R.; Omoregie, L.; Ongena, J.; Orsitto, F.; Orszagh, J.; Osborne, T.; Otin, R.; Owen, A.; Owen, T.; Paccagnella, R.; Packer, L. W.; Pajuste, E.; Pamela, S.; Panja, S.; Papp, P.; Papp, G.; Parail, V; Pardanaud, C.; Diaz, F. Parra; Parsloe, A.; Parsons, N.; Parsons, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Passeri, M.; Patel, A.; Pathak, S.; Patten, H.; Pau, A.; Pautasso, G.; Pavlichenko, R.; Pavone, A.; Pawelec, E.; Soldan, C. Paz; Peackoc, A.; Pehkonen, S-P; Peluso, E.; Penot, C.; Penzo, J.; Pepperell, K.; Pereira, R.; Cippo, E. Perelli; von Thun, C. Perez; Pericoli, V; Peruzzo, S.; Peterka, M.; Petersson, P.; Petravich, G.; Petre, A.; Petrzilka, V; Philipps, V; Pigatto, L.; Pillon, M.; Pinches, S.; Pintsuk, G.; Piovesan, P.; de Sa, W. Pires; dos Reis, A. Pires; Piron, L.; Piron, C.; Pironti, A.; Pisano, F.; Pitts, R.; Plyusnin, V; Poli, F. M.; Pomaro, N.; Pompilian, O. G.; Pool, P.; Popovichev, S.; Poradzinski, M.; Porfiri, M. T.; Porosnicu, C.; Porton, M.; Possnert, G.; Potzel, S.; Poulipoulis, G.; Powell, T.; Prajapati, V; Prakash, R.; Predebon, I; Prestopino, G.; Price, D.; Price, M.; Price, R.; Primetzhofer, D.; Prior, P.; Pucella, G.; Puglia, P.; Puiatti, M. E.; Purahoo, K.; Pusztai, I; Puetterich, Th; Rachlew, E.; Rack, M.; Ragona, R.; Rainford, M.; Raj, P.; Rakha, A.; Ramogida, G.; Ranjan, S.; Rapson, C. J.; Rasmussen, D.; Rasmussen, J. J.; Rathod, K.; Ratta, G.; Ratynskaia, S.; Ravera, G.; Rebai, M.; Reed, A.; Refy, D.; Regana, J.; Reich, M.; Reid, N.; Reimold, F.; Reinhart, M.; Reinke, M.; Reiser, D.; Rendell, D.; Reux, C.; Cortes, S. D. A. Reyes; Reynolds, S.; Ricci, D.; Richiusa, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Rimini, F. G.; Risner, J.; Riva, M.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J.; Roach, C.; Robins, R.; Robinson, S.; Robson, D.; Rodionov, R.; Rodrigues, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Rohde, V; Romanelli, M.; Romanelli, F.; Romanelli, S.; Romazanov, J.; Rowe, S.; Rubel, M.; Rubinacci, G.; Rubino, G.; Ruchko, L.; Ruset, C.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Saarelma, S.; Sabot, R.; Saez, X.; Safi, E.; Sahlberg, A.; Saibene, G.; Saleem, M.; Salewski, M.; Salmi, A.; Salmon, R.; Salzedas, F.; Samm, U.; Sandiford, D.; Santa, P.; Santala, M. I. K.; Santos, B.; Santucci, A.; Sartori, F.; Sartori, R.; Sauter, O.; Scannell, R.; Schluck, F.; Schlummer, T.; Schmid, K.; Schmuck, S.; Schoepf, K.; Schweinzer, J.; Schworer, D.; Scott, S. D.; Sergienko, G.; Sertoli, M.; Shabbir, A.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shaw, A.; Sheikh, H.; Shepherd, A.; Shevelev, A.; Shiraki, D.; Shumack, A.; Sias, G.; Sibbald, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silburn, S.; Silva, J.; Silva, A.; Silva, C.; Silvagni, D.; Simmons, P.; Simpson, J.; Sinha, A.; Sipila, S. K.; Sips, A. C. C.; Siren, P.; Sirinelli, A.; Sjostrand, H.; Skiba, M.; Skilton, R.; Skvara, V; Slade, B.; Smith, R.; Smith, P.; Smith, S. F.; Snoj, L.; Soare, S.; Solano, E. R.; Somers, A.; Sommariva, C.; Sonato, P.; Sos, M.; Sousa, J.; Sozzi, C.; Spagnolo, S.; Sparapani, P.; Spelzini, T.; Spineanu, F.; Sprada, D.; Sridhar, S.; Stables, G.; Stallard, J.; Stamatelatos, I; Stamp, M. F.; Stan-Sion, C.; Stancar, Z.; Staniec, P.; Stankunas, G.; Stano, M.; Stavrou, C.; Stefanikova, E.; Stepanov, I; Stephen, A., V; Stephen, M.; Stephens, J.; Stevens, B.; Stober, J.; Stokes, C.; Strachan, J.; Strand, P.; Strauss, H. R.; Strom, P.; Studholme, W.; Subba, F.; Suchkov, E.; Summers, H. P.; Sun, H.; Sutton, N.; Svensson, J.; Sytnykov, D.; Szabolics, T.; Szepesi, G.; Suzuki, T. T.; Tabares, F.; Tadic, T.; Tal, B.; Tala, T.; Taliercio, C.; Tallargio, A.; Tanaka, K.; Tang, W.; Tardocchi, M.; Tatali, R.; Taylor, D.; Tegnered, D.; Telesca, G.; Teplova, N.; Teplukhina, A.; Terranova, D.; Terry, C.; Testa, D.; Tholerus, E.; Thomas, J.; Thompson, V. K.; Thornton, A.; Tierens, W.; Tiseanu, I; Tojo, H.; Tokitani, M.; Tolias, P.; Tomes, M.; Trimble, P.; Tripsky, M.; Tsalas, M.; Tsavalas, P.; Tskhakaya, D.; Jun, D. Tskhakaya; Turner, I; Turner, M. M.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Tvalashvili, G.; Tyshchenko, M.; Uccello, A.; Uljanovs, J.; Urano, H.; Urban, A.; Urbanczyk, G.; Uytdenhouwen, I; Vadgama, A.; Valcarcel, D.; Vale, R.; Valentinuzzi, M.; Valerii, K.; Valisa, M.; Olivares, P. Vallejos; Valovic, M.; Van Eester, D.; Van Renterghem, W.; van Rooij, G. J.; Varje, J.; Vartanian, S.; Vasava, K.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Vecsei, M.; Vega, J.; Ventre, S.; Verdoolaege, G.; Verona, C.; Rinati, G. Verona; Veshchev, E.; Vianello, N.; Vicente, J.; Viezzer, E.; Villari, S.; Villone, F.; Vincent, M.; Vincenzi, P.; Vinyar, I; Viola, B.; Vitins, A.; Vizvary, Z.; Vlad, M.; Voitsekhovitch, I; Voltolina, D.; von Toussaint, U.; Vondracek, P.; Vuksic, M.; Wakeling, B.; Waldon, C.; Walkden, N.; Walker, R.; Walker, M.; Walsh, M.; Wang, N.; Wang, E.; Warder, S.; Warren, R.; Waterhouse, J.; Watts, C.; Wauters, T.; Webb, M.; Weckmann, A.; Weiland, J.; Weiland, M.; Weisen, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Welch, P.; West, A.; Wheatley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Whitehead, A. M.; Whittaker, D.; Widdowson, A. M.; Wiesen, S.; Wilkie, G.; Williams, J.; Willoughby, D.; Wilson, J.; Wilson, I; Wilson, H. R.; Wischmeier, M.; Withycombe, A.; Witts, D.; Wolfrum, E.; Wood, R.; Woodley, R.; Woodley, C.; Wray, S.; Wright, J. C.; Wright, P.; Wukitch, S.; Wynn, A.; Xiang, L.; Xu, T.; Xue, Y.; Yadikin, D.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yanling, W.; Yavorskij, V; Young, I; Young, R.; Young, D.; Zacks, J.; Zagorski, R.; Zaitsev, F. S.; Zakharov, L.; Zanino, R.; Zarins, A.; Zarins, R.; Fernandez, D. Zarzoso; Zastrow, K. D.; Zerbini, M.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Zilli, E.; Zocco, A.; Zoita, V; Zoletnik, S.; Zwingmann, W.; Zychor, I] EUROfus Consortium JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England. [Asunta, O.; Chone, L.; Groth, M.; Karhunen, J.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Leerink, S.; Lomanowski, B.; Lonnroth, J.; Santala, M. I. K.; Simpson, J.; Sipila, S. K.; Stavrou, C.; Uljanovs, J.; Varje, J.] Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland. [Galassi, D.; Tatali, R.] Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, M2P2, UMR 7340, F-13013 Marseille, France. [Camenen, Y.; Gaspar, J.; Giacometti, G.; Koubiti, M.; Manas, P.; Marandet, Y.; Muraglia, M.; Pardanaud, C.; Fernandez, D. Zarzoso] Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, F-13013 Marseille, France. [Luna, C.] Arizona State Univ, Tempe, AZ USA. [Gallart, D.; Gutierrez-Milla, A.; Mantsinen, M.; Rakha, A.; Saez, X.] Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Barcelona, Spain. [Afzal, M.; Allinson, M.; Alper, B.; Andrews, R.; Appel, L.; Appelbee, C.; Arter, W.; Ash, A.; Austin, Y.; Axton, M.; Ayres, C.; Balboa, I; Balshaw, N.; Banks, J.; Baranov, Y. F.; Barnard, T.; Wiechec, A. Baron; Beaumont, P. S.; Beckett, B.; Beldishevski, M.; Bell, K.; Benayas, J.; Besiliu, C.; Blackman, T. R.; Blatchford, P.; Boboc, A.; Bowden, M.; Boyce, T.; Boyer, H.; Bradnam, S. C.; Brennan, D.; Brett, A.; Bright, M.; Brix, M.; Brown, B.; Buchanan, J.; Buckingham, R.; Buckley, M.; Bunting, P.; Busse, A.; Butcher, D.; Butler, B.; Callaghan, D.; Callaghan, J.; Camp, P.; Campling, D. C.; Capat, A.; Card, P.; Carman, P.; Carr, M.; Casson, F. J.; Cave-Ayland, K.; Challis, C. D.; Chapman, I. T.; Ciric, D.; Clark, M.; Clarkson, R.; Clay, R.; Clements, C.; Coad, J. P.; Coates, P.; Cobalt, A.; Colling, B.; Conway, N.; Coombs, D.; Cooper, S. R.; Corrigan, G.; Cramp, S.; Crapper, C.; Croft, D.; Cullen, A.; Curson, P.; Dabirikhah, H.; Dalgliesh, P.; Dalley, S.; Davies, A.; Dawson, K.; Day, I; Deane, J.; Demerdzhiev, V; Dendy, R. O.; Dobrashian, J.; Domptail, F.; Dorling, S. E.; Dowson, S.; Edwards, A. M.; Edwards, J. S.; Ellis, R.; Ellwood, G.; Elsmore, C.; Emery, S.; Ewart, G.; Farahani, A.; Felton, R. C.; Fessey, J. A.; Field, A.; Finburg, P.; Fittill, L.; Fitzgerald, M.; Flanagan, J.; Flinders, K.; Foley, S.; Gardener, M.; Garzotti, L.; Gear, D.; Gee, S.; George, R.; Gerasimov, S.; Gethins, M.; Ghani, Z.; Gilbert, M. R.; Giroud, C.; Goff, J.; Goodyear, A.; Graham, B.; Griffiths, J.; Griph, S.; Grist, D.; Guard, D.; Gulati, S.; Gurl, C.; Hackett, L.; Hall, S.; Hallworth-Cook, S.; Ham, C.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Hammond, K.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Haupt, T.; Hawes, J.; Hawkes, N. C.; Hawkins, J.; Heesterman, P.; Hemming, O.; Hender, T. C.; Henderson, S. S.; Hepple, D.; Higginson, W.; Hillesheim, J.; Hogben, C. H. A.; Hollingsworth, A.; Hollis, S.; Hook, M.; Hopley, D.; Horton, A.; Hotchin, S. P.; Huddleston, T. M.; Hughes, M.; Hynes, A.; Iglesias, D.; Ivings, E.; Jackson, A.; Jackson, T.; Jacquet, P.; Jenkins, I; Johnson, R.; Johnston, J.; Joita, L.; Jones, T.; Jones, C.; Jones, L.; Jones, G.; Juvonen, M.; Kalsey, M.; Kaniewski, J.; Karkinsky, D.; Kaveney, G.; Keeling, D. L.; Kempenaars, M.; Kent, O.; Kim, H-T; King, R.; King, D.; Kinna, D. J.; Kiptily, V; Kirk, A.; Kirov, K.; Knight, M.; Knight, P.; Knipe, S.; Koechl, F.; Kollo, Z.; Laing, A.; Lam, N.; Lawless, R.; Lawson, K. D.; Learoyd, G.; Lefebvre, X.; Lehmann, J.; Leichauer, P.; Lesnoj, S.; Lloyd, B.; Lomas, P. J.; Lucock, R.; Lupelli, I; Macheta, P.; Maggi, C.; Mahesan, S.; Mailloux, J.; Marsh, J.; Martin, A.; Maslov, M.; Matthews, G. F.; May-Smith, T.; McAdams, R.; McClements, K. G.; McCullen, P. A.; McHardy, M.; McKean, R.; McKehon, J.; McNamee, L.; Meadowcroft, C.; Meakins, A.; Medley, S.; Meigh, S.; Meigs, A. G.; Menmuir, S.; Merriman, P.; Meyer, H.; Militello, F.; Militello-Asp, E.; Mistry, S.; Monaghan, P.; Monakhov, I; Mooney, R.; Moran, J.; Moreira, L.; Moulton, D.; Mrowetz, T.; Muir, A.; Murphy, S.; Muscat, P.; Muthusonai, N.; Naish, R.; Naish, J.; Newman, M.; Ng, S.; Nicassio, M.; Noble, C.; Nobs, C. R.; O'Gorman, T.; Odupitan, T.; Olney, R.; Omoregie, L.; Otin, R.; Owen, A.; Packer, L. W.; Pamela, S.; Parail, V; Parsloe, A.; Parsons, N.; Patel, A.; Penzo, J.; Pepperell, K.; Piron, L.; Pool, P.; Popovichev, S.; Porton, M.; Price, D.; Price, M.; Prior, P.; Purahoo, K.; Rainford, M.; Rendell, D.; Reynolds, S.; Richiusa, M.; Rimini, F. G.; Roach, C.; Robins, R.; Robinson, S.; Robson, D.; Romanelli, M.; Romanelli, S.; Rowe, S.; Saarelma, S.; Salmon, R.; Sandiford, D.; Scannell, R.; Schmuck, S.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shaw, A.; Sheikh, H.; Shepherd, A.; Sibbald, M.; Silburn, S.; Silva, J.; Simpson, J.; Slade, B.; Smith, R.; Smith, P.; Spelzini, T.; Sprada, D.; Stables, G.; Stallard, J.; Stamp, M. F.; Staniec, P.; Stephen, A., V; Stephens, J.; Stevens, B.; Studholme, W.; Szepesi, G.; Tallargio, A.; Taylor, D.; Thompson, V. K.; Thornton, A.; Trimble, P.; Turner, I; Tvalashvili, G.; Vadgama, A.; Valcarcel, D.; Vale, R.; Valovic, M.; Vincent, M.; Vizvary, Z.; Voitsekhovitch, I; Wakeling, B.; Waldon, C.; Walkden, N.; Walker, R.; Wang, N.; Warder, S.; Warren, R.; Waterhouse, J.; Webb, M.; West, A.; Wheatley, M.; Whitehead, A. M.; Whittaker, D.; Widdowson, A. M.; Williams, J.; Willoughby, D.; Wilson, J.; Wilson, I; Withycombe, A.; Witts, D.; Wood, R.; Woodley, C.; Wray, S.; Xu, T.; Xue, Y.; Young, I; Young, R.; Young, D.; Zacks, J.; Zastrow, K. D.] Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England. [Alarcon, T.; Artaud, J.; Basiuk, V; Bourdelle, C.; Breton, S.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Clairet, F.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; De Dominici, G.; Denis, J.; Devynck, P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Garcia, J.; Giacalone, J. C.; Goniche, M.; Guirlet, R.; Hacquin, S.; Hamed, M.; Helou, W.; Huynh, P.; Joly, J.; Kogut, D.; Kresina, M.; Litaudon, X.; Loarer, T.; Mazon, D.; Morales, J.; Nardon, E.; Reux, C.; Sabot, R.; Sridhar, S.; Urbanczyk, G.; Valentinuzzi, M.; Vartanian, S.] CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France. [Doerner, R. P.] Univ Calif San Diego, Ctr Energy Res, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA. [Galvao, R.] Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rua Xavier Sigaud 160, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. [Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Ambrosino, R.; Ariola, M.; Chiariello, A.; Coccorese, V; De Tommasi, G.; Formisano, A.; Fresa, R.; Lo Schiavo, V. P.; Martone, R.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Orsitto, F.; Pironti, A.; Rubinacci, G.; Ventre, S.; Villone, F.] Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy. [Auriemma, F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Brombin, M.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Chitarin, G.; De Masi, G.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Manduchi, G.; Marconato, N.; McCormack, O.; Murari, A.; Paccagnella, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Peruzzo, S.; Pigatto, L.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, L.; Piron, C.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I; Puiatti, M. E.; Sonato, P.; Spagnolo, S.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Valisa, M.; Vianello, N.; Vincenzi, P.; Voltolina, D.; Zilli, E.] Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy. [Kwon, O. J.] Daegu Univ, Gyongsan 712174, Gyeongbuk, South Korea. [Martin-Solis, J. R.] Univ Carlos III Madrid, Dept Fis, Madrid 28911, Spain. [Crombe, K.; Hornung, G.; Shabbir, A.; Telesca, G.] UG Ghent Univ, Dept Appl Phys, St Pietersnieuwstr 41, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. [Cannas, B.; Carcangiu, S.; Fanni, A.; Pau, A.; Pisano, F.; Sias, G.; Sparapani, P.] Univ Cagliari, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Piazza Armi, I-09123 Cagliari, Italy. [Bogar, O.; Klas, M.; Matejcik, S.; Orszagh, J.; Papp, P.; Stano, M.; Suchkov, E.; Zaitsev, F. S.] Comenius Univ, Fac Math, Dept Expt Phys Phys & Informat, Mlynska Dolina F2, Bratislava 84248, Slovakia. [Henderson, S. S.] Univ Strathclyde, Dept Phys & Appl Phys, Glasgow G4 ONG, Lanark, Scotland. [Sunden, E. Andersson; Binda, F.; Cecconello, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Eriksson, J.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Possnert, G.; Primetzhofer, D.; Sahlberg, A.; Sjostrand, H.; Skiba, M.; Weiszflog, M.] Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden. [O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H. P.] Univ Strathclyde, Dept Phys, SUPA, Glasgow G4 ONG, Lanark, Scotland. [Buller, S.; Highcock, E. G.; Pusztai, I; Weiland, J.; Wilkie, G.] Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden. [$$$Rachlew, E.] KTH, SCI, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. [Marot, L.; Moser, L.] Univ Basel, Dept Phys, Basel, Switzerland. [Stokes, C.] Univ Bath, Dept Phys, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, England. [Chapman, B.; Chapman, S. C.] Univ Warwick, Dept Phys, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England. [Eriksson, F.; Fransson, E.; Nordman, H.; Oberparleiter, M.; Strand, P.; Tegnered, D.; Yadikin, D.] Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden. [Arena, P.; Barcellona, C.; Bucolo, M.; Buscarino, A.; Corradino, C.; Fortuna, L.; Frasca, M.] Univ Catania, Dipartimento Ingn Elettr Elettron & Informat, I-95125 Catania, Italy. [Dempsey, A.; Leggate, H. J.; Schworer, D.; Somers, A.; Turner, M. M.] Dublin City Univ, Dublin, Ireland. [Blanchard, P.; Duval, B. P.; Fasoli, A.; Felici, F.; Graves, J. P.; Lanthaler, S.; Neto, E. Lascas; Merle, A.; Nespoli, F.; Patten, H.; Puglia, P.; Sauter, O.; Sommariva, C.; Teplukhina, A.; Testa, D.; Weisen, H.] Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Swiss Plasma Ctr, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. [Orte, L. Barrera; Donne, T.; Gal, K.; Guerard, C.; Mayoral, M. L.; McDonald, D.; Regana, J.; Reinhart, M.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Voitsekhovitch, I] EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany. [Bekris, N.; Borba, D.; Figueiredo, J.; Hacquin, S.; Jachmich, S.; Kim, H. T.; Litaudon, X.; Lonnroth, J.; Murari, A.; von Thun, C. Perez] Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England. [Eriksson, L. G.; Horton, L. D.; Lennholm, M.; Lowry, C.; Peackoc, A.; Sips, A. C. C.] European Commiss, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium. [Moradi, S.] ULB, Fluid & Plasma Dynam, Campus Plaine,CP 231 Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. [Citrin, J.; den Harder, N.; Felici, F.; Ho, A.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Jaulmes, F.; Marin, M.; Shumack, A.; Tsalas, M.; van Rooij, G. J.] FOM Inst DIFFER, Eindhoven, Netherlands. [Abduallev, S.; Beckers, M.; Borodin, D.; Borodkina, I; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Denner, P.; Dittmar, T.; Drews, P.; Eksaeva, A.; Ertmer, S.; Esser, H. G.; Freisinger, M.; Gao, Y.; Hasenbeck, F.; Huber, A.; Huber, V; Kirschner, A.; Koeppen, M.; Koslowski, H. R.; Lambertz, H. T.; Li, Y.; Li, L.; Liang, Y.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch; Marchuk, O.; Martynova, Y.; Matveev, D.; Mertens, Ph; von Thun, C. Perez; Philipps, V; Pintsuk, G.; Rack, M.; Reimold, F.; Reiser, D.; Romazanov, J.; Samm, U.; Schluck, F.; Schlummer, T.; Sergienko, G.; Wang, N.; Wang, E.; Wiesen, S.; Yanling, W.] Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch, Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany. [Lalousis, P.] Fdn Res & Technol, N Plastira 100, Iraklion 70013, Crete, Greece. [Bravanec, R.] Fourth State Res, 503 Lockhart Dr, Austin, TX USA. [Arshad, S.; Leichtle, D.; Neto, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, F.; Sartori, R.] Fus Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pl 2,Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019, Spain. [$$$Bergsaker, H.; $$$Bykov, I; $$$Frassinetti, L.; $$$Fridstrom, R.; $$$Garcia-Carrasco, A.; $$$Hellsten, T.; $$$Johnson, T.; $$$Moon, S.; $$$Petersson, P.; $$$Rubel, M.; $$$Stefanikova, E.; $$$Strom, P.; $$$Tholerus, E.; $$$Olivares, P. Vallejos; $$$Weckmann, A.; $$$Zhou, Y.] KTH, EES, Fus Plasma Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden. [Eidietis, N.; Gohil, P.; Mordijck, S.; Osborne, T.; Soldan, C. Paz] Gen Atom, POB 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 USA. [Strauss, H. R.] HRS Fus, W Orange, NJ USA. [Mantsinen, M.] ICREA, Barcelona, Spain. [Alessi, E.; Brunetti, D.; Causa, F.; Figini, L.; Gervasini, G.; Ghezzi, F.; Giacomelli, L.; Laguardia, L.; Lazzaro, E.; Mantica, P.; Marchetto, C.; Mariani, A.; Muraro, A.; Nowak, S.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Rebai, M.; Ricci, D.; Rigamonti, D.; Schmuck, S.; Sozzi, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Uccello, A.] IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy. [Betar, H.; Del Sarto, D.; Devaux, S.] Univ Lorraine, CNRS, UMR 7198, Inst Jean Lamour, F-54500 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France. [Breizman, B.; Hatch, D. R.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Oliver, H.] Univ Texas Austin, Inst Fus Studies, Austin, TX 78712 USA. [Biletskyi, O.; Dreval, M.; Goloborod'ko, V; Kolesnichenko, Y.; Lepiavko, B.; Lutsenko, V; Moiseenko, V; Pavlichenko, R.; Sytnykov, D.; Tyshchenko, M.; Valerii, K.; Yakovenko, Y.] Inst Nucl Res, Prospekt Nauky 47, UA-03680 Kiev, Ukraine. [Abhangi, M.; Buch, J.; Chandra, D.; Dutta, P.; Edappala, P., V; Ghate, M.; Kundu, A.; Magesh, B.; Makwana, R.; Panja, S.; Pathak, S.; Prajapati, V; Prakash, R.; Ranjan, S.; Rathod, K.; Santa, P.; Sinha, A.; Stephen, M.; Vasava, K.] Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India. [Bielecki, J.; Dankowski, J.] Inst Nucl Phys, Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland. [Ksiazek, I; Pawelec, E.] Opole Univ, Inst Phys, Oleska 48, PL-45052 Opole, Poland. [Chernyshova, M.; Chmielewski, P.; Czarnecka, A.; Czarski, T.; Galazka, K.; Gruca, M.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Jednorog, S.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Krawczyk, N.; Laszynska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Pericoli, V; Poradzinski, M.; Telesca, G.; Zagorski, R.] Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland. [Bilkova, P.; Bohm, P.; Cahyna, P.; Dejarnac, R.; Duran, I; Ficker, O.; Fuchs, V; Horacek, J.; Imrisek, M.; Kovanda, O.; Macusova, E.; Markovic, T.; Matveeva, E.; Mlynar, J.; Peterka, M.; Petrzilka, V; Skvara, V; Sos, M.; Tomes, M.; Vondracek, P.] CAS, Inst Plasma Phys, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic. [de Sa, W. Pires; dos Reis, A. Pires; Puglia, P.; Ruchko, L.] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, Rua Matao Travessa R 187,Cidade Univ, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, Brazil. [Abreu, P.; Alves, E.; Baiao, D.; Batista, A.; Bernardo, J.; Bizarro, J. P. S.; Borba, D.; Carvalho, B. B.; Carvalho, I; Carvalho, P.; Carvalho, D. D.; Catarino, N.; Coelho, R.; Cruz, N.; Fernades, A.; Fernandes, H.; Ferreira, J.; Ferreira, D. R.; Figueiredo, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Gil, L.; Gomes, R.; Goncalves, B.; Guillemaut, C.; Henriques, R.; Malaquias, A.; Manso, M. E.; Mauriya, A.; Meneses, L.; Nabais, F.; Nave, M. F. F.; Nedzelskiy, I; Nina, D.; Nunes, I; Pereira, R.; Plyusnin, V; Cortes, S. D. A. Reyes; Rodrigues, P.; Salzedas, F.; Santos, B.; Silva, A.; Silva, C.; Sousa, J.; Vicente, J.; Zwingmann, W.] Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, Inst Plasmas & Fusao Nucl, Lisbon, Portugal. [Afanasev, V; Gin, D.; Khilkevich, E.; Nesenevich, V; Shevelev, A.; Teplova, N.] Ioffe Phys Tech Inst, 26 Politekhn Skaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russia. [Aleynikov, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bassan, M.; Bauvir, B.; Bertalot, L.; Bonnin, X.; Bruno, E.; Davis, W.; De Bock, M.; De Temmerman, G.; de Vries, P.; Di Maio, F.; Duckworth, Ph; Henderson, M.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Leipold, F.; Liu, G.; Loarte, A.; Loughlin, M.; Luce, T.; Maquet, Ph; Maruyama, S.; Michling, R.; Penot, C.; Pinches, S.; Pitts, R.; Sirinelli, A.; Veshchev, E.; Walsh, M.; Watts, C.] ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France. [Day, C.; Fischer, U.; Giegerich, T.; Klix, A.; Raj, P.] Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany. [Alegre, D.; Baciero, A.; Calvo, I; Carralero, D.; de Castro, A.; de la Cal, E.; de la Luna, E.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Hidalgo, C.; Losada, U.; Martin de Aguilera, A.; Ratta, G.; Solano, E. R.; Tabares, F.; Vega, J.] CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain. [Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Jachmich, S.; Kazakov, Y.; Krivska, A.; Lerche, E.; Lyssoivan, A.; Messiaen, A.; Ongena, J.; Ragona, R.; Stepanov, I; Tripsky, M.; Van Eester, D.; Verdoolaege, G.; Wauters, T.] Ecole Royale Mil Renaissancelaan, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Lab Plasma Phys, 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels 1000, Belgium. [Stankunas, G.] Lithuanian Energy Inst, Breslaujos G 3, LT-44403 Kaunas, Lithuania. [Bolshakova, I] Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Magnet Sensor Lab, Lvov, Ukraine. [Angioni, C.; Balden, M.; Bandaru, V. K.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bobkov, V; Bonanomi, N.; Boom, J.; Burckhart, A.; Carralero, D.; Cavedon, M.; Chankin, A.; Coster, D.; David, P.; Di Siena, A.; Doerk, H.; Drenik, A.; Dunne, M.; Dux, R.; Eich, Th; Fable, E.; Faitsch, M.; Fietz, S.; Gal, K.; Geiger, B.; Gloeggler, S.; Goerler, T.; Greuner, H.; Hobirk, J.; Hoelzl, M.; Kallenbach, A.; Kappatou, A.; Krieger, K.; Lang, P. 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K.; Kamiya, K.; Kobuchi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Asakura, N. N.; Nakano, T.; Ogawa, M. T.; Suzuki, T. T.; Tojo, H.; Urano, H.] Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan. [Hizanidis, K.; Kazantzidis, V; Kominis, Y.; Lazaros, A.] Natl Tech Univ Athens, Iroon Politechniou 9, Athens 15773, Greece. [Aleiferis, S.; Mergia, K.; Stamatelatos, I; Tsavalas, P.; Vasilopoulou, T.] NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310, Greece. [Alkseev, A.; Kukushkin, A.; Neverov, V. S.] NRC Kurchatov Inst, 1 Kurchatov Sq, Moscow 123182, Russia. [Baylor, L.; Biewer, T.; Delabie, E.; Esquisabel, A. L.; Gebhart, T.; Grove, R.; Herfindal, J.; Hillis, D.; Kaufman, M.; Klepper, C.; Meiter, S.; Meitner, S.; Mosher, S.; Parsons, M.; Rasmussen, D.; Reinke, M.; Risner, J.; Shiraki, D.] Oak Ridge Natl Lab, POB 2009, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA. [Lukin, A.; Vinyar, I] PELIN LLC, 27a Gzhatskaya Ulitsa, St Petersburg 195220, Russia. [Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Subba, F.; Zanino, R.] Politecn Torino, Corso Duca Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin, Italy. [Budny, R.; Cecil, E.; Chang, C. S.; Darrow, D.; Davis, W.; Goulding, R.; Grierson, B.; Hager, R.; Maingi, R.; Myers, C.; Okabayashi, M.; Poli, F. M.; Scott, S. D.; Strachan, J.; Tang, W.] Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA. [Miloshevsky, G.] Purdue Univ, 610 Purdue Mall, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA. 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  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents results of JET ITER-like wall L-mode experiments in hydrogen and deuterium (D) plasmas, dedicated to the study of the isotope dependence of ion heat transport by determination of the ion critical gradient and stiffness by varying the ion cyclotron resonance heating power deposition. When no strong role of fast ions in the plasma core is expected, the main difference between the two isotope plasmas is determined by the plasma edge and the core behavior is consistent with a gyro-Bohm scaling. When the heating power (and the fast ion pressure) is increased, in addition to the difference in the edge region, also the plasma core shows substantial changes. The stabilization of ion heat transport by fast ions, clearly visible in D plasmas, appears to be weaker in H plasmas, resulting in a higher ion heat flux in H with apparent anti-gyro-Bohm mass scaling. The difference is found to be caused by the different fast ion pressure between H and D plasmas, related to the heating power settings and to the different fast ion slowing down time, and is completely accounted for in non-linear gyrokinetic simulations. The application of the TGLF quasi-linear model to this set of data is also discussed.
  •  
4.
  • Bravenec, R., et al. (författare)
  • Benchmarking the GENE and GYRO codes through the relative roles of electromagnetic and E x B stabilization in JET high-performance discharges
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0741-3335 .- 1361-6587. ; 58:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GENE code have previously predicted a significant nonlinear enhanced electromagnetic stabilization in certain JET discharges with high neutral-beam power and low core magnetic shear (Citrin et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 155001, 2015 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57 014032). This dominates over the impact of E x B flow shear in these discharges. Furthermore, fast ions were shown to be a major contributor to the electromagnetic stabilization. These conclusions were based on results from the GENE gyrokinetic turbulence code. In this work we verify these results using the GYRO code. Comparing results (linear frequencies, eigenfunctions, and nonlinear fluxes) from different gyrokinetic codes as a means of verification (benchmarking) is only convincing if the codes agree for more than one discharge. Otherwise, agreement may simply be fortuitous. Therefore, we analyze three discharges, all with a carbon wall: a simplified, two-species, circular geometry case based on an actual JET discharge; an L-mode discharge with a significant fast-ion pressure fraction; and a low-triangularity high-beta hybrid discharge. All discharges were analyzed at normalized toroidal flux coordinate rho = 0.33 where significant ion temperature peaking is observed. The GYRO simulations support the conclusion that electromagnetic stabilization is strong, and dominates E x B shear stabilization.
  •  
5.
  • Cannas, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Recurrence Plots for Dynamic Analysis of Type-I ELMs at JET With a Carbon Wall
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. - : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). - 0093-3813 .- 1939-9375. ; 47:4, s. 1871-1877
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of type-I edge-localized modes (ELM) time series from the JET tokamak, the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment, have been investigated through recurrence plots (RPs). The analysis has been focused on RPs of pedestal temperature, line averaged electron density, and outer divertor D-alpha time series during experiments with a carbon wall. The analysis of RPS shows the patterns similar to those characteristics of signals exhibiting type-2 intermittency, in particular, a characteristic kite-like shape; this gives useful hints to model the temperature signal as well as the D-alpha radiation time series, with simple nonlinear maps capturing the nearly periodic behavior of type-I ELMs.
  •  
6.
  • Carvalho, D. D., et al. (författare)
  • Deep neural networks for plasma tomography with applications to JET and COMPASS
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have found applications in many image processing tasks, such as feature extraction, image classification, and object recognition. It has also been shown that the inverse of CNNs, so-called deconvolutional neural networks, can be used for inverse problems such as plasma tomography. In essence, plasma tomography consists in reconstructing the 2D plasma profile on a poloidal cross-section of a fusion device, based on line-integrated measurements from multiple radiation detectors. Since the reconstruction process is computationally intensive, a deconvolutional neural network trained to produce the same results will yield a significant computational speedup, at the expense of a small error which can be assessed using different metrics. In this work, we discuss the design principles behind such networks, including the use of multiple layers, how they can be stacked, and how their dimensions can be tuned according to the number of detectors and the desired tomographic resolution for a given fusion device. We describe the application of such networks at JET and COMPASS, where at JET we use the bolometer system, and at COMPASS we use the soft X-ray diagnostic based on photodiode arrays.
  •  
7.
  • Chankin, A. , V, et al. (författare)
  • EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations of the influence of isotope effects and anomalous transport coefficients on near scrape-off layer radial electric field
  • 2019
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[Futatani, S.; Gallart, D.; Mantsinen, M.; Rakha, A.] Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Barcelona, Spain. [Afzal, M.; Aldred, V.; Allinson, M.; Alper, B.; Appel, L.; Appelbee, C.; Ash, A.; Austin, Y.; Axton, M. D.; Ayres, C.; Bailey, S.; Baker, A.; Balboa, I.; Balshaw, N.; Bament, R.; Banks, J. W.; Baranov, Y. F.; Barnard, M. A.; Barnes, D.; Wiechec, A. Baron; Bastow, R.; Baughan, R.; Beaumont, P. S.; Beckett, B.; Beldishevski, M.; Bell, K.; Bellinger, M.; Ben Ayed, N.; Benterman, N. A.; Berry, M.; Besliu, C.; Blackburn, J.; Blackman, K.; Blackman, T. R.; Blatchford, P.; Boboc, A.; Booth, J.; Boulting, P.; Bowden, M.; Bower, C.; Boyce, T.; Boyd, C.; Boyer, H. J.; Bradshaw, J. M. A.; Brennan, P. D.; Brett, A.; Bright, M. D. J.; Brix, M.; Brown, D. P. D.; Brown, M.; Buchanan, J.; Buckley, M. A.; Bulman, M.; Bulmer, N.; Bunting, P.; Busse, A.; Butler, N. K.; Byrne, J.; Camp, P.; Campling, D. C.; Cane, J.; Capel, A. J.; Card, P. J.; Carman, P.; Carr, M.; Casson, F. J.; Caumont, J.; Cave-Ayland, K.; Challis, C. D.; Chandler, M.; Chapman, I. T.; Ciric, D.; Clark, E.; Clark, M.; Clarkson, R.; Clatworthy, D.; Clements, C.; Cleverly, M.; Coad, J. P.; Coates, P. A.; Cobalt, A.; Collins, S.; Conway, N.; Coombs, D.; Cooper, D.; Cooper, S. R.; Corrigan, G.; Couchman, A. S.; Cox, M. P.; Cramp, S.; Craven, R.; Croft, D.; Crowe, R.; Cullen, A.; Dabirikhah, H.; Dalgliesh, P.; Dalley, S.; Davies, O.; Day, I. E.; Deakin, K.; Deane, J.; Dendy, R. O.; Dorling, S. E.; Doswon, S.; Doyle, P. T.; Edmond, J.; Edwards, A. M.; Edwards, J.; El-Jorf, R.; Elsmore, C. G.; Evans, B.; Evans, G. E.; Evison, G.; Ewart, G. D.; Fagan, D.; Fawlk, N.; Felton, R. C.; Fenton, K.; Fessey, J. A.; Field, A.; Finburg, P.; Fittill, L.; Fitzgerald, M.; Flanagan, J.; Fleming, C.; Flinders, K.; Forsythe, L.; Fortune, M.; Foster, S.; Franklin, T.; Fyvie, J.; Gallagher, J.; Garzotti, L.; Gear, D. F.; Gee, S. J.; Gerasimov, S.; Gethins, M.; Ghani, Z.; Gibson, C. S.; Gilligan, S.; Giroud, C.; Godwin, J.; Goff, J.; Goodliffe, M.; Goodyear, A.; Gowland, R.; Graham, B.; Graham, M. E.; Grazier, N.; Grazier, P.; Green, N. R.; Griph, F. S.; Grist, D.; Grundy, C. N.; Guard, D.; Gurl, C.; Hackett, L. J.; Hagar, A.; Hall, S. J.; Cook, S. P. Hallworth; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Hammond, K.; Harrington, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Haupt, T. D. V.; Hawes, J.; Hawkes, N. C.; Hawkins, J.; Hawkins, P.; Haydon, P. W.; Hayter, N.; Hazel, S.; Heesterman, P. J. L.; Hemming, O. N.; Hender, T. C.; Hepple, D.; Hermon, G.; Hill, M.; Hillesheim, J.; Hogben, C. H. A.; Hollingsworth, A.; Hollis, S.; Homfray, D. A.; Horton, A. R.; Hotchin, S. P.; Hough, M. R.; Howarth, P. J.; Huddleston, T. M.; Hughes, M.; Hunter, C. L.; Hynes, A. M.; Iglesias, D.; Jacquet, P.; Jenkins, I.; Johnson, R.; Johnston, Jane; Joita, L.; Jones, G.; Jones, T. T. C.; Kaniewski, J.; Kantor, A.; Karkinsky, D.; Karnowska, I.; Kaveney, G.; Keeling, D. 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[Bodnar, G.; Cseh, G.; Dunai, D.; Kocsis, G.; Petravich, G.; Refy, D.; Szabolics, T.; Tal, B.; Zoletnik, S.] Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary. : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0741-3335 .- 1361-6587. ; 61:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • EDGE2D-EIRENE (the 'code') simulations show that radial electric field, Er, in the near scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks can have large variations leading to a strong local E x B shear greatly exceeding that in the core region. This was pointed out in simulations of JET plasmas with varying divertor geometry, where the magnetic configuration with larger predicted near SOL E-r was found to have lower H-mode power threshold, suggesting that turbulence suppression in the SOL by local E. x. B shear can be a player in the L-H transition physics (Delabie et al 2015 42nd EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics (Lisbon, Portugal, 22-26 June 2015) paper O3.113 (http://ocs.ciemat.es/EPS2015PAP/pdf/O3.113.pdf), Chankin et al 2017 Nucl. Mater. Energy 12 273). Further code modeling of JET plasmas by changing hydrogen isotopes (H-D-T) showed that the magnitude of the near SOL E-r is lower in H cases in which the H-mode threshold power is higher (Chankin et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 045012). From the experiment it is also known that hydrogen plasmas have poorer particle and energy confinement than deuterium plasmas, consistent with the code simulation results showing larger particle diffusion coefficients at the plasma edge, including SOL, in hydrogen plasmas (Maggi et al 2018 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 60 014045). All these experimental observations and code results support the hypothesis that the near SOL E x B shear can have an impact on the plasma confinement. The present work analyzes neutral ionization patterns of JET plasmas with different hydrogen isotopes in L-mode cases with fixed input power and gas puffing rate, and its impact on target electron temperature, T-e, and SOL E-r. The possibility of a self-feeding mechanism for the increase in the SOL E-r via the interplay between poloidal E x B drift and target T-e is discussed. It is also shown that reducing anomalous turbulent transport coefficients, particle diffusion and electron and ion heat conductivities, leads to higher peak target T-e and larger E-r, suggesting the possibility of a positive feedback loop, under an implicitly made assumption that the E x B shear in the SOL is capable of suppressing turbulence.
  •  
8.
  • Craciunescu, Teddy, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of reconstruction errors and identification of artefacts for JET gamma and neutron tomography
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Review of Scientific Instruments. - : American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 0034-6748 .- 1089-7623. ; 87:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Joint European Torus (JET) neutron profile monitor ensures 2D coverage of the gamma and neutron emissive region that enables tomographic reconstruction. Due to the availability of only two projection angles and to the coarse sampling, tomographic inversion is a limited data set problem. Several techniques have been developed for tomographic reconstruction of the 2-D gamma and neutron emissivity on JET, but the problem of evaluating the errors associated with the reconstructed emissivity profile is still open. The reconstruction technique based on the maximum likelihood principle, that proved already to be a powerful tool for JET tomography, has been used to develop a method for the numerical evaluation of the statistical properties of the uncertainties in gamma and neutron emissivity reconstructions. The image covariance calculation takes into account the additional techniques introduced in the reconstruction process for tackling with the limited data set (projection resampling, smoothness regularization depending on magnetic field). The method has been validated by numerically simulations and applied to JET data. Different sources of artefacts that may significantly influence the quality of reconstructions and the accuracy of variance calculation have been identified.
  •  
9.
  • Denis, J., et al. (författare)
  • Dynamic modelling of local fuel inventory and desorption in the whole tokamak vacuum vessel for auto-consistent plasma-wall interaction simulations
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Materials and Energy. - : Elsevier. - 2352-1791. ; 19, s. 550-557
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An extension of the SolEdge2D-EIRENE code package, named D-WEE, has been developed to add the dynamics of thermal desorption of hydrogen isotopes from the surface of plasma facing materials. To achieve this purpose, D-WEE models hydrogen isotopes implantation, transport and retention in those materials. Before launching autoconsistent simulation (with feedback of D-WEE on SolEdge2D-EIRENE), D-WEE has to be initialised to ensure a realistic wall behaviour in terms of dynamics (pumping or fuelling areas) and fuel content. A methodology based on modelling is introduced to perform such initialisation. A synthetic plasma pulse is built from consecutive SolEdge2D-EIRENE simulations. This synthetic pulse is used as a plasma background for the D-WEE module. A sequence of plasma pulses is simulated with D-WEE to model a tokamak operation. This simulation enables to extract at a desired time during a pulse the local fuel inventory and the local desorption flux density which could be used as initial condition for coupled plasma-wall simulations. To assess the relevance of the dynamic retention behaviour obtained in the simulation, a confrontation to post-pulse experimental pressure measurement is performed. Such confrontation reveals a qualitative agreement between the temporal pressure drop obtained in the simulation and the one observed experimentally. The simulated dynamic retention during the consecutive pulses is also studied.
  •  
10.
  • Eriksson, F., et al. (författare)
  • Interpretative and predictive modelling of Joint European Torus collisionality scans
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0741-3335 .- 1361-6587. ; 61:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transport modelling of Joint European Torus (JET) dimensionless collisionality scaling experiments in various operational scenarios is presented. Interpretative simulations at a fixed radial position are combined with predictive JETTO simulations of temperatures and densities, using the TGLF transport model. The model includes electromagnetic effects and collisions as well as (E)over-right-arrow x (b)over-right-arrow shear in Miller geometry. Focus is on particle transport and the role of the neutral beam injection (NBI) particle source for the density peaking. The experimental 3-point collisionality scans include L-mode, and H-mode (D and H and higher beta D plasma) plasmas in a total of 12 discharges. Experimental results presented in (Tala et al 2017 44th EPS Conf.) indicate that for the H-mode scans, the NBI particle source plays an important role for the density peaking, whereas for the L-mode scan, the influence of the particle source is small. In general, both the interpretative and predictive transport simulations support the experimental conclusions on the role of the NBI particle source for the 12 JET discharges.
  •  
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